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The Socially Integrated Enterprise
                       Organisations or Communities? The new
                       Collaboration Ecology




                       Luis Suarez - Social Computing
                       Evangelist at IBM
                       @elsua
                       http://elsua.net




Monday, June 6, 2011                                           1
Acknowledgements    New kind of collaboration
                                                  across teams ...




                                             @jenokimoto      Tara Matthews




            @lbenitez   @falabares

            @nhsocial   @inter_vivos




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                          2
Collaboration as an IBM wide priority



     “We know that our integrated business model – from the way we design
     and deliver our systems and solutions to how we transform our end-to-end
     business processes – demands that we work together collaboratively.
     Every time we work as a team, execution improves.... making our culture
     even more collaborative, in support of delivering client value as we strive to
     build a Smarter Planet.”


     Sam Palmisano, IBM Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
     19 July 2010
     Second-Quarter 2010 Results




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                  3
Changing landscape in workplace
                                 collaboration

             Collaboration is changing from stable teams to groups where
              membership is dynamic. [Mortensen & Hinds]
             Workers are often members of multiple groups – a.k.a. multi-teaming.
               [Chudoba et al, O’Leary, et al., Zika-Viktorsson et al.]
             New forms of collaboration have been identified that leverage the
              internet or social software, such as “collective intelligence.”
               [Kittur & Kraut, Shirky, Moon & Sproull]




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                 4
IBM - A Socially Integrated Enterprise        Coming from a Globally
                                                      Integrated Enterprise...




                           In 170 countries, with 400K employees
                           Products and services built and sold in worldwide
                           markets


                           More than 50% work away from traditional IBM
                           offices
                           73% of managers have remote employees


                           60+ software acquisitions in 10 years
                           Half of employees have less than 5 years with IBM




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                             5
On a Smarter Planet, people are
          transforming the way they interact ...
        A social transformation is taking place in how
        people interact and how relationships form and
        develop, and this is changing the way we work
         and the way we engage with our customers.




          Customers                                         Employees
         are leading the                                 are using social media
        conversations that
                                    Competitors            in all facets of their
                                   are crowd-sourcing
        define your brand                                 lives, including work
                                   ideas to bring new
                                   solutions to market


Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                6
... and this transformation presents
                new challenges to organisations


                           Marketers have less control over their brands as customer
                           comments and feedback are becoming more influential to brand
                           perception than advertising or PR


                           Product development is challenged to deliver new products
                           and services quickly and at lower cost to keep up with fast
                           moving, new sources of competition


                           Human resources faces difficulty increasing worker
                           effectiveness as work becomes more mobile and global, and
                           as a new generation joins the workforce


                           Organizations are paralyzed by security and governance
                           concerns as employees increasingly use public facing social
                           media tools in the workplace




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                      7
Becoming Social Businesses is all
          about embracing this transformation

                                          A Social Business cultivates trusted
                                           relationships and capitalizes on
                                  Social   them when and where needed in
    Social Transformation        Business order to grow, innovate and make
                                                 people more effective

                             A Social Business is:

                                Creative – allows the right mix of talent and information to
                                 come together to deliver new insight
                                Consistent – aligns business goals and delivers a consistent
                                 brand experience
                                Empowering – gives each individual the opportunity to
                                 participate meaningfully and improve the business
                                Everywhere – enables the work and web experience to
                                 happen where, when, and how it is most effective




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                            8
A Social Business embraces networks
        of people to create business value?




      At its core,
      a Social Business is:
                       Engaged
                       Transparent
                       Nimble


Monday, June 6, 2011                          9
A social business seeks to deepen                      ...faster ... and enable an
                                                                  effective and virtual workforce
       client relationships, generate ideas ...
                                                                         A Social Business
                                                                        Builds trusted relationships and
                                                                         increases sales through relevant
                                                                         messages across all channels
                   Traditional Business                                 Drives brand advocacy through
                                                     Deepen              communities and dialog
                      'Push' marketing via           client
                       traditional channels       relationships
Marketing             Control over brand image                         Shares insights to generate break-
                       and brand
                                                                         through ideas and speeds time to
                       communication                                     market, gaining market insight and
                                                      Drive              readiness
                                                   operational
                      Invest in R&D              effectiveness
Product               Generate new ideas
Development            internally                                       Reaches out to professional networks
                      Test ideas in market                              to respond faster with business
                                                                         decisions to new opportunities, saving
                                                   Workforce             money
                      Email and phone based      optimization
Operations,
                       communication
Human                 Knowledge kept in silos
Resources




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                          10
How are organisations changing?

   GIE's changed the internal structure of the traditional MNC
    Resource Utilization: focus on client relationships and employee skills
    Benefits: cut expenses, improve service and agility, reduce risk, address new markets
   How companies innovate is changing; the nature of the core mission and goals are changing


       Single Value                                                                              Multiple Values


          Classic “multinational,”                 GIE's distributed processes   SIE's manage a “birds nest”
          replicated smaller versions              across a skilled global       of values of external
          of the parent company in                 workforce or partners; with   stakeholders; building trust
          countries around the                     a common set of values;       and are socially adaptive.
          world;




           clone

                  Multinational                          Globally Integrated                 Socially
                Corporation (MNC)                         Enterprise (GIE)            Integrated Enterprise
                                                                                              (SIE)
      Source: IBM Annual Report 2009 (MNC, GIE)
      SIE is a proposed ICS concept, diagram Charles Leadbeater “We Think”


Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                               11
Understanding collaborative work        We found distinct types
                                       patterns        (patterns) of collaboration:




       stable project team             client-supplier relationship group




            dynamic project team
                                           community




                                       professional relationships              …
            committee




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                  12
Dynamic project team


                                                         [Customer] XBRL Tools RFP Demo.
                                                         A team pulled together to create a demo
                                                         that addresses a customer need in order
                                                         to win a sale.
       Definition: A continuously changing group of       SMEs on XBRL tools and other
                                                         customer needs that arise are recruited
           people working together toward a
                                                         from the group’s professional network.
           common goal that is a job-related focus
           for its members.
       Arise to enable flexible formation of teams to
           meet emerging needs, while highly
           utilizing subject-matter expertise.
       Sub-types based on subject-matter expert             Engineering Efficiency Pilot.
                                                            Develop a method to identify and
           (SME) recruitment:
                                                            eliminate waste in the daily engineering
           SMEs are recruited informally via               workload at a manufacturing plant.
            professional relationships & communities.        Various engineers doing the work
                                                            being evaluated are brought on the team
           SMEs are identified through organizational      to help identify waste and later to
            connections.                                    evaluate the method.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                               13
Client-supplier relationship group



                                                        [Customer name] Client Relationship.
                                                        Coverage sales rep working with
                                                        various brand specialists to maintain an
                                                        ongoing relationship with [customer
                                                        name].
       Definition: A stable group including people
           from both client and supplier who work
           together in an ongoing basis to make sure
           the needs of the client are being met over
           time.
                                                            NV RAM Customer Facing.
       Arise to provide a consistent, known                 A manufacturing engineering team
           interaction to make customers feel               interfaces with customers to ensure
           comfortable and know who to go to.               that the hardware product meets their
                                                            needs before fabrication.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                14
Professional relationships


                                                        Rolodex.
                                                        People I’ve met who I contact for resource
                                                        allocation (staffing) and quality assurance
                                      …                 on solutions we’re proposing.

      Definition: A professional relationship
          between two parties, typically with minimal
          structure.
      Arise to provide individuals with career                              .
                                                          Internal Microblogging
          enhancement opportunities (e.g.,                Collaboration.
          mentoring) are leveraged for the expertise      I use this for career enhancement (to
          each side provides the other (e.g., to find     start up new collaborations, to
          experts to staff a dynamic project team).       volunteer and build my exposure in the
                                                          company, for reputation building), and
                                                          to get feedback and support from
                                                          colleagues.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                  15
Community

                                                             Rational Change & Release
                                                             Management Community (CoP).
                                                             Community of people specializing in this
                                                             particular type of Rational software. Used
                                                             to gather knowledge about this technology,
                                                             in service of customer needs.
     Definition: A group of people with similar job
         functions or a shared interest, who come
         together to share (knowledge, information,
         best practices, Q&A) and possibly to spark          Firefox Champion Team (CoI).
                                                             A community of 4250 SMEs who offer
         new collaborations.
                                                             knowledge and services to facilitate others
     Arise to provide support for dynamic project            using Firefox within [the company].
         teams (group maintenance, SME
         recruitment) and individuals with career
         enhancement opportunities.                 Coverage Software Architects in Federal Sales
     Sub-types:                                     (Bounded CoP).
      Community of practice.                       Direct reports of a single manager who all have the
                                                    same job role. These people do not work closely
      Community of interest.                       together; they are SMEs who participate primarily
      Bounded community of practice.               in dynamic teams and client-supplier groups. But
                                                       they provide each other with peer group support.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                       16
Stable project team

                                                     Quad2 Review.
                                                     Create and review the plan for that
                                                     week’s manufacturing load and
                                                     verify that it will meet any customer
                                                     needs.
                                                      Repeated every week, long term.

      Definition: A fairly stable group of people
          working closely together toward a
          common goal that is a job-related focus
          for its members.                                     Health Services Team.
                                                               Current project: Redesign
      Arise because of a need for sustained                    employee health services case
          contribution from a specific group of                management for IBM to meet
          people.                                              budget requirements and delivery
                                                               needs in growth markets.
      Sub-types based on duration:
          Recurring organizational processes
          A particular combination of expertise           Biztech Redesign Work / Life Zone.
           invoked across multiple contexts                Software redesign of an intranet site
                                                           focused on work-life balance issues.
          A single long term complex deliverable.          Bounded, 6 month project.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                               17
Committee



                                                    World-Wide GBS Distinguished
                                                    Engineer Board
                                                    Forms yearly to select Distinguished
                                                    Engineers for the Global Business
    Definition: A group formed to handle a goal     Services division. Half the members
                                                    return, half are new each year. Involves
        that is secondary to most members’ main
                                                    splitting up the candidates and coming
        job focus. Though there is often a “lead    together to make a decision.
        cat herder,” these collaborations tend to
        be consensus run.
    Arise to handle various organizational needs.

                                                     Women in Technology Leadership
                                                     Task Force.
                                                     A group of SMEs are formed to tackle
                                                     the organizational issue of increasing
                                                     women in their technical areas.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                           18
Distinguishing attributes



   Collaboration type                  Goal & Duration       Personnel        Work focus           Work style

                                                                                                  Pooled & Co-
   Stable project team                    Deliverable          Stable       Core work focus
                                                                                                    creation
                                                                                                  Pooled & Co-
   Dynamic project team                   Deliverable         Dynamic       Core work focus
                                                                                                    creation
                                                                           Peripheral for most    Pooled & Co-
   Committee                              Deliverable          Stable
                                                                              participants          creation
                                                                                                 Independent with
   Client-supplier relationship
                                     Relationship, ongoing     Stable       Core work focus          bursts of
   group
                                                                                                  communication
                                      Exchange expertise
                                                             Stable &/or   Peripheral for most
   Community                           and best practice,                                          Independent
                                                              Dynamic         participants
                                           ongoing
   Professional relationships        Relationship, ongoing    Dynamic          Peripheral          Independent




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                                19
How do workers handle new demands
      of dynamic teams and multi-teaming?


        There are predictable patterns of interrelationships among a person’s
          collaborations




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                            20
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology


        Ecology (in biology) – the interrelationship of organisms and their
          environments.

        Collaboration ecology – the interrelationships between people’s
         collaborations in business contexts.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                          21
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology



                              Stable Groups (e.g., client
                              supplier, stable project…)

                                             set
                                             goals


                                Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                  dynamic teams…)

                                       recruit SMEs &
                                       provide group
                                       maintenance
                       Professional
                                                        Community
                       Relationships




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                22
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology

                                   Stable Groups (e.g., client
                                   supplier, stable project…)

                                                   set
                                                   goals


                                     Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                       dynamic teams…)


                       The responsibility of the Technical Affinity Group is…
                       to extract discrete data points from our sales and
                       customer facing staff so we can figure out strategically
                       where our architecture work and solution design stuff
                       should be headed… Our goal is to always be strategic
                       in building out the toolkit of piece parts that solve
                       patterns and generic customer needs.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                              23
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology

                                            Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                              dynamic teams…)

                                                     recruit SMEs &
                                                     provide group
                                                     maintenance
                                Professional
                                                                        Community
                                Relationships



                  My linkedin is 500, plus [company] internal, there’s 60 people I can approach right
                  there… So if I need to get a number of people on board, I need to know if are they
                  available, and when can they start? If I need project management, I think who's best
                  suited to manage the project as it goes into delivery, then if I need contract
                  management, and technical advisors, people who are really good at doing dial plans
                  for instance, or people who are good at creating scripts… If I need a resource, then
                  I identify a resource and then bill it to the account, they can bill hours. I get pinged
                  all the time with the same requests.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                         24
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology

                                      Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                        dynamic teams…)

                                             recruit SMEs &
                                             provide group
                                             maintenance
                           Professional
                                                              Community
                           Relationships



                       We do a monthly community call [for the whole community]
                       where we tell stuff about what is happening with the
                       community. Then we have the education sessions in the
                       community. They are typically every two months where we
                       provide education and various different community building
                       techniques. And then we have the watercooler call every two
                       weeks to provide like a virtual gathering for them to share.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                  25
Collaborations are Interrelated in a
                         Collaboration Ecology


                              Stable Groups (e.g., client
                              supplier, stable project…)

                                             set
                                             goals


                                Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                  dynamic teams…)

                                       recruit SMEs &
                                       provide group
                                       maintenance
                       Professional
                                                        Community
                       Relationships




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                26
Collaboration Ecology Challenges

                                              There used to be a team and it was their whole job to
                                              create these proof of technology materials, keep them
      Communities sometimes were             updated, add new scenarios to them, make them
       responsible for critical, time-        better... Due to [our company’s] organizational reasons,
                                              that group is no longer and the responsibility of keeping
       consuming organizational functions,    up those materials—think of them like training
       which did burden members.              materials... fell to the community of practice, which is
                                              voluntary (laughs). But it is so important that we keep
      Difficult keeping communities active   maintaining those artifacts, but it became voluntary. But
                                              it is a challenge. There is a person that runs that
       enough to handle group                 community and needs us to be active... or else it won't
       maintenance tasks. Leadership          be a good thing.

       teams helped.
      Recruitment for dynamic teams is a      At the beginning of last year I changed from process
                                               development to business optimization, it’s a completely
       challenge for workers not plugged       different set of people and it’s amazing the lack of
       in to the right networks.               knowledge that we in [this company] have between
                                               different divisions. At the beginning nobody knows me,
                                               and so no-one is aware that I am there. And then it
                                               started very slowly, and then after a while it’s like an
                                               avalanche of opportunities that come down because
                                               people start to know me and they recommend me to
                                               other folks. It’s the problem that we have in [this
                                               company] to find the right person.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                      27
Collaboration ecology argues for a                Implications
                        suite of integrated tools



                              Stable Groups (e.g., client
                              supplier, stable project…)

                                             set
                                             goals


                                Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                  dynamic teams…)

                                       recruit SMEs &
                                       provide group
                                       maintenance
                       Professional
                                                        Community
                       Relationships




   28

Monday, June 6, 2011                                                          28
Collaboration ecology argues for                 Implications
                           management support

           Management needs to directly encourage participation in peripheral
           collaborations as they can have strong implications for the success of
           core projects.



                                  Dynamic Groups (e.g.,
                                    dynamic teams…)

                                         recruit SMEs &
                                         provide group
                                         maintenance
                         Professional
                                                          Community
                         Relationships




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                29
Different collaboration types have                                Implications
                      distinct collaboration needs

                         Dynamic personnel (dynamic project teams, communities)
                        Recruit subject-matter experts to participate
                        On-board dynamic members
                        Capture knowledge / outputs of dynamic members for use

                         Deliverable-focused (stable & dynamic project teams, committees)
                        Co-creation for distributed teams
                        Closely coordinate activities around deliverables

                         Communication-focused (professional relationships, client-supplier groups, communities)
                        Various communication channels (e.g., urgent requests, broadcasts, etc.)
                        Cross-organizational archives

                         Democratic leadership (committees, communities)
                        Mitigate challenges caused by this not being a primary focus of member attention (e.g.,
                         participation incentives)
                        Efficient decision making in discussion-oriented, consensus-driven collaborations (e.g.,
                         voting)




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                                30
Conclusion - Living the New
                            Collaboration Ecology

          Workers participate in multiple different collaboration types with distinct tool needs.
          We discovered a collaboration ecology where different types of collaboration
           interrelate and support each other
          Membership in multiple symbiotic groups
          Compensates for some of the challenges of dynamic groups, such as recruiting and group
           maintenance.
          Helps workers deal with these challenges caused without perceiving them as a huge
           additional workload.




Monday, June 6, 2011                                                                                 31
thank you         it’s been my pleasure




                              Luis Suarez
                              Social Computing
                              Evangelist @ IBM
                              http://www.elsua.net
                              @elsua




                       Ohhh, and one more thing ...




Monday, June 6, 2011                                               32
Iscrivetevi
                        subito !!

  33                            © 2011 IBM Corporation


Monday, June 6, 2011                                 33

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The Socially Integrated Enterprise: Organisations or Communities? The new Collaboration Ecology - Luis Suarez

  • 1. The Socially Integrated Enterprise Organisations or Communities? The new Collaboration Ecology Luis Suarez - Social Computing Evangelist at IBM @elsua http://elsua.net Monday, June 6, 2011 1
  • 2. Acknowledgements New kind of collaboration across teams ... @jenokimoto Tara Matthews @lbenitez @falabares @nhsocial @inter_vivos Monday, June 6, 2011 2
  • 3. Collaboration as an IBM wide priority “We know that our integrated business model – from the way we design and deliver our systems and solutions to how we transform our end-to-end business processes – demands that we work together collaboratively. Every time we work as a team, execution improves.... making our culture even more collaborative, in support of delivering client value as we strive to build a Smarter Planet.” Sam Palmisano, IBM Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer 19 July 2010 Second-Quarter 2010 Results Monday, June 6, 2011 3
  • 4. Changing landscape in workplace collaboration  Collaboration is changing from stable teams to groups where membership is dynamic. [Mortensen & Hinds]  Workers are often members of multiple groups – a.k.a. multi-teaming. [Chudoba et al, O’Leary, et al., Zika-Viktorsson et al.]  New forms of collaboration have been identified that leverage the internet or social software, such as “collective intelligence.” [Kittur & Kraut, Shirky, Moon & Sproull] Monday, June 6, 2011 4
  • 5. IBM - A Socially Integrated Enterprise Coming from a Globally Integrated Enterprise... In 170 countries, with 400K employees Products and services built and sold in worldwide markets More than 50% work away from traditional IBM offices 73% of managers have remote employees 60+ software acquisitions in 10 years Half of employees have less than 5 years with IBM Monday, June 6, 2011 5
  • 6. On a Smarter Planet, people are transforming the way they interact ... A social transformation is taking place in how people interact and how relationships form and develop, and this is changing the way we work and the way we engage with our customers. Customers Employees are leading the are using social media conversations that Competitors in all facets of their are crowd-sourcing define your brand lives, including work ideas to bring new solutions to market Monday, June 6, 2011 6
  • 7. ... and this transformation presents new challenges to organisations Marketers have less control over their brands as customer comments and feedback are becoming more influential to brand perception than advertising or PR Product development is challenged to deliver new products and services quickly and at lower cost to keep up with fast moving, new sources of competition Human resources faces difficulty increasing worker effectiveness as work becomes more mobile and global, and as a new generation joins the workforce Organizations are paralyzed by security and governance concerns as employees increasingly use public facing social media tools in the workplace Monday, June 6, 2011 7
  • 8. Becoming Social Businesses is all about embracing this transformation A Social Business cultivates trusted relationships and capitalizes on Social them when and where needed in Social Transformation Business order to grow, innovate and make people more effective A Social Business is:  Creative – allows the right mix of talent and information to come together to deliver new insight  Consistent – aligns business goals and delivers a consistent brand experience  Empowering – gives each individual the opportunity to participate meaningfully and improve the business  Everywhere – enables the work and web experience to happen where, when, and how it is most effective Monday, June 6, 2011 8
  • 9. A Social Business embraces networks of people to create business value? At its core, a Social Business is: Engaged Transparent Nimble Monday, June 6, 2011 9
  • 10. A social business seeks to deepen ...faster ... and enable an effective and virtual workforce client relationships, generate ideas ... A Social Business  Builds trusted relationships and increases sales through relevant messages across all channels Traditional Business  Drives brand advocacy through Deepen communities and dialog  'Push' marketing via client traditional channels relationships Marketing  Control over brand image  Shares insights to generate break- and brand through ideas and speeds time to communication market, gaining market insight and Drive readiness operational  Invest in R&D effectiveness Product  Generate new ideas Development internally  Reaches out to professional networks  Test ideas in market to respond faster with business decisions to new opportunities, saving Workforce money  Email and phone based optimization Operations, communication Human  Knowledge kept in silos Resources Monday, June 6, 2011 10
  • 11. How are organisations changing?  GIE's changed the internal structure of the traditional MNC Resource Utilization: focus on client relationships and employee skills Benefits: cut expenses, improve service and agility, reduce risk, address new markets  How companies innovate is changing; the nature of the core mission and goals are changing Single Value Multiple Values Classic “multinational,” GIE's distributed processes SIE's manage a “birds nest” replicated smaller versions across a skilled global of values of external of the parent company in workforce or partners; with stakeholders; building trust countries around the a common set of values; and are socially adaptive. world; clone Multinational Globally Integrated Socially Corporation (MNC) Enterprise (GIE) Integrated Enterprise (SIE) Source: IBM Annual Report 2009 (MNC, GIE) SIE is a proposed ICS concept, diagram Charles Leadbeater “We Think” Monday, June 6, 2011 11
  • 12. Understanding collaborative work We found distinct types patterns (patterns) of collaboration: stable project team client-supplier relationship group dynamic project team community professional relationships … committee Monday, June 6, 2011 12
  • 13. Dynamic project team [Customer] XBRL Tools RFP Demo. A team pulled together to create a demo that addresses a customer need in order to win a sale. Definition: A continuously changing group of  SMEs on XBRL tools and other customer needs that arise are recruited people working together toward a from the group’s professional network. common goal that is a job-related focus for its members. Arise to enable flexible formation of teams to meet emerging needs, while highly utilizing subject-matter expertise. Sub-types based on subject-matter expert Engineering Efficiency Pilot. Develop a method to identify and (SME) recruitment: eliminate waste in the daily engineering  SMEs are recruited informally via workload at a manufacturing plant. professional relationships & communities.  Various engineers doing the work being evaluated are brought on the team  SMEs are identified through organizational to help identify waste and later to connections. evaluate the method. Monday, June 6, 2011 13
  • 14. Client-supplier relationship group [Customer name] Client Relationship. Coverage sales rep working with various brand specialists to maintain an ongoing relationship with [customer name]. Definition: A stable group including people from both client and supplier who work together in an ongoing basis to make sure the needs of the client are being met over time. NV RAM Customer Facing. Arise to provide a consistent, known A manufacturing engineering team interaction to make customers feel interfaces with customers to ensure comfortable and know who to go to. that the hardware product meets their needs before fabrication. Monday, June 6, 2011 14
  • 15. Professional relationships Rolodex. People I’ve met who I contact for resource allocation (staffing) and quality assurance … on solutions we’re proposing. Definition: A professional relationship between two parties, typically with minimal structure. Arise to provide individuals with career . Internal Microblogging enhancement opportunities (e.g., Collaboration. mentoring) are leveraged for the expertise I use this for career enhancement (to each side provides the other (e.g., to find start up new collaborations, to experts to staff a dynamic project team). volunteer and build my exposure in the company, for reputation building), and to get feedback and support from colleagues. Monday, June 6, 2011 15
  • 16. Community Rational Change & Release Management Community (CoP). Community of people specializing in this particular type of Rational software. Used to gather knowledge about this technology, in service of customer needs. Definition: A group of people with similar job functions or a shared interest, who come together to share (knowledge, information, best practices, Q&A) and possibly to spark Firefox Champion Team (CoI). A community of 4250 SMEs who offer new collaborations. knowledge and services to facilitate others Arise to provide support for dynamic project using Firefox within [the company]. teams (group maintenance, SME recruitment) and individuals with career enhancement opportunities. Coverage Software Architects in Federal Sales Sub-types: (Bounded CoP).  Community of practice. Direct reports of a single manager who all have the same job role. These people do not work closely  Community of interest. together; they are SMEs who participate primarily  Bounded community of practice. in dynamic teams and client-supplier groups. But they provide each other with peer group support. Monday, June 6, 2011 16
  • 17. Stable project team Quad2 Review. Create and review the plan for that week’s manufacturing load and verify that it will meet any customer needs.  Repeated every week, long term. Definition: A fairly stable group of people working closely together toward a common goal that is a job-related focus for its members. Health Services Team. Current project: Redesign Arise because of a need for sustained employee health services case contribution from a specific group of management for IBM to meet people. budget requirements and delivery needs in growth markets. Sub-types based on duration:  Recurring organizational processes  A particular combination of expertise Biztech Redesign Work / Life Zone. invoked across multiple contexts Software redesign of an intranet site focused on work-life balance issues.  A single long term complex deliverable.  Bounded, 6 month project. Monday, June 6, 2011 17
  • 18. Committee World-Wide GBS Distinguished Engineer Board Forms yearly to select Distinguished Engineers for the Global Business Definition: A group formed to handle a goal Services division. Half the members return, half are new each year. Involves that is secondary to most members’ main splitting up the candidates and coming job focus. Though there is often a “lead together to make a decision. cat herder,” these collaborations tend to be consensus run. Arise to handle various organizational needs. Women in Technology Leadership Task Force. A group of SMEs are formed to tackle the organizational issue of increasing women in their technical areas. Monday, June 6, 2011 18
  • 19. Distinguishing attributes Collaboration type Goal & Duration Personnel Work focus Work style Pooled & Co- Stable project team Deliverable Stable Core work focus creation Pooled & Co- Dynamic project team Deliverable Dynamic Core work focus creation Peripheral for most Pooled & Co- Committee Deliverable Stable participants creation Independent with Client-supplier relationship Relationship, ongoing Stable Core work focus bursts of group communication Exchange expertise Stable &/or Peripheral for most Community and best practice, Independent Dynamic participants ongoing Professional relationships Relationship, ongoing Dynamic Peripheral Independent Monday, June 6, 2011 19
  • 20. How do workers handle new demands of dynamic teams and multi-teaming? There are predictable patterns of interrelationships among a person’s collaborations Monday, June 6, 2011 20
  • 21. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Ecology (in biology) – the interrelationship of organisms and their environments. Collaboration ecology – the interrelationships between people’s collaborations in business contexts. Monday, June 6, 2011 21
  • 22. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Stable Groups (e.g., client supplier, stable project…) set goals Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships Monday, June 6, 2011 22
  • 23. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Stable Groups (e.g., client supplier, stable project…) set goals Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) The responsibility of the Technical Affinity Group is… to extract discrete data points from our sales and customer facing staff so we can figure out strategically where our architecture work and solution design stuff should be headed… Our goal is to always be strategic in building out the toolkit of piece parts that solve patterns and generic customer needs. Monday, June 6, 2011 23
  • 24. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships My linkedin is 500, plus [company] internal, there’s 60 people I can approach right there… So if I need to get a number of people on board, I need to know if are they available, and when can they start? If I need project management, I think who's best suited to manage the project as it goes into delivery, then if I need contract management, and technical advisors, people who are really good at doing dial plans for instance, or people who are good at creating scripts… If I need a resource, then I identify a resource and then bill it to the account, they can bill hours. I get pinged all the time with the same requests. Monday, June 6, 2011 24
  • 25. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships We do a monthly community call [for the whole community] where we tell stuff about what is happening with the community. Then we have the education sessions in the community. They are typically every two months where we provide education and various different community building techniques. And then we have the watercooler call every two weeks to provide like a virtual gathering for them to share. Monday, June 6, 2011 25
  • 26. Collaborations are Interrelated in a Collaboration Ecology Stable Groups (e.g., client supplier, stable project…) set goals Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships Monday, June 6, 2011 26
  • 27. Collaboration Ecology Challenges There used to be a team and it was their whole job to create these proof of technology materials, keep them  Communities sometimes were updated, add new scenarios to them, make them responsible for critical, time- better... Due to [our company’s] organizational reasons, that group is no longer and the responsibility of keeping consuming organizational functions, up those materials—think of them like training which did burden members. materials... fell to the community of practice, which is voluntary (laughs). But it is so important that we keep  Difficult keeping communities active maintaining those artifacts, but it became voluntary. But it is a challenge. There is a person that runs that enough to handle group community and needs us to be active... or else it won't maintenance tasks. Leadership be a good thing. teams helped.  Recruitment for dynamic teams is a At the beginning of last year I changed from process development to business optimization, it’s a completely challenge for workers not plugged different set of people and it’s amazing the lack of in to the right networks. knowledge that we in [this company] have between different divisions. At the beginning nobody knows me, and so no-one is aware that I am there. And then it started very slowly, and then after a while it’s like an avalanche of opportunities that come down because people start to know me and they recommend me to other folks. It’s the problem that we have in [this company] to find the right person. Monday, June 6, 2011 27
  • 28. Collaboration ecology argues for a Implications suite of integrated tools Stable Groups (e.g., client supplier, stable project…) set goals Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships 28 Monday, June 6, 2011 28
  • 29. Collaboration ecology argues for Implications management support Management needs to directly encourage participation in peripheral collaborations as they can have strong implications for the success of core projects. Dynamic Groups (e.g., dynamic teams…) recruit SMEs & provide group maintenance Professional Community Relationships Monday, June 6, 2011 29
  • 30. Different collaboration types have Implications distinct collaboration needs Dynamic personnel (dynamic project teams, communities)  Recruit subject-matter experts to participate  On-board dynamic members  Capture knowledge / outputs of dynamic members for use Deliverable-focused (stable & dynamic project teams, committees)  Co-creation for distributed teams  Closely coordinate activities around deliverables Communication-focused (professional relationships, client-supplier groups, communities)  Various communication channels (e.g., urgent requests, broadcasts, etc.)  Cross-organizational archives Democratic leadership (committees, communities)  Mitigate challenges caused by this not being a primary focus of member attention (e.g., participation incentives)  Efficient decision making in discussion-oriented, consensus-driven collaborations (e.g., voting) Monday, June 6, 2011 30
  • 31. Conclusion - Living the New Collaboration Ecology  Workers participate in multiple different collaboration types with distinct tool needs.  We discovered a collaboration ecology where different types of collaboration interrelate and support each other  Membership in multiple symbiotic groups  Compensates for some of the challenges of dynamic groups, such as recruiting and group maintenance.  Helps workers deal with these challenges caused without perceiving them as a huge additional workload. Monday, June 6, 2011 31
  • 32. thank you it’s been my pleasure Luis Suarez Social Computing Evangelist @ IBM http://www.elsua.net @elsua Ohhh, and one more thing ... Monday, June 6, 2011 32
  • 33. Iscrivetevi subito !! 33 © 2011 IBM Corporation Monday, June 6, 2011 33