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The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
BBA (H) Department (2017 – 2020)
The Heritage Academy
Submitted by:
1. Amisha Shaw 21305017058
2. Yashasvi Singh 21305017001
3. Medha Bhaskar 21305017042
Under the Guidance of:
Prof. Suman Kumar Bedajna
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to take the opportunity to thank Prof. Gour Banerjee, Principal,
The Heritage Academy, for allowing us to form a group of three/four students
and for providing us with all the necessary facilities to make our project, a work
of worth.
We are thankful to Mr. Suman Kumar Bedajna, Assistant Professor, The
Heritage Academy, our project guide for constantly supporting and guiding us
and for giving us valuable insights. His guidance and his words of encouragement
motivated us to achieve our goals and the impetus to excel.
We would like to thank Ms. Sangita Ghosh, Assistant Professor, Project
Coordinator, final semester, BBA Department for her overall guidance.
We would also like to thank all the other faculty members at The Heritage
Academy for paying a pivotal rule during the development of the project. Last
but not the least, we thank all our friends for their cooperation and encouragement
that they have bestowed on us.
1. Amisha Shaw 21305017058
2. Yashasvi Singh 21305017001
3. Medha Bhaskar 21305017042
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DECLARATION
We solemnly state that the project report and entitled “The Role of Green
Marketing and its effect on Consumers” has been prepared by us as a part of
partial fulfilment of the requirement for the reward of the degree BBA (H) of the
Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (formerly
known as West Bengal University of Technology). We also state that the project
was arranged during the months of March to May of the ongoing year, and is an
outcome of our effort and knowledge absorbed at THE HERITAGE ACADEMY,
KOLKATA over the past three years.
We assure you that it has not been submitted to any place or institute or used for
any other purpose.
-------------------------------
AMISHA SHAW
-----------------------------------
YASHASVI SINGH
-------------------------------------
MEDHA BHASKAR
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
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TABLE OF CONTENT
S.NO. CONTENTS P. NO.
1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1
2 DECLARATION 2
3 CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION 4 – 6
4 CHAPTER-2: WHAT IS A “GREEN PRODUCT”
EXAMPLES OF GREEN MARKETING
7 – 9
5 CHAPTER-3: LITERATURE REVIEW 10 – 15
6 CHAPTER-4: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 16
7 CHAPTER-5: CHALLENGES IN GREEN MARKETING 17 – 18
8 CHAPTER-6: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19 – 21
9 CHAPTER-7: DATA ANALYSIS AND
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
22 – 35
10 CHAPTER-8: FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY 36 – 38
11 CHAPTER-9: RECOMMENDATIONS 39 – 41
12 CHAPTER-10: CONCLUSION 41 – 42
13 ANNEXURE-1: BIBLIOGRAPHY 43
14 ANNEXURE-2: QUESTIONNAIRE 44 - 49
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CHAPTER – 1
INTRODUCTION
Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and services based on
their environmental benefits. And green consumer refers to a customer who
buys things that have been produced in a way that protects the natural
environment. Green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities including
product modifications, changes to the production, process, packing changes, as
well as modifying advertising.
People have busy schedules and because of which it is hard for them to think or
to do for their environment even if they want to. Therefore, going green is a
great opportunity for them in order to satisfy their needs as well as contribute to
the sustainability of the environment.
A significant economic benefit of going green is that it helps lower costs and
save money. Use of renewable energy helps reduce energy consumption which
in turn helps save money used on electricity bills. The company’s aim of going
green is to reduce pollution, resource consumption and eliminate waste. It
maintains sustainable earth by making profit as well.
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One recent report revealed that certain categories of products with sustainability
claim showed twice the growth of their traditional counterparts. In one recent
survey 65% said they want to buy purpose driven brands that advocate
sustainability, yet only 26% actually do so. The reasons may be unavailability,
awareness, affordability, lack of faith etc. Therefore, it is the responsibility of
the company to expand its marketing and make their products feasible to the
consumers at the affordable price and also protect them from green washing so
that they can trust the brand and also satisfy their needs by contributing to the
environment.
Today, more and more companies are creating products that help us live a green
lifestyle. Everything from cars, light bulbs, utensils, straws, cleaners, mattresses,
and clothing is created with environmental preservation in mind. These products
help us conserve water, energy and precious natural resources while also helping
to curb pollution. The convenience these products provide make it easier than
ever to live sustainably.
However, many of us may be wondering why this practice is so important?
Better Quality of Life
 Healthier Environment: Statistics from the World Health Organization
report that 13 million deaths annually and almost a quarter of all diseases
worldwide are due to environmental causes that could be avoided or
prevented.
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 Healthier Foods: When we choose to make more eco-friendly food
choices such as buying local, organic, and seasonal foods, we are
supporting sustainable farming methods that protect our planet.
 Save Money: Conserving water and energy will not only help us save
natural resources, but it will also help us save money.
It is more important than ever to adopt a green lifestyle. These small changes
can help reduce the pollution that threatens our health and our environment, while
also protecting our natural resources. Fortunately, it has never been easier to live
a sustainable lifestyle.
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CHAPTER – 2
WHAT IS A “GREEN PRODUCT”?
The products which are manufactured through green technology causing no
environmental hazards are called ‘green products’. Green products can also be
described as those products which strive to protect or enhance the natural
environment by conserving resources or energy and reducing or eliminating use
of toxic agents, pollution and waste.
Characteristics of Green Products
The green products can also be defined by following measures:
 Products which are originally grown.
 Products which are reusable, recyclable and biodegradable.
 Products which contains natural ingredients.
 Products containing non-toxic chemicals and recycled contents.
 Products which do not harm or pollute the environment.
 Products that have eco-friendly packaging i.e. reusable, refillable
containers etc.
 Products that are not tested on animals.
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EXAMPLES OF GREEN MARKETING
Green marketing emphases on production of eco-friendly products and
encourages consumers to use those products. Additionally, the development of
green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand
their products into separate line.
There are many companies that have succeeded so far in their green marketing
strategies which are IKEA, Panasonic, Nike, Unilever etc. Then there are Indian
companies that have also succeeded in reducing cost of production and improving
the profit by green marketing, examples: WIPRO, Infosys, Delhi CNG etc.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
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The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
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CHAPTER – 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed a great importance in the
modern market. Green marketing came into prominence within the late 1980s and
early 1990s.
The evolution of green marketing has been observed over the past few years and
has been classified into three stages based on its evolution:
First stage is that of late 1980s when the idea itself of green marketing first
marked its presence. At this time the basic belief of green marketing started to
unfold among people and discussions took place in industrial sector to judge its
relevance. To gain good customer response and increase sales, many marketers
began to cultivate this newly discovered notion of green marketing into their
practices. But it was recorded that despite the growing concern towards
environmental problems, such products were not able to experience success
among consumers as they were not up to their expectations.
The second stage is about the time when a strong negative reaction by a large
number of consumers was measured. It happened because of the marketers’
misleading claims about the environmental benefits, service or technology their
products offered thus making them appear to be more environmentally friendly
than it really was. This caused the consumers to form a belief about green
marketing that these marketers only believed in selfish motives and did nothing
towards the benefit of the environment. This period lead to the failure of the
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concept of green marketing due to certain practices or methods opted by
marketers such as Green selling which means faulty claims of existing products
to be green to increase sales and profits. Green harvesting is another such practice
which involves opting for green methods only when it is convenient because of
low costs.
Third stage is all about the aftermath and deviations that occurred in the second
stage. Thus, new government regulations, strict policies and enforcement on false
or deceptive claims were introduced along with new and modern technologies.
The concept of green marketing has evolved over the years which has enabled re-
marketing and packaging of existing products. A study conducted by Peter
Kangis (1992), proposes that the challenges both for consumers and for
marketing specialists, raised by the concept of green marketing, are due to several
issues such as: The lack of a proper definition for green marketing, the absence
of a clear understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in matters affecting the
environment. Another study conducted by Vasanthkumar N. Bhat (1993)
suggests that any company venturing out with a green marketing program must
start with green design since the inputs, manufacturing processes, distribution,
use and disposal methods are decided during the design stage. This study
emphasised on source reduction and waste management strategies leading to cut
down wastes, and presented a method to compare green design alternatives which
can provide designers with guidance to select the best designs. The product must
meet several specific criteria. In conclusion, the top management needs to come
up with an alternative solution to improve the green design in their organizations.
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Researches conducted states that applying technologies that are sustainable would
result in a large amount of investment at the beginning which would require the
buyers to pay a higher price. But gradually the costs would reduce because of the
continuous usage of products that are green and technologies which are
productive. Thus, the researchers try to explain how this costly method is
surprisingly more effective when we talk about long period given that the
customers agree to pay for the extra price at the beginning. The future savings on
such methods and its efficiency makes it a sound investment for consumers.
Because of this large amount as a premium at early stages, this idea however is
efficient in the long run, making it difficult to implement in a developing country
such as India.
According to Hawken (Ecology of Commerce, 1995) there are three issues
which are faced by the businesses:
1. What it takes,
2. What it makes,
3. And what it wastes.
1. What it takes means using materials from the environment, i.e. its ecosystem,
which can be done through mining, extracting, hunting, cutting and other
means.
2. What it makes refers to the process of conversion and transformation of the
products of commerce, goods and services that are derived from the natural
environment.
3. What it wastes represents eco-costs arising from pollution, garbage and
destruction of natural systems, which are the consequences of taking and
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making processes. And these costs are not internalized in most of the
accounting systems so far.
People need to realise that these green methods other than on just the costs have
a large impact on environment too and which is why the government needs to
work on finding a solution and ways to tackle this problem for our country. There
are many people that as customers are willing to purchase products that are
environment friendly despite of its high costs, so organisations need to consider
a varied range of products for its different range of customer preferences. The
past research findings also tell us how large number of respondents chose green
lifestyle as moderately important and very important for their product preference
keeping in mind what would benefit the environment. Other contributing factors
for consumer’s preference for environment friendly products are high availability
and subsidy by government on such products making it affordable to purchase.
According to Hallin (1995) and McCarty and Shrum (2001), there is an
immense desire in people engaged in environmental behaviour to solve the
environmental problem, to become role models and a belief that they can help to
preserve the environment. However, a study by Laroche et al. (2002) shows that
the consumer’s indications of positive attitude towards environmental issues do
not necessarily lead to actual environmentally friendly purchasing behaviour. As
the majority of consumers do not purchase products based on the environmental
concern alone instead, they buy products based on the attributes and features or
other qualities of the products. It is also noticed through these surveys and
researches that certain factors like absence of proper knowledge, inconvenience
and shortage of time stopped the respondents from adapting green lifestyle.
Consumer buying behaviour as understood by the findings were dependent on
many factors such as varying consumer values, environmental factors and most
importantly demographic factors which are education, monthly income, age and
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
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gender. Some other factors such as awareness of problems concerning
environment, price and quality of the product, availability of alternative products
and consumers perception towards the manufacturing companies of such products
contribute towards the external factors that influence their buying behaviour.
In today’s world, the biggest challenge faced by the businesses and consumers is
– to protect and preserve the earth’s resources and the environment. Therefore,
the consumers need to stand by their words and actually contribute towards the
purchasing of eco-friendly products.
Another study by John Grant (2008) aims at finding out the future of green
marketing and look at how companies obtain a greener strategy to implement in
the future. According to Laroche, Bergeron and Barbaro-Forleo, (2001), the
producers and consumers have become highly concerned towards the natural
environment and are realizing the fact that their production and consumption
behaviour of purchasing will have direct impact on the environment. This
awareness is in correspondence to the belief that the world’s supply of natural
resources is finite and the ecological balance of the environment may be at a
critical disruption stage (Hayes, 1990). In addition, the great majority of our
environmental problems – pollution, excess garbage, waste of energy and
material etc. are the result of consumer’s consumptive behaviours.
With the time, the consumers will focus more on purchasing the green products
and this will lead to the increase in the demand of eco-friendly products which
will make firms, business owners, corporations focus on green marketing more
to withstand the competition; else those who do not meet the requirements of
customers will gradually go down and lose business. People with traditional
outlook as well as those who are health conscious come in the majority of green
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product consumers. Then there are few people who prefer to buy green products
considering few factors in mind: Eco labelling, green washing and so on while
the other group of people who do not have any knowledge about the product but
solely buys them based on their public interest, advertisements, etc. All these
attempts at critical observation from various environmental organisations helped
in regaining confidence in the green products in the 2000s.
In the 21st
century sustainable development and green marketing became the
theme and gave way to two tendencies that are believed to be certain to happen
and almost unavoidable. The first one is that the idea of doing business the eco -
friendly way would be rooted and considered conventional. And the second idea
was that developed nations would promote green marketing for their business to
gain profits and market expansion which would lead to developing countries also
adapting these methods in the near future.
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CHAPTER – 4
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 To understand the level of awareness regarding green marketing among
consumers.
 To understand the buying behaviour of consumers related to green
marketing.
 To eliminate the concept of waste.
 To explore the various factors which influence the green purchasing
behaviour of the Indian consumer
 To understand the effectiveness of green marketing to the consumers on
how they can benefit from this and at the same time can also contribute to
the environment.
 The study also describes the main challenges and problems while
implementing the Green marketing techniques.
Hence, it is rightly said that health is wealth so, staying healthy is also one
of the major aims of the green marketing as it always makes the products
which has least or no side – effects.
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CHAPTER – 5
CHALLENGES IN GREEN MARKETING
 Need for standardization of the products:
It has been found that very less proportionate of the marketing message from
“Green” campaigns is entirely true to requisite standard and reflects the
authenticity which they claim. There is no specific standardization to authenticate
these claims. Currently, there is no proper standardization to certify a product as
organic. Until or unless some regulatory bodies are involved in providing the
certifications, which can be helpful to verify the authenticity of the product’s
characteristics. A standard quality control board needs to be in place for such
labelling and licensing.
 New Concept:
The consumers of different rural and urban hierarchy in India are gradually
becoming more aware of the merits of green products. But it is still a new concept
or notion for the masses. Therefore, it has become important to educate the
consumers about the environmental threats. The new green movements need to
reach the masses which will be a time-consuming process. Indian ayurvedic
heritage can help to boost up the green marketing as Indian consumers do
appreciate the importance of using natural and herbal beauty products. The Indian
consumers have an extensive exposure to healthy living life style such as: yoga
and natural food consuming habits which can be helpful to accept the green
products and the green marketing thoroughly.
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 Patience and Perseverance:
It has been observed that the investors and corporate need to view the
environment as a major long-term investment opportunity. Since, green
marketing is a new concept and idea, the marketers need to understand and look
at the long-term benefits which require a lot of patience to get the desired results.
 Avoiding Green Myopia:
The first principle of green marketing is focusing on customer benefits i.e. the
primary reason why consumers buy certain goods and services in the first place.
Do this right, and motivate the consumers to buy particular brands or even pay a
premium for a ‘greener’ surrogative products. It is not going to help if a product
is produced which is absolutely green in various aspects but does not pass the
customer satisfaction criteria, and this will lead to ‘green myopia’. Also, if the
green products are highly priced then, as a result, it will reduce the market
acceptability.
Some other challenges associated with Green Marketing are:
 Green products which require renewable and recyclable material, which is
costly.
 Require a modern technology, which requires huge investment in Research
& Development.
 In order to make people aware about the ‘Concept of Green Marketing’, a
systematic advocacy and campaign programs are required, so that the
people may be willing to pay a premium for green products.
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CHAPTER – 6
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem by
evaluating the data and giving the conclusion. This may be understood as a
science how research is done scientifically. When we talk about research
methodology, we not only talk about the research methods but also consider the
logic behind the methods we use within the context of our research study and
explain why we are using a particular or specific method or technique and why
we are not using others.
The major steps involved in research process are:
 Formulating the research problem.
 Choice of research design.
 Sources of data.
 Processing and analysing the data.
 Formulating the research problem:
The formulation of a general topic into a selected research problem
constitutes the primary step of specific enquiry.
 Unit of analysis: Consumers of different age groups.
 Characteristics of interest: Awareness of Green Marketing.
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 Choice of research design:
Every project requires an action plan and method for conducting a study.
This project uses data from quantitative method approach.
 Sources of data:
The data includes both primary and secondary data:
 Primary Data:
The primary data are the data which are collected afresh and for the
first time, which happen to be original in character. The primary data
was collected by means of preparing questionnaire and getting it
filled by selected sample size of selected age groups. These
questionnaires will help in drawing conclusions about the case.
 Secondary Data:
The secondary data are those data that are already available i.e.
which have already been collected and analysed by someone else.
While performing the research, the secondary data is utilized by
looking into various other sources. The secondary data includes data
collected from various journals, books, websites and newspaper.
 Processing and analysing the data:
The data analysis has been done in an organised manner in a correct form.
Usage of current information & graph is made in the project so as to make
it easier and appropriate to understand.
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SAMPLE SIZE
The project report is usually made by collecting majority of the data from the
primary sources like: Interviews of the targeted consumers, surveys and
questionnaires. However, due to the COVID 19, it was not possible to collect
data by taking interviews of the people and by going to the sites. Therefore, this
project utilized most of its data by preparing questionnaires and taking surveys
online and using the secondary sources.
A Random sampling strategy was carried out to get the required data for the
project report. The primary data was collected by the means of questionnaire for
the survey targeting 100 people to fill up the survey questions. Out of the 100
people, only 85 people responded to the survey. The collected data was then
sorted and analysed to make the graphical representation of the project.
The survey conducted mainly focused on determining the role of Green
Marketing and its impact on consumer purchase intention.
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CHAPTER – 7
DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
1) What is the status of people’s awareness of Green marketing?
Figure 1: Number of people being aware of Green Marketing
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 43 people are aware of green
marketing, 29 people know a little about green marketing and 13 people do not
know anything about green marketing.
50.58%
15.29%
34.11%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
YES NO A LITTLE
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2) What is the extent of knowledge people have regarding the Green
Lifestyle?
Figure 2: Opinion of people regarding Green lifestyle
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out
of which 24 of them feel green products are hard to find in stores in order to
choose a green lifestyle, 16 people felt their cost of living affects their purchase
of green products, 11 people have an opinion that green lifestyle is expensive, 10
people think that no product is entirely green, so there is no difference as such
between a normal lifestyle and a green lifestyle, 6 people think that green products
lack technology that fails to compete with other products and hence green
lifestyle becomes regressive and other 17 people have no information or
knowledge about the green lifestyle.
28.57%
19.04%
13.09%
11.90%
7.14%
20.23%
Hard to find it in stores
Cost of living affects my
purchase of green products
Expensive
No product is entirely
green, so what's the point!
Lack of technology
Have no information about
it
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3) What is the environmental concern people most care about?
Figure 3: People’s knowledge about environmental concerns
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out
of which 6 people say they have most knowledge about pollution from pesticides
among the given four concerns, 45 people chose Global warming as the most
known concern and 23 people have more knowledge about recycling products
and the rest 10 know most about non-biodegradable packaging.
0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00%
Pollution from pesticides
Global Warming
Recycling products
Non-biodegradable packaging
7.14%
53.57%
27.38%
11.90%
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4) What are the green ways people choose to lessen harmful effects on the
environment?
Figure 4: Different environment friendly actions people opt for conservation
Interpretation:
A total of 84 people responded out of 85 people for this question in which 17
people said they were aware of Recycling process and also practice it, 50 people
responded that they conserve water and energy by taking part in activities such
as closing taps and switching off lights, rest 17 people said to conserve
environment they drive less and walk more. None of the respondents considered
themselves as non-environment friendly.
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
Recycle(aware
and take part
in)
Conserve water
and energy
Drive less, walk
more
Do not consider
myself
environment
friendly
20.23%
59.52%
20.23%
0%
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5) What is the frequency of people buying green products within a period
of 6 months?
Figure 5: Frequency of people buying Green products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out
of which 14 people said they buy green products every week once or more often,
37 people said they buy green products at least once a month and the rest 33 of
them said they buy green products less than once a month in a total period of 6
months.
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
35.00%
40.00%
45.00%
Once a week or
more often
At least once a
month
Less than once a
month
16.66% 44.04% 39.28%
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6) What is the preference of category while buying a product from the
market?
Figure 6: Preference of buying products category wise
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 54 people prefer to buy
products that are eco-friendly, 20 people ought to buy products that are branded,
11 people out of them have no preference while buying products from the market
and none of them opted to buy products that are non eco-friendly in nature.
63.52%
0%
23.52%
12.94%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
Eco-friendly Non eco-friendlyBranded products No preference
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7) Do you think environment friendly products are available in the
market?
Figure 7: Availability of green products in the market
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 12 people said that the green
products are easily available in the market, 55 people said that green products are
rarely available in the market, 3 people responded that the green products are not
available in the market and the rest 15 people cannot comment on the availability
of green products in the market.
14.10%
64.70%
3.60%
17.60% Easily available
Rarely available
Not available
Can't say
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8) Are green products effective in nature when compared to non-green
products?
Figure 8: Opinion of people on effectiveness of green products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents who commented on the effectiveness of
green products when compared to other products. A total of 70 people said they
find green products to be effective, 1 person said that the green products do not
feel effective and the rest 14 of them did not wish to comment on the effectiveness
of the green products.
0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00%
Effective
Not effective
Can't say
82.35%
1.17%
16.47%
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9) Do you think green products have affordable prices?
Figure 9: Opinion of people on affordability of green products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 33 people feel that green
products are expensive, 34 people feel green products are affordable, 1 person
feels green products are cheap in terms of price value and the rest 17 people did
not wish to comment on affordability of green products in terms of their price
value.
38.82% 40%
1.17%
20%
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
35.00%
40.00%
45.00%
Expensive Affordable Cheap Can't say
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10) What would be the main reason to permanently switch to eco-friendly
products?
Figure 10: Primary reason to switch to eco-friendly products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 5 of them chose low price as
the reason to switch to green products, 10 of them chose availability of such
products as the reason to switch to eco-friendly products, 19 people would switch
to green products if they are more effective when compared to other products and
the rest 51 people mentioned the primary reason to switch to eco-friendly
products is that they do not cause any harm and are good for the environment.
5.88%
11.76%
22.35%
60%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
Low price Availability It's effectiveness Good for the
environment
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11) Would you still support environment friendly activities if it becomes
expensive?
Figure 11: Opinion of people on supporting green products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents who were asked to give their opinion
whether they would continue to use green products if environment friendly
features increase the product’s price and 24 of them said yes, they would. 13
people said no and would discontinue their services if the prices increase and the
rest 48 of them were unsure of their decision and chose to say maybe.
0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00%
Yes
No
Maybe
28.23%
15.29%
56.47%
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 33
12) What would be the main reason to pay more for green products?
Figure 12: Reasons to pay more for green products
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 18 of them listed the main
reason to be willing to pay more would be the belief that green products enhance
quality of life, 29 of them chose environment protection responsibility as the
reason, 23 people chose future concerns regarding climate change as their reason
to be willing to pay more for green products, 3 people opted for potential increase
of product value/quality as their reason, 6 people chose a high level of satisfaction
from the product to be their primary reason and the rest 6 chose not to pay more
if such a situation arises in reference to the previous question.
21.17%
34.11%
27.05%
3.52%
7.05% 7.05%
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
35.00%
40.00%
Belief that
green products
enhance
quality of life
Environment
protection
responsibility
Future
concerns
regarding
climate change
Potential
increase of
product
value/quality
Gives you a
high level of
satisfaction
N/A
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 34
13) Which situation would drive you the most towards green lifestyle?
Figure 13: Situations that drive towards green lifestyle
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question of
which 40 of them want to preserve Earth and this reason would drive them most
towards a green lifestyle, 18 of them would choose a green lifestyle because they
like the eco-friendly products, 2 of them just feel trendy or fashionable while
purchasing eco-friendly products, 11 people buy green products due to their lower
prices because of subsidy provided by government on such products and the rest
13 of them list their reason to start a green lifestyle would be when they start to
earn well.
47.05%
21.42%2.38%
13.09%
15.47%
I want to preserve the
Earth
I just like eco-friendly
products
I feel trendy/fashionable
when i purchase eco-
friendly products
Subsidy on green products
by government(lower
prices)
When I start earning
well(6 figure salary)
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 35
14) Would you continue your services from a company that supports non
environment friendly actions?
Figure 14: Opinion of people on continuation of services
Interpretation:
There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question, 9 of
them said they would continue their services because it does not bother them if
the company supports non-environment friendly actions. A total of 38 people said
they would definitely discontinue their services, 34 people were not sure about
their opinion and said they would rather not continue their services after knowing
but might do due to some reasons. The rest 3 of them did not wish to list their
decision when such a situation will occur.
10.71%
45.23%
40.47%
3.57% Yes, it does not bothers
me
No, definitely not
Would rather not, but
might
Others
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 36
CHAPTER – 8
FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY
 According to the survey report of the 85 people, most people were aware
of green marketing, some people had little idea and few people had no idea
about it.
 The respondents do not presume green life style because of the following
reasons: Green products being expensive, hard to find in stores and also,
they think that there will be no difference between living green and using
normal products as it would only affect their cost of living and not bring
any other difference.
 The data that we collected from the survey, shows that the people are
concerned most about the global warming issue, after that recycling
products, non–biodegradable packaging and least concerned about the
pollution from pesticides.
 People would like to contribute to the environment by activities such as:
conserving water and energy after that they prefer to recycle, drive less and
walk more in order to protect the environment.
 Through the data of the survey, we found that the frequency of people
buying green products in a period of six months is mostly low, only a few
people buy often like every week or once a month.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 37
 Most people have the opinion that green products are rarely available in
their area, and only few people can acquire such products easily.
 According to the survey, most of the people preferred green or eco- friendly
products after that they look for branded products and the rest few people
do not have any such preference while buying products from the market.
 Most people would discontinue buying products from companies who
supports non–friendly actions, if they are aware of such activities but some
people are not sure about it and have an opinion that they might continue
due to some reasons like absence of a desired replacement in terms of
affordability and availability.
 In terms of effectiveness of green products that are available in the market,
most people favour it and find it to be up to their expectations and only a
few people were unsure and had no idea about it.
 According to the survey reports data, there was a minor difference between
the number of people who considered green products expensive and those
who find it affordable. Few people think it is cheap in terms of price value.
 The consumers primary reason to switch to green products would be for
the benefit of the environment, after that the increase in product's
effectiveness, availability and low price affects them the most. It shows
they are concerned more about the environment.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 38
 We also found that due to environment friendly factors if there is a hike in
price of the green products, it may not ensure the continuity of buying those
products by most of the consumers but some consumers would still buy
and few would switch to lower priced products.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 39
CHAPTER – 9
RECOMMENDATIONS
 The consumers should be made aware about the benefits of the green products
with the help of campaigns etc. so that, they can contribute to the sustainability
of the environment.
 Since, the buying behaviour of the consumers towards the green products is
low. Therefore, the green products should be made easily available and
affordable in order to increase their consumption.
 Since, most of the people are concerned about the environment, especially
global warming issues, it should be asserted that the green products are helpful
in reducing these issues.
 According to the preference of the consumers, eco- friendly products is their
first choice and, after that they look for the branded products. So, if there will
be branded products that are green, then it would be beneficial for both the
parties.
 There should be more variations of the green products in the market, so that
the consumers can have variety of options to choose and can also contribute
to the environment.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 40
 The green products should be made available at an affordable price, so that
the consumers can buy it and use them and can easily switch to the green
lifestyle.
 Most of the people are aware about the effectiveness of the green products, so
in order to increase their consumption in the market, the marketers should
specifically target those customers to increase their sale of the green products
in the market.
 According to the data of the survey report, most of the consumers cannot
ensure their buying behaviour of the green products in case of price hike, they
demand for the stability of prices.
 Companies should not support Non-environmental actions, as people perceive
it in negative way and would deny to buy products from them.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 41
CHAPTER – 10
CONCLUSION
The Role of Green Marketing help consumers to understand about the product’s
green benefits and a company’s commitment towards the environment. Now, this
is the right time to select Green Marketing globally, as due to the current scenarios
of the world, green marketing could play a major role in contributing to the
sustainability of the environment. It is also an important avenue in which
marketers have the responsibility to make the consumers understand the need for
and benefits of green products as compared to non-green products. As the demand
for green products undoubtedly exists, Green Marketing provides an opportunity
to the companies to increase their market- share by introducing eco-friendly
products which does not harm the environment. From the business point of view,
green marketing is helpful in reducing the production and operating costs,
specifically by lowering energy usage which is beneficial for the business.
Moreover, the environmentally sensitive companies are more attractive to
potential employees who seek to become part of a positive corporate culture.
People are aware about the effectiveness of the green products still the production
and consumption is low, because of the low availability, high prices and their
reluctant to change their existing products. The companies have to entice
consumers by satisfying their needs. Here, the imperative thing to ponder is that
to understand the customer buying behaviour and work on their needs.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 42
The customers are concerned about the environment and the lethal effects of
using non- biodegradable materials. It is not an encumbrance for them to do things
that benefits the environment. Nowadays, more and more companies are going
green, in this way they can also give opportunity to the people to contribute to the
environment. As protection of environment is a major concern, it’s good and bad
effects should be reiterate.
Therefore, it has a become a solemn issue for the consumers as well as the
companies to take decision according to the well being of the environment. As it
may affect us ultimately. If the environment degradation continues, it will lead to
huge disasters. The government should also think to increase and strict their
guidelines regarding the environment.
Hence, the green products should be economically viable to the consumers and
should be easily available to increase the market demand. The challenges
associated with ‘Green Marketing’ should be considered and kept in view to
tackle those obstacles and make the green products cost effective for both
consumers and producers. So, that the green marketing can make its own place in
the market which would be a huge step towards the future as it benefits all of us.
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 43
ANNEXURE - 1
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 https://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/green-marketing.asp
 https://www.smartinsights.com/online-brand-strategy/brand-
positioning/sustainable-marketing-how-should-you-use-it/
 https://www.virgin.com/virgin-unite/10-global-companies-are-
environmentally-friendly
 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Assc_Prof_Dr_Rashad_Yazdanifa
rd/publication/268502673_The_impact_of_Green_Marketing_on_Cust
omer_satisfaction_and_Environmental_safety/links/0912f50e642f52da
0b000000/The-impact-of-Green-Marketing-on-Customer-satisfaction-
and-Environmental-safety.pdf
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 44
ANNEXURE - 2
QUESTIONNAIRE
AWARENESS ON GREEN MARKETING
1.What is your gender?
 Male
 Female
 Other
2.What is your Age? ______________
3.What is the highest level of education you have completed?
 Less than a high school diploma
 High school degree or equivalent
 Bachelor's degree
 Master's degree or Doctorate
 Other: ________
4.Your current occupation?
 Student
 Employed
 Unemployed
 Self employed
 Retired
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 45
QUESTIONNAIRE :-
Q.1 Are you aware of Green products and Green Marketing in general?
 Yes
 No
 A little
Q.2 To my mind Green Lifestyle is:
 Have no information about it
 Hard to find in stores
 Expensive
 Cost of living affects my purchase of green products
 Lack of technology
 No product is entirely green. So, what's the point!
Q.3 I have knowledge about:
 Pollution from pesticides
 Global Warming
 Recycling products
 Non-biodegradable packaging
Q.4 What environment friendly activities do you participate in?
 Recycle (aware and take part in)
 Conserve water and energy (turn off lights, don't let tap run)
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 46
 Drive less, walk more
 Do not consider myself environment friendly
 Other:
Q.5 How many times have you bought eco-friendly products in past 6
months?
 Once a week or more often
 At least once a month
 Less than once a month
Please mention the product purchased (electronics, healthcare, cosmetics, etc)
__________________
Q.6 What is your preference of buying products?
 Eco-friendly
 Non eco-friendly
 Branded products
 No preference
Q.7 What do you think about the green products availability in the market?
 Easily available
 Rarely available
 Not available
 Can't say
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 47
Q.8 What is your opinion about the effectiveness of the green products?
 Effective
 Not effective
 Can't say
Q.9 What do you think about the green products in terms of their price?
 Expensive
 Affordable
 Cheap
 Can't say
Q.10 If you decide to switch to only eco-friendly products what would be the
reason?
 Low price
 Availability
 It's effectiveness
 Good for the environment
Q.11 If environment friendly features increase the price of a product, would
you be willing to pay more?
 Yes
 No
 Maybe
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 48
Q.12 What is the main reason you are willing to pay more for green
marketing products?
 Belief that green products enhance quality of life
 Environment protection responsibility
 Future concerns regarding climate change/global warming
 Potential increase of product value/quality
 Gives you a high level of satisfaction
 N/A
Q.13 In which of the following situations are you likely to adapt more
towards green products:
 I want to preserve the Earth
 I just like eco-friendly products
 I feel trendy/fashionable when I purchase eco-friendly products
 Subsidy on green products by government thus bringing them within my
budget
 When I start earning well (six figure salary)
 Other:
Q.14 Would you continue to buy from a company if you found out it
practiced non-environment friendly actions?
The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers
Page | 49
 Yes, it does not bother me
 No, definitely not
 Would rather not, but might
 Others

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The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers

  • 1. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers BBA (H) Department (2017 – 2020) The Heritage Academy Submitted by: 1. Amisha Shaw 21305017058 2. Yashasvi Singh 21305017001 3. Medha Bhaskar 21305017042 Under the Guidance of: Prof. Suman Kumar Bedajna
  • 2. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to take the opportunity to thank Prof. Gour Banerjee, Principal, The Heritage Academy, for allowing us to form a group of three/four students and for providing us with all the necessary facilities to make our project, a work of worth. We are thankful to Mr. Suman Kumar Bedajna, Assistant Professor, The Heritage Academy, our project guide for constantly supporting and guiding us and for giving us valuable insights. His guidance and his words of encouragement motivated us to achieve our goals and the impetus to excel. We would like to thank Ms. Sangita Ghosh, Assistant Professor, Project Coordinator, final semester, BBA Department for her overall guidance. We would also like to thank all the other faculty members at The Heritage Academy for paying a pivotal rule during the development of the project. Last but not the least, we thank all our friends for their cooperation and encouragement that they have bestowed on us. 1. Amisha Shaw 21305017058 2. Yashasvi Singh 21305017001 3. Medha Bhaskar 21305017042
  • 3. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 2 DECLARATION We solemnly state that the project report and entitled “The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers” has been prepared by us as a part of partial fulfilment of the requirement for the reward of the degree BBA (H) of the Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (formerly known as West Bengal University of Technology). We also state that the project was arranged during the months of March to May of the ongoing year, and is an outcome of our effort and knowledge absorbed at THE HERITAGE ACADEMY, KOLKATA over the past three years. We assure you that it has not been submitted to any place or institute or used for any other purpose. ------------------------------- AMISHA SHAW ----------------------------------- YASHASVI SINGH ------------------------------------- MEDHA BHASKAR
  • 4. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 3 TABLE OF CONTENT S.NO. CONTENTS P. NO. 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1 2 DECLARATION 2 3 CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION 4 – 6 4 CHAPTER-2: WHAT IS A “GREEN PRODUCT” EXAMPLES OF GREEN MARKETING 7 – 9 5 CHAPTER-3: LITERATURE REVIEW 10 – 15 6 CHAPTER-4: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 16 7 CHAPTER-5: CHALLENGES IN GREEN MARKETING 17 – 18 8 CHAPTER-6: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19 – 21 9 CHAPTER-7: DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 22 – 35 10 CHAPTER-8: FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY 36 – 38 11 CHAPTER-9: RECOMMENDATIONS 39 – 41 12 CHAPTER-10: CONCLUSION 41 – 42 13 ANNEXURE-1: BIBLIOGRAPHY 43 14 ANNEXURE-2: QUESTIONNAIRE 44 - 49
  • 5. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 4 CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and services based on their environmental benefits. And green consumer refers to a customer who buys things that have been produced in a way that protects the natural environment. Green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities including product modifications, changes to the production, process, packing changes, as well as modifying advertising. People have busy schedules and because of which it is hard for them to think or to do for their environment even if they want to. Therefore, going green is a great opportunity for them in order to satisfy their needs as well as contribute to the sustainability of the environment. A significant economic benefit of going green is that it helps lower costs and save money. Use of renewable energy helps reduce energy consumption which in turn helps save money used on electricity bills. The company’s aim of going green is to reduce pollution, resource consumption and eliminate waste. It maintains sustainable earth by making profit as well.
  • 6. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 5 One recent report revealed that certain categories of products with sustainability claim showed twice the growth of their traditional counterparts. In one recent survey 65% said they want to buy purpose driven brands that advocate sustainability, yet only 26% actually do so. The reasons may be unavailability, awareness, affordability, lack of faith etc. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the company to expand its marketing and make their products feasible to the consumers at the affordable price and also protect them from green washing so that they can trust the brand and also satisfy their needs by contributing to the environment. Today, more and more companies are creating products that help us live a green lifestyle. Everything from cars, light bulbs, utensils, straws, cleaners, mattresses, and clothing is created with environmental preservation in mind. These products help us conserve water, energy and precious natural resources while also helping to curb pollution. The convenience these products provide make it easier than ever to live sustainably. However, many of us may be wondering why this practice is so important? Better Quality of Life  Healthier Environment: Statistics from the World Health Organization report that 13 million deaths annually and almost a quarter of all diseases worldwide are due to environmental causes that could be avoided or prevented.
  • 7. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 6  Healthier Foods: When we choose to make more eco-friendly food choices such as buying local, organic, and seasonal foods, we are supporting sustainable farming methods that protect our planet.  Save Money: Conserving water and energy will not only help us save natural resources, but it will also help us save money. It is more important than ever to adopt a green lifestyle. These small changes can help reduce the pollution that threatens our health and our environment, while also protecting our natural resources. Fortunately, it has never been easier to live a sustainable lifestyle.
  • 8. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 7 CHAPTER – 2 WHAT IS A “GREEN PRODUCT”? The products which are manufactured through green technology causing no environmental hazards are called ‘green products’. Green products can also be described as those products which strive to protect or enhance the natural environment by conserving resources or energy and reducing or eliminating use of toxic agents, pollution and waste. Characteristics of Green Products The green products can also be defined by following measures:  Products which are originally grown.  Products which are reusable, recyclable and biodegradable.  Products which contains natural ingredients.  Products containing non-toxic chemicals and recycled contents.  Products which do not harm or pollute the environment.  Products that have eco-friendly packaging i.e. reusable, refillable containers etc.  Products that are not tested on animals.
  • 9. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 8 EXAMPLES OF GREEN MARKETING Green marketing emphases on production of eco-friendly products and encourages consumers to use those products. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line. There are many companies that have succeeded so far in their green marketing strategies which are IKEA, Panasonic, Nike, Unilever etc. Then there are Indian companies that have also succeeded in reducing cost of production and improving the profit by green marketing, examples: WIPRO, Infosys, Delhi CNG etc.
  • 10. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 9
  • 11. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 10 CHAPTER – 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed a great importance in the modern market. Green marketing came into prominence within the late 1980s and early 1990s. The evolution of green marketing has been observed over the past few years and has been classified into three stages based on its evolution: First stage is that of late 1980s when the idea itself of green marketing first marked its presence. At this time the basic belief of green marketing started to unfold among people and discussions took place in industrial sector to judge its relevance. To gain good customer response and increase sales, many marketers began to cultivate this newly discovered notion of green marketing into their practices. But it was recorded that despite the growing concern towards environmental problems, such products were not able to experience success among consumers as they were not up to their expectations. The second stage is about the time when a strong negative reaction by a large number of consumers was measured. It happened because of the marketers’ misleading claims about the environmental benefits, service or technology their products offered thus making them appear to be more environmentally friendly than it really was. This caused the consumers to form a belief about green marketing that these marketers only believed in selfish motives and did nothing towards the benefit of the environment. This period lead to the failure of the
  • 12. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 11 concept of green marketing due to certain practices or methods opted by marketers such as Green selling which means faulty claims of existing products to be green to increase sales and profits. Green harvesting is another such practice which involves opting for green methods only when it is convenient because of low costs. Third stage is all about the aftermath and deviations that occurred in the second stage. Thus, new government regulations, strict policies and enforcement on false or deceptive claims were introduced along with new and modern technologies. The concept of green marketing has evolved over the years which has enabled re- marketing and packaging of existing products. A study conducted by Peter Kangis (1992), proposes that the challenges both for consumers and for marketing specialists, raised by the concept of green marketing, are due to several issues such as: The lack of a proper definition for green marketing, the absence of a clear understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in matters affecting the environment. Another study conducted by Vasanthkumar N. Bhat (1993) suggests that any company venturing out with a green marketing program must start with green design since the inputs, manufacturing processes, distribution, use and disposal methods are decided during the design stage. This study emphasised on source reduction and waste management strategies leading to cut down wastes, and presented a method to compare green design alternatives which can provide designers with guidance to select the best designs. The product must meet several specific criteria. In conclusion, the top management needs to come up with an alternative solution to improve the green design in their organizations.
  • 13. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 12 Researches conducted states that applying technologies that are sustainable would result in a large amount of investment at the beginning which would require the buyers to pay a higher price. But gradually the costs would reduce because of the continuous usage of products that are green and technologies which are productive. Thus, the researchers try to explain how this costly method is surprisingly more effective when we talk about long period given that the customers agree to pay for the extra price at the beginning. The future savings on such methods and its efficiency makes it a sound investment for consumers. Because of this large amount as a premium at early stages, this idea however is efficient in the long run, making it difficult to implement in a developing country such as India. According to Hawken (Ecology of Commerce, 1995) there are three issues which are faced by the businesses: 1. What it takes, 2. What it makes, 3. And what it wastes. 1. What it takes means using materials from the environment, i.e. its ecosystem, which can be done through mining, extracting, hunting, cutting and other means. 2. What it makes refers to the process of conversion and transformation of the products of commerce, goods and services that are derived from the natural environment. 3. What it wastes represents eco-costs arising from pollution, garbage and destruction of natural systems, which are the consequences of taking and
  • 14. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 13 making processes. And these costs are not internalized in most of the accounting systems so far. People need to realise that these green methods other than on just the costs have a large impact on environment too and which is why the government needs to work on finding a solution and ways to tackle this problem for our country. There are many people that as customers are willing to purchase products that are environment friendly despite of its high costs, so organisations need to consider a varied range of products for its different range of customer preferences. The past research findings also tell us how large number of respondents chose green lifestyle as moderately important and very important for their product preference keeping in mind what would benefit the environment. Other contributing factors for consumer’s preference for environment friendly products are high availability and subsidy by government on such products making it affordable to purchase. According to Hallin (1995) and McCarty and Shrum (2001), there is an immense desire in people engaged in environmental behaviour to solve the environmental problem, to become role models and a belief that they can help to preserve the environment. However, a study by Laroche et al. (2002) shows that the consumer’s indications of positive attitude towards environmental issues do not necessarily lead to actual environmentally friendly purchasing behaviour. As the majority of consumers do not purchase products based on the environmental concern alone instead, they buy products based on the attributes and features or other qualities of the products. It is also noticed through these surveys and researches that certain factors like absence of proper knowledge, inconvenience and shortage of time stopped the respondents from adapting green lifestyle. Consumer buying behaviour as understood by the findings were dependent on many factors such as varying consumer values, environmental factors and most importantly demographic factors which are education, monthly income, age and
  • 15. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 14 gender. Some other factors such as awareness of problems concerning environment, price and quality of the product, availability of alternative products and consumers perception towards the manufacturing companies of such products contribute towards the external factors that influence their buying behaviour. In today’s world, the biggest challenge faced by the businesses and consumers is – to protect and preserve the earth’s resources and the environment. Therefore, the consumers need to stand by their words and actually contribute towards the purchasing of eco-friendly products. Another study by John Grant (2008) aims at finding out the future of green marketing and look at how companies obtain a greener strategy to implement in the future. According to Laroche, Bergeron and Barbaro-Forleo, (2001), the producers and consumers have become highly concerned towards the natural environment and are realizing the fact that their production and consumption behaviour of purchasing will have direct impact on the environment. This awareness is in correspondence to the belief that the world’s supply of natural resources is finite and the ecological balance of the environment may be at a critical disruption stage (Hayes, 1990). In addition, the great majority of our environmental problems – pollution, excess garbage, waste of energy and material etc. are the result of consumer’s consumptive behaviours. With the time, the consumers will focus more on purchasing the green products and this will lead to the increase in the demand of eco-friendly products which will make firms, business owners, corporations focus on green marketing more to withstand the competition; else those who do not meet the requirements of customers will gradually go down and lose business. People with traditional outlook as well as those who are health conscious come in the majority of green
  • 16. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 15 product consumers. Then there are few people who prefer to buy green products considering few factors in mind: Eco labelling, green washing and so on while the other group of people who do not have any knowledge about the product but solely buys them based on their public interest, advertisements, etc. All these attempts at critical observation from various environmental organisations helped in regaining confidence in the green products in the 2000s. In the 21st century sustainable development and green marketing became the theme and gave way to two tendencies that are believed to be certain to happen and almost unavoidable. The first one is that the idea of doing business the eco - friendly way would be rooted and considered conventional. And the second idea was that developed nations would promote green marketing for their business to gain profits and market expansion which would lead to developing countries also adapting these methods in the near future.
  • 17. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 16 CHAPTER – 4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  To understand the level of awareness regarding green marketing among consumers.  To understand the buying behaviour of consumers related to green marketing.  To eliminate the concept of waste.  To explore the various factors which influence the green purchasing behaviour of the Indian consumer  To understand the effectiveness of green marketing to the consumers on how they can benefit from this and at the same time can also contribute to the environment.  The study also describes the main challenges and problems while implementing the Green marketing techniques. Hence, it is rightly said that health is wealth so, staying healthy is also one of the major aims of the green marketing as it always makes the products which has least or no side – effects.
  • 18. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 17 CHAPTER – 5 CHALLENGES IN GREEN MARKETING  Need for standardization of the products: It has been found that very less proportionate of the marketing message from “Green” campaigns is entirely true to requisite standard and reflects the authenticity which they claim. There is no specific standardization to authenticate these claims. Currently, there is no proper standardization to certify a product as organic. Until or unless some regulatory bodies are involved in providing the certifications, which can be helpful to verify the authenticity of the product’s characteristics. A standard quality control board needs to be in place for such labelling and licensing.  New Concept: The consumers of different rural and urban hierarchy in India are gradually becoming more aware of the merits of green products. But it is still a new concept or notion for the masses. Therefore, it has become important to educate the consumers about the environmental threats. The new green movements need to reach the masses which will be a time-consuming process. Indian ayurvedic heritage can help to boost up the green marketing as Indian consumers do appreciate the importance of using natural and herbal beauty products. The Indian consumers have an extensive exposure to healthy living life style such as: yoga and natural food consuming habits which can be helpful to accept the green products and the green marketing thoroughly.
  • 19. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 18  Patience and Perseverance: It has been observed that the investors and corporate need to view the environment as a major long-term investment opportunity. Since, green marketing is a new concept and idea, the marketers need to understand and look at the long-term benefits which require a lot of patience to get the desired results.  Avoiding Green Myopia: The first principle of green marketing is focusing on customer benefits i.e. the primary reason why consumers buy certain goods and services in the first place. Do this right, and motivate the consumers to buy particular brands or even pay a premium for a ‘greener’ surrogative products. It is not going to help if a product is produced which is absolutely green in various aspects but does not pass the customer satisfaction criteria, and this will lead to ‘green myopia’. Also, if the green products are highly priced then, as a result, it will reduce the market acceptability. Some other challenges associated with Green Marketing are:  Green products which require renewable and recyclable material, which is costly.  Require a modern technology, which requires huge investment in Research & Development.  In order to make people aware about the ‘Concept of Green Marketing’, a systematic advocacy and campaign programs are required, so that the people may be willing to pay a premium for green products.
  • 20. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 19 CHAPTER – 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem by evaluating the data and giving the conclusion. This may be understood as a science how research is done scientifically. When we talk about research methodology, we not only talk about the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use within the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular or specific method or technique and why we are not using others. The major steps involved in research process are:  Formulating the research problem.  Choice of research design.  Sources of data.  Processing and analysing the data.  Formulating the research problem: The formulation of a general topic into a selected research problem constitutes the primary step of specific enquiry.  Unit of analysis: Consumers of different age groups.  Characteristics of interest: Awareness of Green Marketing.
  • 21. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 20  Choice of research design: Every project requires an action plan and method for conducting a study. This project uses data from quantitative method approach.  Sources of data: The data includes both primary and secondary data:  Primary Data: The primary data are the data which are collected afresh and for the first time, which happen to be original in character. The primary data was collected by means of preparing questionnaire and getting it filled by selected sample size of selected age groups. These questionnaires will help in drawing conclusions about the case.  Secondary Data: The secondary data are those data that are already available i.e. which have already been collected and analysed by someone else. While performing the research, the secondary data is utilized by looking into various other sources. The secondary data includes data collected from various journals, books, websites and newspaper.  Processing and analysing the data: The data analysis has been done in an organised manner in a correct form. Usage of current information & graph is made in the project so as to make it easier and appropriate to understand.
  • 22. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 21 SAMPLE SIZE The project report is usually made by collecting majority of the data from the primary sources like: Interviews of the targeted consumers, surveys and questionnaires. However, due to the COVID 19, it was not possible to collect data by taking interviews of the people and by going to the sites. Therefore, this project utilized most of its data by preparing questionnaires and taking surveys online and using the secondary sources. A Random sampling strategy was carried out to get the required data for the project report. The primary data was collected by the means of questionnaire for the survey targeting 100 people to fill up the survey questions. Out of the 100 people, only 85 people responded to the survey. The collected data was then sorted and analysed to make the graphical representation of the project. The survey conducted mainly focused on determining the role of Green Marketing and its impact on consumer purchase intention.
  • 23. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 22 CHAPTER – 7 DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 1) What is the status of people’s awareness of Green marketing? Figure 1: Number of people being aware of Green Marketing Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 43 people are aware of green marketing, 29 people know a little about green marketing and 13 people do not know anything about green marketing. 50.58% 15.29% 34.11% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% YES NO A LITTLE
  • 24. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 23 2) What is the extent of knowledge people have regarding the Green Lifestyle? Figure 2: Opinion of people regarding Green lifestyle Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out of which 24 of them feel green products are hard to find in stores in order to choose a green lifestyle, 16 people felt their cost of living affects their purchase of green products, 11 people have an opinion that green lifestyle is expensive, 10 people think that no product is entirely green, so there is no difference as such between a normal lifestyle and a green lifestyle, 6 people think that green products lack technology that fails to compete with other products and hence green lifestyle becomes regressive and other 17 people have no information or knowledge about the green lifestyle. 28.57% 19.04% 13.09% 11.90% 7.14% 20.23% Hard to find it in stores Cost of living affects my purchase of green products Expensive No product is entirely green, so what's the point! Lack of technology Have no information about it
  • 25. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 24 3) What is the environmental concern people most care about? Figure 3: People’s knowledge about environmental concerns Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out of which 6 people say they have most knowledge about pollution from pesticides among the given four concerns, 45 people chose Global warming as the most known concern and 23 people have more knowledge about recycling products and the rest 10 know most about non-biodegradable packaging. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Pollution from pesticides Global Warming Recycling products Non-biodegradable packaging 7.14% 53.57% 27.38% 11.90%
  • 26. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 25 4) What are the green ways people choose to lessen harmful effects on the environment? Figure 4: Different environment friendly actions people opt for conservation Interpretation: A total of 84 people responded out of 85 people for this question in which 17 people said they were aware of Recycling process and also practice it, 50 people responded that they conserve water and energy by taking part in activities such as closing taps and switching off lights, rest 17 people said to conserve environment they drive less and walk more. None of the respondents considered themselves as non-environment friendly. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Recycle(aware and take part in) Conserve water and energy Drive less, walk more Do not consider myself environment friendly 20.23% 59.52% 20.23% 0%
  • 27. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 26 5) What is the frequency of people buying green products within a period of 6 months? Figure 5: Frequency of people buying Green products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question out of which 14 people said they buy green products every week once or more often, 37 people said they buy green products at least once a month and the rest 33 of them said they buy green products less than once a month in a total period of 6 months. 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% Once a week or more often At least once a month Less than once a month 16.66% 44.04% 39.28%
  • 28. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 27 6) What is the preference of category while buying a product from the market? Figure 6: Preference of buying products category wise Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 54 people prefer to buy products that are eco-friendly, 20 people ought to buy products that are branded, 11 people out of them have no preference while buying products from the market and none of them opted to buy products that are non eco-friendly in nature. 63.52% 0% 23.52% 12.94% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Eco-friendly Non eco-friendlyBranded products No preference
  • 29. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 28 7) Do you think environment friendly products are available in the market? Figure 7: Availability of green products in the market Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 12 people said that the green products are easily available in the market, 55 people said that green products are rarely available in the market, 3 people responded that the green products are not available in the market and the rest 15 people cannot comment on the availability of green products in the market. 14.10% 64.70% 3.60% 17.60% Easily available Rarely available Not available Can't say
  • 30. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 29 8) Are green products effective in nature when compared to non-green products? Figure 8: Opinion of people on effectiveness of green products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents who commented on the effectiveness of green products when compared to other products. A total of 70 people said they find green products to be effective, 1 person said that the green products do not feel effective and the rest 14 of them did not wish to comment on the effectiveness of the green products. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% Effective Not effective Can't say 82.35% 1.17% 16.47%
  • 31. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 30 9) Do you think green products have affordable prices? Figure 9: Opinion of people on affordability of green products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 33 people feel that green products are expensive, 34 people feel green products are affordable, 1 person feels green products are cheap in terms of price value and the rest 17 people did not wish to comment on affordability of green products in terms of their price value. 38.82% 40% 1.17% 20% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% Expensive Affordable Cheap Can't say
  • 32. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 31 10) What would be the main reason to permanently switch to eco-friendly products? Figure 10: Primary reason to switch to eco-friendly products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 5 of them chose low price as the reason to switch to green products, 10 of them chose availability of such products as the reason to switch to eco-friendly products, 19 people would switch to green products if they are more effective when compared to other products and the rest 51 people mentioned the primary reason to switch to eco-friendly products is that they do not cause any harm and are good for the environment. 5.88% 11.76% 22.35% 60% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Low price Availability It's effectiveness Good for the environment
  • 33. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 32 11) Would you still support environment friendly activities if it becomes expensive? Figure 11: Opinion of people on supporting green products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents who were asked to give their opinion whether they would continue to use green products if environment friendly features increase the product’s price and 24 of them said yes, they would. 13 people said no and would discontinue their services if the prices increase and the rest 48 of them were unsure of their decision and chose to say maybe. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Yes No Maybe 28.23% 15.29% 56.47%
  • 34. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 33 12) What would be the main reason to pay more for green products? Figure 12: Reasons to pay more for green products Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents out of which 18 of them listed the main reason to be willing to pay more would be the belief that green products enhance quality of life, 29 of them chose environment protection responsibility as the reason, 23 people chose future concerns regarding climate change as their reason to be willing to pay more for green products, 3 people opted for potential increase of product value/quality as their reason, 6 people chose a high level of satisfaction from the product to be their primary reason and the rest 6 chose not to pay more if such a situation arises in reference to the previous question. 21.17% 34.11% 27.05% 3.52% 7.05% 7.05% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% Belief that green products enhance quality of life Environment protection responsibility Future concerns regarding climate change Potential increase of product value/quality Gives you a high level of satisfaction N/A
  • 35. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 34 13) Which situation would drive you the most towards green lifestyle? Figure 13: Situations that drive towards green lifestyle Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question of which 40 of them want to preserve Earth and this reason would drive them most towards a green lifestyle, 18 of them would choose a green lifestyle because they like the eco-friendly products, 2 of them just feel trendy or fashionable while purchasing eco-friendly products, 11 people buy green products due to their lower prices because of subsidy provided by government on such products and the rest 13 of them list their reason to start a green lifestyle would be when they start to earn well. 47.05% 21.42%2.38% 13.09% 15.47% I want to preserve the Earth I just like eco-friendly products I feel trendy/fashionable when i purchase eco- friendly products Subsidy on green products by government(lower prices) When I start earning well(6 figure salary)
  • 36. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 35 14) Would you continue your services from a company that supports non environment friendly actions? Figure 14: Opinion of people on continuation of services Interpretation: There were a total of 85 respondents but only 84 responded to this question, 9 of them said they would continue their services because it does not bother them if the company supports non-environment friendly actions. A total of 38 people said they would definitely discontinue their services, 34 people were not sure about their opinion and said they would rather not continue their services after knowing but might do due to some reasons. The rest 3 of them did not wish to list their decision when such a situation will occur. 10.71% 45.23% 40.47% 3.57% Yes, it does not bothers me No, definitely not Would rather not, but might Others
  • 37. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 36 CHAPTER – 8 FINDINGS OF THE SURVEY  According to the survey report of the 85 people, most people were aware of green marketing, some people had little idea and few people had no idea about it.  The respondents do not presume green life style because of the following reasons: Green products being expensive, hard to find in stores and also, they think that there will be no difference between living green and using normal products as it would only affect their cost of living and not bring any other difference.  The data that we collected from the survey, shows that the people are concerned most about the global warming issue, after that recycling products, non–biodegradable packaging and least concerned about the pollution from pesticides.  People would like to contribute to the environment by activities such as: conserving water and energy after that they prefer to recycle, drive less and walk more in order to protect the environment.  Through the data of the survey, we found that the frequency of people buying green products in a period of six months is mostly low, only a few people buy often like every week or once a month.
  • 38. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 37  Most people have the opinion that green products are rarely available in their area, and only few people can acquire such products easily.  According to the survey, most of the people preferred green or eco- friendly products after that they look for branded products and the rest few people do not have any such preference while buying products from the market.  Most people would discontinue buying products from companies who supports non–friendly actions, if they are aware of such activities but some people are not sure about it and have an opinion that they might continue due to some reasons like absence of a desired replacement in terms of affordability and availability.  In terms of effectiveness of green products that are available in the market, most people favour it and find it to be up to their expectations and only a few people were unsure and had no idea about it.  According to the survey reports data, there was a minor difference between the number of people who considered green products expensive and those who find it affordable. Few people think it is cheap in terms of price value.  The consumers primary reason to switch to green products would be for the benefit of the environment, after that the increase in product's effectiveness, availability and low price affects them the most. It shows they are concerned more about the environment.
  • 39. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 38  We also found that due to environment friendly factors if there is a hike in price of the green products, it may not ensure the continuity of buying those products by most of the consumers but some consumers would still buy and few would switch to lower priced products.
  • 40. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 39 CHAPTER – 9 RECOMMENDATIONS  The consumers should be made aware about the benefits of the green products with the help of campaigns etc. so that, they can contribute to the sustainability of the environment.  Since, the buying behaviour of the consumers towards the green products is low. Therefore, the green products should be made easily available and affordable in order to increase their consumption.  Since, most of the people are concerned about the environment, especially global warming issues, it should be asserted that the green products are helpful in reducing these issues.  According to the preference of the consumers, eco- friendly products is their first choice and, after that they look for the branded products. So, if there will be branded products that are green, then it would be beneficial for both the parties.  There should be more variations of the green products in the market, so that the consumers can have variety of options to choose and can also contribute to the environment.
  • 41. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 40  The green products should be made available at an affordable price, so that the consumers can buy it and use them and can easily switch to the green lifestyle.  Most of the people are aware about the effectiveness of the green products, so in order to increase their consumption in the market, the marketers should specifically target those customers to increase their sale of the green products in the market.  According to the data of the survey report, most of the consumers cannot ensure their buying behaviour of the green products in case of price hike, they demand for the stability of prices.  Companies should not support Non-environmental actions, as people perceive it in negative way and would deny to buy products from them.
  • 42. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 41 CHAPTER – 10 CONCLUSION The Role of Green Marketing help consumers to understand about the product’s green benefits and a company’s commitment towards the environment. Now, this is the right time to select Green Marketing globally, as due to the current scenarios of the world, green marketing could play a major role in contributing to the sustainability of the environment. It is also an important avenue in which marketers have the responsibility to make the consumers understand the need for and benefits of green products as compared to non-green products. As the demand for green products undoubtedly exists, Green Marketing provides an opportunity to the companies to increase their market- share by introducing eco-friendly products which does not harm the environment. From the business point of view, green marketing is helpful in reducing the production and operating costs, specifically by lowering energy usage which is beneficial for the business. Moreover, the environmentally sensitive companies are more attractive to potential employees who seek to become part of a positive corporate culture. People are aware about the effectiveness of the green products still the production and consumption is low, because of the low availability, high prices and their reluctant to change their existing products. The companies have to entice consumers by satisfying their needs. Here, the imperative thing to ponder is that to understand the customer buying behaviour and work on their needs.
  • 43. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 42 The customers are concerned about the environment and the lethal effects of using non- biodegradable materials. It is not an encumbrance for them to do things that benefits the environment. Nowadays, more and more companies are going green, in this way they can also give opportunity to the people to contribute to the environment. As protection of environment is a major concern, it’s good and bad effects should be reiterate. Therefore, it has a become a solemn issue for the consumers as well as the companies to take decision according to the well being of the environment. As it may affect us ultimately. If the environment degradation continues, it will lead to huge disasters. The government should also think to increase and strict their guidelines regarding the environment. Hence, the green products should be economically viable to the consumers and should be easily available to increase the market demand. The challenges associated with ‘Green Marketing’ should be considered and kept in view to tackle those obstacles and make the green products cost effective for both consumers and producers. So, that the green marketing can make its own place in the market which would be a huge step towards the future as it benefits all of us.
  • 44. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 43 ANNEXURE - 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY  https://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/green-marketing.asp  https://www.smartinsights.com/online-brand-strategy/brand- positioning/sustainable-marketing-how-should-you-use-it/  https://www.virgin.com/virgin-unite/10-global-companies-are- environmentally-friendly  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Assc_Prof_Dr_Rashad_Yazdanifa rd/publication/268502673_The_impact_of_Green_Marketing_on_Cust omer_satisfaction_and_Environmental_safety/links/0912f50e642f52da 0b000000/The-impact-of-Green-Marketing-on-Customer-satisfaction- and-Environmental-safety.pdf
  • 45. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 44 ANNEXURE - 2 QUESTIONNAIRE AWARENESS ON GREEN MARKETING 1.What is your gender?  Male  Female  Other 2.What is your Age? ______________ 3.What is the highest level of education you have completed?  Less than a high school diploma  High school degree or equivalent  Bachelor's degree  Master's degree or Doctorate  Other: ________ 4.Your current occupation?  Student  Employed  Unemployed  Self employed  Retired
  • 46. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 45 QUESTIONNAIRE :- Q.1 Are you aware of Green products and Green Marketing in general?  Yes  No  A little Q.2 To my mind Green Lifestyle is:  Have no information about it  Hard to find in stores  Expensive  Cost of living affects my purchase of green products  Lack of technology  No product is entirely green. So, what's the point! Q.3 I have knowledge about:  Pollution from pesticides  Global Warming  Recycling products  Non-biodegradable packaging Q.4 What environment friendly activities do you participate in?  Recycle (aware and take part in)  Conserve water and energy (turn off lights, don't let tap run)
  • 47. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 46  Drive less, walk more  Do not consider myself environment friendly  Other: Q.5 How many times have you bought eco-friendly products in past 6 months?  Once a week or more often  At least once a month  Less than once a month Please mention the product purchased (electronics, healthcare, cosmetics, etc) __________________ Q.6 What is your preference of buying products?  Eco-friendly  Non eco-friendly  Branded products  No preference Q.7 What do you think about the green products availability in the market?  Easily available  Rarely available  Not available  Can't say
  • 48. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 47 Q.8 What is your opinion about the effectiveness of the green products?  Effective  Not effective  Can't say Q.9 What do you think about the green products in terms of their price?  Expensive  Affordable  Cheap  Can't say Q.10 If you decide to switch to only eco-friendly products what would be the reason?  Low price  Availability  It's effectiveness  Good for the environment Q.11 If environment friendly features increase the price of a product, would you be willing to pay more?  Yes  No  Maybe
  • 49. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 48 Q.12 What is the main reason you are willing to pay more for green marketing products?  Belief that green products enhance quality of life  Environment protection responsibility  Future concerns regarding climate change/global warming  Potential increase of product value/quality  Gives you a high level of satisfaction  N/A Q.13 In which of the following situations are you likely to adapt more towards green products:  I want to preserve the Earth  I just like eco-friendly products  I feel trendy/fashionable when I purchase eco-friendly products  Subsidy on green products by government thus bringing them within my budget  When I start earning well (six figure salary)  Other: Q.14 Would you continue to buy from a company if you found out it practiced non-environment friendly actions?
  • 50. The Role of Green Marketing and its effect on Consumers Page | 49  Yes, it does not bother me  No, definitely not  Would rather not, but might  Others