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Satellite Applications and Types
Prepared by:
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Abd-Elaziz
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 1
Brief history on satellite systems
1957 Sputnik: U.S.S.R first satellite which transmitted telemetry
information for 21 days.
1958 Score: USA first satellite which was used to broadcast
President Eisenhower’s Christmas greetings message.
1960 Echo: Reflector satellite.
1960 Courier: Store and forward transmission.
1962 Telstar & Relay: Repeater satellites.
1963 Syncom: USA first geostationary communication satellite.
1965 Intelsat “Early Bird”: USA constellation of communication
satellites providing international broadcast services.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 2
1965 Molniya: First Soviet military communications satellite.
1972 Synphonie: Communication satellite built by France and
Germany.
1972 Anik: Canadian communication satellite, Anik means "little
brother.
Brief history on satellite systems
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 3
Satellite orbits
Orbit Height:
Geostationary Orbit (GEO): 35,786 km above the Earth, 24 hour
period, Circular Equatorial
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): 8,000 – 20,000 km above the Earth.
Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 500 – 2,000 km above the Earth.
Orbit Shape:
Circular
Elliptical
Three Basic Orbits:
Circular Polar
Elliptical Inclined
Circular Equatorial
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 4
Elliptically Inclined
Satellite orbits
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 5
Satellite applications and types
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 6
TV broadcast satellites.
Weather satellites.
Military satellites.
Navigation satellites.
Mobile Satellites.
Disaster monitoring satellites.
Search & rescue satellites.
Store & Forward satellites.
Mineral Exploration and Mining satellites.
Lunar exploration satellites.
Deep space exploration satellites.
Satellite applications and types
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 7
Satellite television is television delivered by the means of
communication satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial
television.
In many areas of the world, satellite television services
supplement older terrestrial signals, providing a wider range of
channels and services, including subscription-only services.
The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the
Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geostationary
communication satellite, Syncom 2 was launched in 1963. The
world's first commercial communication satellite, called Intelsat (Early
Bird) was launched into synchronous orbit on 1965.
TV Broadcast Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 8
Satellites used for television signals are generally in either
naturally highly elliptical (with inclination of +/- 63.4 degrees and
orbital period of about 12 hours) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km
(22,300 miles) above the earth’s equator.
Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite,
starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink
satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter.
The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and
increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed
toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted
within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the
transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite.
TV Broadcast Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 9
The transponder 'retransmits' the signals back to Earth but at a
different frequency band.
The downlinked satellite signal, quite weak after travelling the
great distance is collected by a parabolic receiving dish. A LNB
device amplifies the relatively weak signals, filters the block of
frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted, and
converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range. The
evolution of LNBs was one of necessity and invention.
The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable could be
used to connect the indoor receiver with the satellite TV dish and
LNB.
TV Broadcast Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 10
TV Broadcast Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 11
In GEO orbits, there are 318 Television satellites.
Examples of TV satellites:
 NileSat.
 ArabSat.
 Hot Bird.
 Galaxy.
 Astra.
 Spaceway.
 ChinaSat.
 Atlantic Bird.
 TurkSat.
TV Broadcast Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 12
Weather Satellites
GOES-8 USA Weather Satellite
EUMETSAT_METOP
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 13
Weather Satellites
A weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to
monitor the weather and climate of the earth.
Satellites can be either polar orbiting, seeing the same swath of
the earth every 12 hours, or geostationary hovering over the same
spot on Earth by orbiting over the equator while moving at the speed
of the Earth's rotation.
These meteorological satellites, however see more than clouds
and cloud systems; City lights, fires, effects of pollution, sand and
dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents,
etc., are other types of environmental information collected using
weather satellites.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 14
Weather Satellites
The first weather satellite, Vanguard
2 was launched on 1959. It was
designed to measure cloud cover and
resistance, but a poor axis of rotation
kept it from collecting a notable amount
of useful data.
The first weather satellite to be
considered a success was Tiros-1,
launched by NASA on 1960. TIROS
operated for 78 days and proved to be
much more successful than Vanguard 2.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 15
Weather Satellites
Observation is typically made via different channels of the
electromagnetic spectrum, in particular, the Visible and Infrared
portions.
Visible-light images from weather satellites during local daylight
hours are easy to interpret even by the average person; clouds, cloud
systems such as tropical storms, lakes, forests, mountains, snow ice,
fires, and pollution such as smoke and dust are readily apparent.
Even wind can be determined by cloud patterns, alignments and
movement from successive photos.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 16
Weather Satellites
Image from the GOES-9 weather satellite Eumetsat-Satellite-Loop-Europe_1
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 17
Weather Satellites
The thermal or infrared images
recorded by sensors called scanning
radiometers enable a trained analyst to
determine cloud heights and types, to
calculate land and surface water
temperatures, and to locate ocean surface
features. Infrared satellite imagery can be
used effectively for tropical cyclones with a
visible eye pattern.
The eye of a storm is a roughly circular
area and typically 30–65 km in diameter.
Cyclone Catarina from the ISS
on March 26 2004
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 18
Weather Satellites
Geostationary weather satellites orbit the Earth above the equator
at altitudes of 35,880 km. They remain stationary with respect to
Earth, so they can record or transmit images of the entire hemisphere
below continuously with their visible-light and infrared sensors.
The news media use the geostationary photos in their daily
weather presentation as single images or made into movie loops.
Polar orbiting weather satellites circle the Earth at a typical
altitude of 850 km. Polar satellites are to observe any place on Earth
and will view every location twice each day. Polar orbiting weather
satellites offer a much better resolution than their geostationary
counterparts due their closeness to the Earth.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 19
Weather Satellites
There are16 Geostationary and 11 polar weather satellites.
For geostationary weather satellites, the United States has two
satellites in operation; GOES-11 and GOES-12. The Japanese have
one in operation; MTSAT-1R. The Europeans have several Meteosat
series. The Russians operate the GOMS over the equator south of
Moscow. India also operates geostationary satellites which carry
instruments for meteorological purposes. China operates the Feng-
Yen satellites, FY-2C, FY-2D and FY-2E.
For polar weather satellites, The United States has the NOAA
series. Europe has the Metop-A satellite. Russia has the Meteor and
RESURS series of satellites. China has FY-1D and FY-3A.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 20
Military Satellites
A military satellite is used for a military purpose, often for
gathering intelligence as a communication satellites used for military
purposes, or as a military weapon.
A satellite by itself is neither military nor civil. It is the kind of
payload it carries that enables one to arrive at a decision regarding its
military or civilian character. For example, a civilian satellite can carry
military transponders and vice versa. Civil commercial satellites are
also known to carry out military tasks including enabling military
communications, imagery etc. At the same time, military satellites like
the NAVSTAR GPS have more civilian users than military users.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 21
Military Satellites
A spy satellite is an earth observation
satellite or communication satellite deployed
for military or intelligence applications. The
first generation type (i.e. Corona 1 - 2 and
Zenit) took photographs then ejected
canisters of photographic film, which would
descend to earth. Corona capsules were
retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on
parachutes. Later spacecraft had digital
imaging systems and downloaded the
images via encrypted radio links.
Corona-119 aircraft the film
dropped on a parachute
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 22
Military Satellites
Examples of spy satellite missions:
 High resolution photography
(IMINT) .
 Communications
eavesdropping (SIGINT) .
 Covert communications.
 Monitoring of nuclear test ban
compliance.
 Detection of missile launches .
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 23
Military Satellites
U-2 photo over a military air base Pentagon
There are 37 LEO, 5 MEO and 6 GEO military satellites.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 24
Navigation Satellites
Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS) is the standard generic term for
satellite navigation systems that provide
autonomous geo-spatial positioning with
global coverage. A GNSS allows small
electronic receivers to determine their
location (longitude, latitude and altitude)
to within a few metres. Receivers on the
ground with a fixed position can also be
used to calculate the precise time as a
reference for scientific experiments.
Satellite navigation using a
laptop and a GPS receiver
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 25
The United States NAVSTAR Global
Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully
operational GNSS. The Russian GLONASS
is a GNSS in the process of being restored
to full operation. China has indicated it will
expand its regional Beidou navigation
system into the global COMPASS navigation
system 2015. The European Union’s Galileo
positioning system is a GNSS in initial
deployment phase, scheduled to be
operational in 2013.
Navigation Satellites
GPS Navigation Satellite
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 26
The NAVSTAR global positioning
system (GPS) satellites provides latitude,
longitude, altitude, direction of travel, travel
velocity and correct time of day to anyone
anywhere, day or night, in any weather.
The U.S. Air Force created the
constellation of 24 NAVSTAR satellites
circling Earth twice a day. At least four of
the space beacons are in view from any
spot on Earth at any time.
Navigation Satellites
GPS Constellation Satellites
NAVSTAR GPS
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 27
NAVSTAR is short for Navigation
System using Timing And Ranging.
Ships, planes, trains, trucks, cars and
even persons on foot can know their
positions in latitude, longitude, and altitude
within 58 feet or 328 feet anywhere in any
weather, along with their velocity within
0.45 mph, or better than one foot per
second, and correct time to within one-
millionth of a second.
Navigation Satellites
GPS Satellite Status
NAVSTAR GPS
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 28
A receiver on the ground has to hear
from only three NAVSTAR satellites to find
its own latitude and longitude location.
Hearing from a fourth satellite lets the
receiver calculate its own altitude.
Each satellite also monitors its own
navigation data errors, signal availability,
and clock failures.
Army and Marine troops followed their
hand-held GPS receivers during wars.
Navigation Satellites
Casio GPS Watch
NAVSTAR GPS
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 29
GLONASS satellite system is a radio-based
satellite navigation system, developed by the former
Soviet Union and now operated for the Russian
government by the Russian Space Forces.
Development on the GLONASS began in 1976,
with a goal of global coverage by 1991. Beginning on
1982, numerous rocket launches added satellites to
the system until the constellation was completed in
1995. Following completion, the system rapidly fell into
disrepair with the collapse of the Russian economy.
Navigation Satellites
GLONASS Satellites
GLONASS Satellite
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 30
Beginning in 2001, Russia
committed to restoring the
system, and in recent years
has diversified, introducing
the Indian government as a
partner, and accelerated the
program with a goal of
restoring global coverage by
2009.
Navigation Satellites
GLONASS Satellite Mounting
GLONASS Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 31
Satellite navigation users in Europe today
have no alternative other than to take their
positions from US GPS or Russian
GLONASS satellites. Yet the military
operators of both systems give no guarantee
to maintain an uninterrupted service.
As far back as the early 1990s, the
European Union saw the need for Europe to
have its own global satellite navigation
system.
Navigation Satellites
Galileo Satellites
Galileo Satellite
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 32
The Global Mobile Satellite
System (GMSS) is a general term
referring to the selection of
satellite phone providers available
to private customers.
Geostationary Systems:
 INMARSAT
 MSAT
 Thuraya.
Mobile Satellites
Mobile Satellite System
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 33
Big “LEO” Systems
 ARIES
 ELLIPSO
 IRIDIUM
 ODYSSEY
Little “LEO” Systems
 Orbcomm
 LEOSAT
 STARNET
 VITASAT
Mobile Satellites
Thuraya Mobile Satellite
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 34
The Disaster Monitoring Constellation
(DMC) consists of five remote-sensing
satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite
Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the
Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and
Chinese governments. The DMC provides
emergency Earth imaging for disaster relief
under the International Charter for Space
and Major Disasters. Other DMC Earth
imagery is used for a variety of civil
applications by a variety of governments.
Disaster Monitoring Satellites
Fire image
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 35
Disaster Monitoring Satellites
Flood disaster
Colima Volcano, Mexico
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 36
The DMC has monitored the effects and aftermath of the Indian
Ocean Tsunami (December 2004), Hurricane Katrina (August 2005),
and many other floods, fires and disasters.
Disaster Monitoring Satellites
Merapi volcano, May 11, 2006
Captured by Space Imaging’s
IKONOS satellite
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 37
Disaster Monitoring Satellites
Tsunami Disaster
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 38
Search and rescue satellites are designed to provide a way for
vessels at sea and in the air to communicate from remote areas.
These satellites can detect and locate emergency beacons carried
by ships, aircrafts, or individuals in remote or dangerous places.
Satellites equipped with search and rescue equipment fly over a
beacon that is releasing an emergency signal. Using mathematical
calculations involving the doppler effect, scientists can translate that
signal into coordinates, and determine the location of the distress
signal within four kilometres.
Satellites can assist search and rescue (SAR) activities on a
worldwide basis by providing accurate, timely, and reliable alert.
Search & Rescue Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 39
Cospas-Sarsat system aims to reduce, as far as possible, delays
in the provision of distress alerts to SAR services, and the time
required to locate a distress and provide assistance, which have a
direct impact on the probability of survival of the person in distress
at sea or on land.
To achieve this objective, Cospas-Sarsat Participants implement,
maintain, co-ordinate and operate a satellite system capable of
detecting distress alert transmissions from radio-beacons that
comply with Cospas-Sarsat specifications and performance
standards and of determining their position anywhere on the globe.
Search & Rescue Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 40
A satellite in low Earth orbit has only limited coverage, with a footprint
diameter near 6000km. However, with a suitable choice of orbital
inclination, it can cover each part of the globe within 24 hours. Store and
Forward communications is a concept different from that employed in trunk
communications.
It stores signals received from the uplink, recording the message
transmitted to the satellite. The message can then later be broadcast or
retransmitted it on demand.
A single satellite in low Earth orbit can therefore provide a true global
messaging service. This concept was first proposed by Brandon in 1957,
and implemented on the COURIER satellite in 1960 using onboard tape
recorders.
Store & Forward Satellites
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 41
Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites
Satellite imagery and
aerial photography has
proven to be an important
tool in assessing mineral
exploration tenements, it
provides the geologists and
field crew location of
tracks, roads, fences and
habitation.
Morenci Mine in Arizona
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 42
Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites
Imagery from satellite sensors such as ASTER and LANDSAT-7
have benefited geologists, scientists and exploration managers in
earth sciences due to the sensor containing multiple band colours
which allows them to interpret wavelengths that cannot be seen by
the human eye, such as near infrared, short wave infrared and
thermal infrared to identify the difference in structural features of the
earth's surface.
Multispectral imaging and thematic mapping allows researchers
to collect data of reflection and absorption properties of soils, rock,
and vegetation. This data could be utilized to interpret actual surface
lithologies to identify clays, oxides and soils from satellite images.
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 43
Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites
Saline Valley, California — ASTER
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 44
The physical exploration of the
Moon began when Luna-2, a space
probe launched by the Soviet Union,
impacted the surface of the Moon on
1959.
In 1969, Project Apollo first
successfully landed people on the
Moon. They placed scientific
experiments there and returned rocks
and data that suggested the Moon is
of a similar composition to the Earth.
Lunar Exploration Satellites
Apollo-12 Lunar module
Intrepid prepares to descend
towards the surface of the
Moon. NASA photo
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 45
The exploration of Mars has been
an important part of the space
exploration programs of the Soviet
Union, United States, Europe and
Japan.
Dozens of robotic spacecrafts,
including rovers have been launched
toward Mars since the 1960s. These
missions were aimed at gathering data
about current conditions and answering
questions about the history of Mars.
Deep Space Exploration Satellites
Computer-generated image of
one of the two Mars Exploration
Rover, which touched down on
Mars in 2004
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 46
Deep Space Exploration Satellites
Mars
Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 47

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The Satellite applications in telecommunication

  • 1. Satellite Applications and Types Prepared by: Eng. Ahmed Hassan Abd-Elaziz Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 1
  • 2. Brief history on satellite systems 1957 Sputnik: U.S.S.R first satellite which transmitted telemetry information for 21 days. 1958 Score: USA first satellite which was used to broadcast President Eisenhower’s Christmas greetings message. 1960 Echo: Reflector satellite. 1960 Courier: Store and forward transmission. 1962 Telstar & Relay: Repeater satellites. 1963 Syncom: USA first geostationary communication satellite. 1965 Intelsat “Early Bird”: USA constellation of communication satellites providing international broadcast services. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 2
  • 3. 1965 Molniya: First Soviet military communications satellite. 1972 Synphonie: Communication satellite built by France and Germany. 1972 Anik: Canadian communication satellite, Anik means "little brother. Brief history on satellite systems Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 3
  • 4. Satellite orbits Orbit Height: Geostationary Orbit (GEO): 35,786 km above the Earth, 24 hour period, Circular Equatorial Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): 8,000 – 20,000 km above the Earth. Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 500 – 2,000 km above the Earth. Orbit Shape: Circular Elliptical Three Basic Orbits: Circular Polar Elliptical Inclined Circular Equatorial Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 4
  • 5. Elliptically Inclined Satellite orbits Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 5
  • 6. Satellite applications and types Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 6
  • 7. TV broadcast satellites. Weather satellites. Military satellites. Navigation satellites. Mobile Satellites. Disaster monitoring satellites. Search & rescue satellites. Store & Forward satellites. Mineral Exploration and Mining satellites. Lunar exploration satellites. Deep space exploration satellites. Satellite applications and types Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 7
  • 8. Satellite television is television delivered by the means of communication satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television. In many areas of the world, satellite television services supplement older terrestrial signals, providing a wider range of channels and services, including subscription-only services. The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geostationary communication satellite, Syncom 2 was launched in 1963. The world's first commercial communication satellite, called Intelsat (Early Bird) was launched into synchronous orbit on 1965. TV Broadcast Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 8
  • 9. Satellites used for television signals are generally in either naturally highly elliptical (with inclination of +/- 63.4 degrees and orbital period of about 12 hours) or geostationary orbit 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earth’s equator. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. TV Broadcast Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 9
  • 10. The transponder 'retransmits' the signals back to Earth but at a different frequency band. The downlinked satellite signal, quite weak after travelling the great distance is collected by a parabolic receiving dish. A LNB device amplifies the relatively weak signals, filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted, and converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range. The evolution of LNBs was one of necessity and invention. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable could be used to connect the indoor receiver with the satellite TV dish and LNB. TV Broadcast Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 10
  • 11. TV Broadcast Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 11
  • 12. In GEO orbits, there are 318 Television satellites. Examples of TV satellites:  NileSat.  ArabSat.  Hot Bird.  Galaxy.  Astra.  Spaceway.  ChinaSat.  Atlantic Bird.  TurkSat. TV Broadcast Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 12
  • 13. Weather Satellites GOES-8 USA Weather Satellite EUMETSAT_METOP Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 13
  • 14. Weather Satellites A weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the earth. Satellites can be either polar orbiting, seeing the same swath of the earth every 12 hours, or geostationary hovering over the same spot on Earth by orbiting over the equator while moving at the speed of the Earth's rotation. These meteorological satellites, however see more than clouds and cloud systems; City lights, fires, effects of pollution, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, etc., are other types of environmental information collected using weather satellites. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 14
  • 15. Weather Satellites The first weather satellite, Vanguard 2 was launched on 1959. It was designed to measure cloud cover and resistance, but a poor axis of rotation kept it from collecting a notable amount of useful data. The first weather satellite to be considered a success was Tiros-1, launched by NASA on 1960. TIROS operated for 78 days and proved to be much more successful than Vanguard 2. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 15
  • 16. Weather Satellites Observation is typically made via different channels of the electromagnetic spectrum, in particular, the Visible and Infrared portions. Visible-light images from weather satellites during local daylight hours are easy to interpret even by the average person; clouds, cloud systems such as tropical storms, lakes, forests, mountains, snow ice, fires, and pollution such as smoke and dust are readily apparent. Even wind can be determined by cloud patterns, alignments and movement from successive photos. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 16
  • 17. Weather Satellites Image from the GOES-9 weather satellite Eumetsat-Satellite-Loop-Europe_1 Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 17
  • 18. Weather Satellites The thermal or infrared images recorded by sensors called scanning radiometers enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features. Infrared satellite imagery can be used effectively for tropical cyclones with a visible eye pattern. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area and typically 30–65 km in diameter. Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004 Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 18
  • 19. Weather Satellites Geostationary weather satellites orbit the Earth above the equator at altitudes of 35,880 km. They remain stationary with respect to Earth, so they can record or transmit images of the entire hemisphere below continuously with their visible-light and infrared sensors. The news media use the geostationary photos in their daily weather presentation as single images or made into movie loops. Polar orbiting weather satellites circle the Earth at a typical altitude of 850 km. Polar satellites are to observe any place on Earth and will view every location twice each day. Polar orbiting weather satellites offer a much better resolution than their geostationary counterparts due their closeness to the Earth. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 19
  • 20. Weather Satellites There are16 Geostationary and 11 polar weather satellites. For geostationary weather satellites, the United States has two satellites in operation; GOES-11 and GOES-12. The Japanese have one in operation; MTSAT-1R. The Europeans have several Meteosat series. The Russians operate the GOMS over the equator south of Moscow. India also operates geostationary satellites which carry instruments for meteorological purposes. China operates the Feng- Yen satellites, FY-2C, FY-2D and FY-2E. For polar weather satellites, The United States has the NOAA series. Europe has the Metop-A satellite. Russia has the Meteor and RESURS series of satellites. China has FY-1D and FY-3A. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 20
  • 21. Military Satellites A military satellite is used for a military purpose, often for gathering intelligence as a communication satellites used for military purposes, or as a military weapon. A satellite by itself is neither military nor civil. It is the kind of payload it carries that enables one to arrive at a decision regarding its military or civilian character. For example, a civilian satellite can carry military transponders and vice versa. Civil commercial satellites are also known to carry out military tasks including enabling military communications, imagery etc. At the same time, military satellites like the NAVSTAR GPS have more civilian users than military users. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 21
  • 22. Military Satellites A spy satellite is an earth observation satellite or communication satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type (i.e. Corona 1 - 2 and Zenit) took photographs then ejected canisters of photographic film, which would descend to earth. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on parachutes. Later spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links. Corona-119 aircraft the film dropped on a parachute Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 22
  • 23. Military Satellites Examples of spy satellite missions:  High resolution photography (IMINT) .  Communications eavesdropping (SIGINT) .  Covert communications.  Monitoring of nuclear test ban compliance.  Detection of missile launches . Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 23
  • 24. Military Satellites U-2 photo over a military air base Pentagon There are 37 LEO, 5 MEO and 6 GEO military satellites. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 24
  • 25. Navigation Satellites Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude and altitude) to within a few metres. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments. Satellite navigation using a laptop and a GPS receiver Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 25
  • 26. The United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully operational GNSS. The Russian GLONASS is a GNSS in the process of being restored to full operation. China has indicated it will expand its regional Beidou navigation system into the global COMPASS navigation system 2015. The European Union’s Galileo positioning system is a GNSS in initial deployment phase, scheduled to be operational in 2013. Navigation Satellites GPS Navigation Satellite Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 26
  • 27. The NAVSTAR global positioning system (GPS) satellites provides latitude, longitude, altitude, direction of travel, travel velocity and correct time of day to anyone anywhere, day or night, in any weather. The U.S. Air Force created the constellation of 24 NAVSTAR satellites circling Earth twice a day. At least four of the space beacons are in view from any spot on Earth at any time. Navigation Satellites GPS Constellation Satellites NAVSTAR GPS Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 27
  • 28. NAVSTAR is short for Navigation System using Timing And Ranging. Ships, planes, trains, trucks, cars and even persons on foot can know their positions in latitude, longitude, and altitude within 58 feet or 328 feet anywhere in any weather, along with their velocity within 0.45 mph, or better than one foot per second, and correct time to within one- millionth of a second. Navigation Satellites GPS Satellite Status NAVSTAR GPS Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 28
  • 29. A receiver on the ground has to hear from only three NAVSTAR satellites to find its own latitude and longitude location. Hearing from a fourth satellite lets the receiver calculate its own altitude. Each satellite also monitors its own navigation data errors, signal availability, and clock failures. Army and Marine troops followed their hand-held GPS receivers during wars. Navigation Satellites Casio GPS Watch NAVSTAR GPS Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 29
  • 30. GLONASS satellite system is a radio-based satellite navigation system, developed by the former Soviet Union and now operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces. Development on the GLONASS began in 1976, with a goal of global coverage by 1991. Beginning on 1982, numerous rocket launches added satellites to the system until the constellation was completed in 1995. Following completion, the system rapidly fell into disrepair with the collapse of the Russian economy. Navigation Satellites GLONASS Satellites GLONASS Satellite Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 30
  • 31. Beginning in 2001, Russia committed to restoring the system, and in recent years has diversified, introducing the Indian government as a partner, and accelerated the program with a goal of restoring global coverage by 2009. Navigation Satellites GLONASS Satellite Mounting GLONASS Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 31
  • 32. Satellite navigation users in Europe today have no alternative other than to take their positions from US GPS or Russian GLONASS satellites. Yet the military operators of both systems give no guarantee to maintain an uninterrupted service. As far back as the early 1990s, the European Union saw the need for Europe to have its own global satellite navigation system. Navigation Satellites Galileo Satellites Galileo Satellite Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 32
  • 33. The Global Mobile Satellite System (GMSS) is a general term referring to the selection of satellite phone providers available to private customers. Geostationary Systems:  INMARSAT  MSAT  Thuraya. Mobile Satellites Mobile Satellite System Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 33
  • 34. Big “LEO” Systems  ARIES  ELLIPSO  IRIDIUM  ODYSSEY Little “LEO” Systems  Orbcomm  LEOSAT  STARNET  VITASAT Mobile Satellites Thuraya Mobile Satellite Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 34
  • 35. The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) consists of five remote-sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments. The DMC provides emergency Earth imaging for disaster relief under the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters. Other DMC Earth imagery is used for a variety of civil applications by a variety of governments. Disaster Monitoring Satellites Fire image Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 35
  • 36. Disaster Monitoring Satellites Flood disaster Colima Volcano, Mexico Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 36
  • 37. The DMC has monitored the effects and aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004), Hurricane Katrina (August 2005), and many other floods, fires and disasters. Disaster Monitoring Satellites Merapi volcano, May 11, 2006 Captured by Space Imaging’s IKONOS satellite Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 37
  • 38. Disaster Monitoring Satellites Tsunami Disaster Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 38
  • 39. Search and rescue satellites are designed to provide a way for vessels at sea and in the air to communicate from remote areas. These satellites can detect and locate emergency beacons carried by ships, aircrafts, or individuals in remote or dangerous places. Satellites equipped with search and rescue equipment fly over a beacon that is releasing an emergency signal. Using mathematical calculations involving the doppler effect, scientists can translate that signal into coordinates, and determine the location of the distress signal within four kilometres. Satellites can assist search and rescue (SAR) activities on a worldwide basis by providing accurate, timely, and reliable alert. Search & Rescue Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 39
  • 40. Cospas-Sarsat system aims to reduce, as far as possible, delays in the provision of distress alerts to SAR services, and the time required to locate a distress and provide assistance, which have a direct impact on the probability of survival of the person in distress at sea or on land. To achieve this objective, Cospas-Sarsat Participants implement, maintain, co-ordinate and operate a satellite system capable of detecting distress alert transmissions from radio-beacons that comply with Cospas-Sarsat specifications and performance standards and of determining their position anywhere on the globe. Search & Rescue Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 40
  • 41. A satellite in low Earth orbit has only limited coverage, with a footprint diameter near 6000km. However, with a suitable choice of orbital inclination, it can cover each part of the globe within 24 hours. Store and Forward communications is a concept different from that employed in trunk communications. It stores signals received from the uplink, recording the message transmitted to the satellite. The message can then later be broadcast or retransmitted it on demand. A single satellite in low Earth orbit can therefore provide a true global messaging service. This concept was first proposed by Brandon in 1957, and implemented on the COURIER satellite in 1960 using onboard tape recorders. Store & Forward Satellites Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 41
  • 42. Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites Satellite imagery and aerial photography has proven to be an important tool in assessing mineral exploration tenements, it provides the geologists and field crew location of tracks, roads, fences and habitation. Morenci Mine in Arizona Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 42
  • 43. Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites Imagery from satellite sensors such as ASTER and LANDSAT-7 have benefited geologists, scientists and exploration managers in earth sciences due to the sensor containing multiple band colours which allows them to interpret wavelengths that cannot be seen by the human eye, such as near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared to identify the difference in structural features of the earth's surface. Multispectral imaging and thematic mapping allows researchers to collect data of reflection and absorption properties of soils, rock, and vegetation. This data could be utilized to interpret actual surface lithologies to identify clays, oxides and soils from satellite images. Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 43
  • 44. Mineral Exploration and Mining Satellites Saline Valley, California — ASTER Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 44
  • 45. The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna-2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, impacted the surface of the Moon on 1959. In 1969, Project Apollo first successfully landed people on the Moon. They placed scientific experiments there and returned rocks and data that suggested the Moon is of a similar composition to the Earth. Lunar Exploration Satellites Apollo-12 Lunar module Intrepid prepares to descend towards the surface of the Moon. NASA photo Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 45
  • 46. The exploration of Mars has been an important part of the space exploration programs of the Soviet Union, United States, Europe and Japan. Dozens of robotic spacecrafts, including rovers have been launched toward Mars since the 1960s. These missions were aimed at gathering data about current conditions and answering questions about the history of Mars. Deep Space Exploration Satellites Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rover, which touched down on Mars in 2004 Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 46
  • 47. Deep Space Exploration Satellites Mars Eng. Ahmed Hassan Satellites Applications and Types 47