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People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University of Saad Dahled Blida 1
Blida Institute of Architecture and Urbanism
THE REUSE OF CAPITALS IN ZAITOUNA
MOSQUE, TUNIS, TUNISIA
Directed by: Mr.Arch. Bouteldja Abdelbasset Supervised by: Dr. Houglaouen D.
2016/2017
`
Summary:
- Technical word list
- Abbreviations list
- Introduction
- Geographical location of Zaitouna mosque
- History of Zaitouna mosque
- Problematic
- Spatial study of the Zaitouna mosque
- Study of the capitals of the mosque
- Conclusion
- Bibliography
`
Technical word list:
Reuse: use an architectural element that dates from an earlier period and incorporate it
into another building
Monument: comes from the Greek monumentum, which means something erected in
memory of a person, like building, statue…
Architectural element: an element which conforms to construction techniques.
Capital: Flared element placed at the top of a support (column, pillar, pilaster) and
intended to receive an architrave or the start of an arch.
Narthex: Portico or transverse vestibule, at the entrance of early Christian or medieval
churches.
Mihrab: In a mosque, semi-circular niche carved into the wall indicating the direction of
Mecca, towards which one turns to pray.
Central nave: In a mosque with an elongated plan, central part between the main facade
or the narthex and the mihrab.
Span: Space between two main support points of a construction; portion of the vault
between two transverse arches; joist placed between two main beams; part of the
bridge between two successive supports.
Column: vertical load-bearing element, consisting of a section barrel close to the circle
which is generally surmounted by a capital and which often rests on a base, the whole
constituting an aesthetically elaborate whole. Learn more about
`
List of abbreviations:
Pp: personal photo
PE: personal effort
Ap .J.C: After Jesus Chris
Fig: Figure
Ed: edition
Num: Number
H: height
`
Introduction:
-Definition of re-employment:
Re-employment is one of the characteristics of Ifrîqiyan architecture, heir to
Byzantine architecture, which gave a large place to this practice. In the
Middle Ages, as in modern times, abandoned sites and ruined monuments
were used extensively in the construction of the most beautiful buildings in
the country, particularly mosques1.
-Another definition:
"Implementation, in a construction, of elements, materials from a previous
construction." 2
Summarizing the two definitions, we can define it like this: using an
architectural element that dates from a previous era and incorporating it into
another building from another era
1 -Saadaoui, Ahmed The re-employment in Ifrîqiyenne mosques in medieval and modern times, CNRS
ÉDITIONS, Paris, 2008
2 -French dictionary Larousse, site: http://www.larousse.fr
`
Geographic location:
Fig. 1 Map of the situation of the mosque in relation to the city of Tunis
Fig. 2 Map of the medina of Tunis shows us the location of the mosque at the center of the urban fabric;
Source Google earth
Fig. 3 aerial view of the Zaitouna mosque Source: Fathi Jarray & Eric Mercier, Dials of the Great Mosque al-Zaytûna, Cadran
Info N ° 31, May 2015
The Great Mosque occupies the
heart of the medina of Tunis
governorate of Tunis, it is the
core around which the city has
developed
`
History of the Mosque:
Zaitouna which means the olive tree built in 248/864 AD by the architect Fethullah
according to an inscription on the base of the dome of the mihrab, under the Aghlabid
emir Abu Ibrahim Ahmed and the Abbasid caliph al Moustaïn Billah on the remains of 'a
Christian basilica
The mosque has seen several interventions since its foundation, as all governments
have left their mark
We note here the most important dates in the construction of the mosque:
- 990: the construction of the dome above the entrance by Zirid Governor Al-Mansour
- 1637: The construction of the eastern gallery which overlooks the souk
- 1896: reconstruction of another higher minaret (43m)
- After the independence of Tunisia, the mosque underwent several restoration works 3
Fig. 6 timeline of the zaitouna mosque Source: pe
3 www.commune-tunis.gov.tn
Fig. 4 an old photo of the mosque before the
reconstruction of the new minaret
Source: website www.Tunisiens-de-France.fr
Fig.5 photographie, datée de 1910, montrant
une vue générale de la mosquée Zitouna,et le
nouveau minaret
Source : site www.Tunisiens-de-France.fr
864 990 1637 1896 After 1958
The
construction of
the mosque By
the Aghlabids
The construction
of the dome
above the
entrance By the
Zirides
The construction
of the oriental
gallery which
overlooks the
souk
The reconstruction
of an higher
minaret (43m)
Under the
Ottomans
The mosque has
undergone several
restoration works under
Bourghiba and Benali
`
Problematic:
The Zaitouna mosque, one of the oldest mosques in Tunisia, unique by its architecture
and by the variety of these reused antique capitals
What is the origin of these capitals?
What are the types of capitals in the mosque?
to answer this problematic, we have based ourselves on several documents, reviews
and websites:
- firstly on our site visit which took place on 08/17/2016
- the book: Reuse in Ifrîqiyenne mosques in medieval times
and modern by Ahmed Saadaoui
- The book: Note on the domes of the great Al-Zaytuna mosque in Tunis
By Lucien Golvin
- Cadran Info magazine N ° 31
- The website of the municipality of Tunis
- The site www.Persée.com
- The net site: www.Tunisiens de France.com
- The net site: www.Discoverislamicart.org
- Personal efforts (photo, movement, interpretation)
`
Introduction:
The Tunisian religious heritage presents a variety of architectural styles corresponding
to the different civilizations present on its territory from the earliest times of its
Islamization to the present day. Our interest focused on researching the capitals of the
Zaitouna mosque and their origins
`
Technical sheet of the Zaitouna mosque:
Function Religious
Date of completion
864
Area 5000 m²
Materials used Stone, brick, Marble
Legal status Tunisian Ministry of
Religious Affairs
Situation Medina of Tunis, Tunisia
Built state Good condition
`
- Spatial study of the mosque:
The Zaitouna mosque is composed of two architectural spaces:
1-a prayer room, covers an area of 1344 m², composed of 15 naves and 7 bays, with a
skeleton ceiling which occupies almost the southern half of the building and which in
addition to two cupolas: the 1st above the mihrab the 2nd on the above the entrance;
this space is set on arches and columns4
4
2- a trapezoidal courtyard, surrounded by an arcade gallery There are also other
components such as the minaret (3) located in the North West corner, and the ablution
room (4), in the basement.
N : central nave S : Span
Fig. 7 Plan of the Zaitouna mosque
Source: website: www.DiscoverIslamicart.org
http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;tn;Mon01;1;fr
4
www.Discoverisamicart.org ,
http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;tn;Mon01;1;fr
N
S
`
Fig. 8 the eastern gallery, Source: pp Fig. 9 the entrance to the prayer room from the eastern gallery
Fig. 10 ablution room, level -1, Source: pp
`
Fig. 11 the central nave which ends with the mihrab Fig. 12 A bay of the mosque Source: pp
Fig. 13 The minaret has a
square base and 43m high
Source: pp
Fig. 14 the courtyard and the entrance to the narthex
gallery, Source pp
`
Fig. 15 view from the eastern gallery of the mosque (the entrance), Source: pp
Fig. 16 aerial view of the prayer hall and the two domes Source: www.Discoverisamicart.org
Mihrab
Dome
Entrance
Dome
`
Originality of the capitals:
The Zaitouna Mosque has more than 160 columns and capitals some are from the
ancient period, and some from the Islamic period5
, but what is evident that this ancient
material comes from the ruins of Carthage6
.
A-Courtyard capitals:
The courtyard is surrounded by 4 arcade galleries including: The narthex gallery:
Located to the north west of the courtyard, it rests on 22 Antique7
7 columns and
capitals, surmounted by a dome supported by 6 columns, which marks the entrance to
the prayer room
Fig. 17. mosque courtyard plan Fig. 18 the narthex gallery of the mosque Source: pp
the capitals of this gallery vary between Corinthian, composite, ionic, but we can clearly
see that their state of conservation is average, and they have somewhat disfigured
Fig. 19 Zoom on the capitals and columns supporting the dome Source: Ep
5
Saadaoui, Ahmed The re-employment in Ifrîqiyan mosques in medieval and modern times, CNRS ÉDITIONS,
Paris, 2008
6
www.discoverislamicart.org
7
Ibid
`
Fig. 20 Front view of the trio column and capital supporting the dome Source: Ep
Analysis: one notices that the 2 capitals on the right are higher than the one on the left The presence of
2 white marble blocks of different typology that connects the columns with the arch We also notice the
red color of the column in the middle while its capital is white
The capitals of the other three galleries:
North West, North East and North gallery.
These are composite capitals in white marble imported from Italy, this operation is carried out under
Minister Khaznaar in the middle of the 19th century8
Fig. 21 plan of the mosque, showing the galleries with imported columns
8
: www.Discoverisamicart.org
Galerie N-W: it rests on 10 imported
white marble columns, surmounted
by composite capitals
-Gallery N: it rests on 12 imported
white marble columns, surmounted
by composite capitals
-N-E gallery: it rests on 10 imported
white marble columns and
overworked by composite capitals
Shaft
Capital
Architrave
Arch
`
Fig. 22 north-west gallery, parallel to that of the narthex. Source: pp
Fig. 23 West gallery of the courtyard rests on columns and capitals imported from Italy in the middle of
the 19th century Source: pp
`
Fig. 24 Columns of the north gallery which rests on columns and capitals imported from Italy in the
19th century Source: pp
Fig. 25 mosque courtyard plan Source: pe
The typical arc
of the gallery
`
Fig. 26 column imported from the east gallery
Source: pp
Dimensions: height: 0.5 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm. Condition: Generally in good
condition
Analysis:
- We notice that the arc begins just after the capital, and this is the normal case, as we
said before that these columns were imported from Italy to measure
Fig. 27 front view of a column of the
northwest gallery (framed in Fig. 16)
Source: pe
`
B- Capitals of the prayer room:
-The capitals of the prayer room are reused (from antiquity)
-The 4 capitals of the mihrab are from the Islamic period, made of white marble, they
are based on 4 cylindrical barrels on the other hand the barrels from the ancient period
are curved (5).
in this study will take 3 type capitals which represent practically all the capitals of the prayer room and
study them.
1- big top B7, 2- big top D1, 3- big top G7.
Fig. 28 Location plan of the prayer hall of the mosque, Source: pe
`
-Description of Capital B7 :
It is a typical capital which represents the capitals of the central nave, (A7, C7, D7, E7,
F7, G7) and (A8, B8, C8, D8, E7, F8, G8)
Fig. 29 Capital B7
Fig. 30: front view of marquee B7, Source: pe
`
- Data
Material: marble Dimensions: high. : 0.4 m; laying bed: circular base 0.3 m in diameter.
Condition: Broken angles, several breaks on the abacus and astragalus; the carved
decoration
Analysis:
- We notice that the arc does not start from the capital, but after 3 blocks of different
dimensions - Block number 1 is 8-11 cm high - The block num. 2 is 45-50cm tall - The
block num. 3 is 7-10cm tall - The color of the column is red, the capital, white - We also
notice that the materials of these blocks are different - From this analysis we can say
that the column is not authentic because its height and the height of the beginning of
the arc are different, so the capital is also reused.
- Description of Capital D 5:
Fig. 37 the capital D5, Source : pp Fig.32 vue de face du chapiteau D5, Source : pe
`
Data:
Dimensions: high. : 0.3 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm.
Conservation state :
Generally in good condition
- Analysis:
This capital resembles the capitals À, B, C, D, E, F (1-5) -We note that the arc of the
gallery rests on a rectangular base element which is enlarged, 60-70 cm in height. height
- the color of the column and the capital is the same - the block that connects the
column and the arch is designed by a different material than the rest of the column
our hypothesis is that the column is not authentic so the capital is also reused
Description of Capital F9:
Fig. 33 double columns under an arch, Source: pp
`
Fig. 34 front view of the double column F9, Source: pe
Data:
Dimensions: high: 0.4 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm. X 2
Conservation state:
Generally, in good condition
- Analysis:
This capital also represents the double capital F (8, 9, 10,11,12,13,14)) We notice that
the arc of the gallery rests on a rectangular base element but larger than that of the
capital D5, 60-70 cm high, we can have made this block especially so that the column
can join the arch The block that connects the column is specific for this whole gallery (F)
- The order of these capitals is Corinthian
- The material used in the column and the block is different
- We also notice that the two capitals are not 100% alike
- The result is the same: difference in materials, color and type means difference in
construction period
`
- Conclusion :
From the analyzes and the study that we have done on these three capitals with the
help of historical documents, articles and reviews, we can come to the following
conclusion: - The capitals of the Zaitouna mosque are divided into 2 parts:
- 1- capitals imported from abroad to measure: and inserted directly, and this is the
case of the columns and capitals of the three galleries of the courtyard (north, north-
east, west)
- 2 the re-used columns and capitals: this is the case of the capitals and columns of the
narthex gallery and those of the prayer room, we were able to identify the criteria on
which we based to say that these re-use:
1-The homogeneity of capitals and columns in an architectural space
2- the homogeneity of the materials used
3- the homogeneity of the typology of columns and capitals
4- the homogeneity of the orders of the capitals
If one of its criteria is missing in an architectural space, we can say that one or more
elements have been used
Fig. 35 marking plan of the capitals reused and not, Source: pe
`
- Bibliography :
Ahmed Saadaoui, Re-employment in Ifrîqiyan mosques in medieval and modern times,
CNRS ed. Paris 2008
-Jarray & Eric Mercier, Dials of the Grand Mosque al-Zaytûna, Cadran Info N ° 31, May
2015
-Golvin Lucien. Note on the domes of the great Al-Zaytuna mosque in Tunis. In: Review
of the Muslim West and the Mediterranean, n ° 2, 1966. pp. 95-109
www.Discoverisamicart.org
www.Tunisiens-de-France.com
www.commune-tunis.gov.tn
www.persée.com
www.larousse.fr
Google earth
Site visit
Personal photos
Personal efforts

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The reuse of capitals in zaitouna mosque, Tunisia

  • 1. ` People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research University of Saad Dahled Blida 1 Blida Institute of Architecture and Urbanism THE REUSE OF CAPITALS IN ZAITOUNA MOSQUE, TUNIS, TUNISIA Directed by: Mr.Arch. Bouteldja Abdelbasset Supervised by: Dr. Houglaouen D. 2016/2017
  • 2. ` Summary: - Technical word list - Abbreviations list - Introduction - Geographical location of Zaitouna mosque - History of Zaitouna mosque - Problematic - Spatial study of the Zaitouna mosque - Study of the capitals of the mosque - Conclusion - Bibliography
  • 3. ` Technical word list: Reuse: use an architectural element that dates from an earlier period and incorporate it into another building Monument: comes from the Greek monumentum, which means something erected in memory of a person, like building, statue… Architectural element: an element which conforms to construction techniques. Capital: Flared element placed at the top of a support (column, pillar, pilaster) and intended to receive an architrave or the start of an arch. Narthex: Portico or transverse vestibule, at the entrance of early Christian or medieval churches. Mihrab: In a mosque, semi-circular niche carved into the wall indicating the direction of Mecca, towards which one turns to pray. Central nave: In a mosque with an elongated plan, central part between the main facade or the narthex and the mihrab. Span: Space between two main support points of a construction; portion of the vault between two transverse arches; joist placed between two main beams; part of the bridge between two successive supports. Column: vertical load-bearing element, consisting of a section barrel close to the circle which is generally surmounted by a capital and which often rests on a base, the whole constituting an aesthetically elaborate whole. Learn more about
  • 4. ` List of abbreviations: Pp: personal photo PE: personal effort Ap .J.C: After Jesus Chris Fig: Figure Ed: edition Num: Number H: height
  • 5. ` Introduction: -Definition of re-employment: Re-employment is one of the characteristics of Ifrîqiyan architecture, heir to Byzantine architecture, which gave a large place to this practice. In the Middle Ages, as in modern times, abandoned sites and ruined monuments were used extensively in the construction of the most beautiful buildings in the country, particularly mosques1. -Another definition: "Implementation, in a construction, of elements, materials from a previous construction." 2 Summarizing the two definitions, we can define it like this: using an architectural element that dates from a previous era and incorporating it into another building from another era 1 -Saadaoui, Ahmed The re-employment in Ifrîqiyenne mosques in medieval and modern times, CNRS ÉDITIONS, Paris, 2008 2 -French dictionary Larousse, site: http://www.larousse.fr
  • 6. ` Geographic location: Fig. 1 Map of the situation of the mosque in relation to the city of Tunis Fig. 2 Map of the medina of Tunis shows us the location of the mosque at the center of the urban fabric; Source Google earth Fig. 3 aerial view of the Zaitouna mosque Source: Fathi Jarray & Eric Mercier, Dials of the Great Mosque al-Zaytûna, Cadran Info N ° 31, May 2015 The Great Mosque occupies the heart of the medina of Tunis governorate of Tunis, it is the core around which the city has developed
  • 7. ` History of the Mosque: Zaitouna which means the olive tree built in 248/864 AD by the architect Fethullah according to an inscription on the base of the dome of the mihrab, under the Aghlabid emir Abu Ibrahim Ahmed and the Abbasid caliph al Moustaïn Billah on the remains of 'a Christian basilica The mosque has seen several interventions since its foundation, as all governments have left their mark We note here the most important dates in the construction of the mosque: - 990: the construction of the dome above the entrance by Zirid Governor Al-Mansour - 1637: The construction of the eastern gallery which overlooks the souk - 1896: reconstruction of another higher minaret (43m) - After the independence of Tunisia, the mosque underwent several restoration works 3 Fig. 6 timeline of the zaitouna mosque Source: pe 3 www.commune-tunis.gov.tn Fig. 4 an old photo of the mosque before the reconstruction of the new minaret Source: website www.Tunisiens-de-France.fr Fig.5 photographie, datée de 1910, montrant une vue générale de la mosquée Zitouna,et le nouveau minaret Source : site www.Tunisiens-de-France.fr 864 990 1637 1896 After 1958 The construction of the mosque By the Aghlabids The construction of the dome above the entrance By the Zirides The construction of the oriental gallery which overlooks the souk The reconstruction of an higher minaret (43m) Under the Ottomans The mosque has undergone several restoration works under Bourghiba and Benali
  • 8. ` Problematic: The Zaitouna mosque, one of the oldest mosques in Tunisia, unique by its architecture and by the variety of these reused antique capitals What is the origin of these capitals? What are the types of capitals in the mosque? to answer this problematic, we have based ourselves on several documents, reviews and websites: - firstly on our site visit which took place on 08/17/2016 - the book: Reuse in Ifrîqiyenne mosques in medieval times and modern by Ahmed Saadaoui - The book: Note on the domes of the great Al-Zaytuna mosque in Tunis By Lucien Golvin - Cadran Info magazine N ° 31 - The website of the municipality of Tunis - The site www.Persée.com - The net site: www.Tunisiens de France.com - The net site: www.Discoverislamicart.org - Personal efforts (photo, movement, interpretation)
  • 9. ` Introduction: The Tunisian religious heritage presents a variety of architectural styles corresponding to the different civilizations present on its territory from the earliest times of its Islamization to the present day. Our interest focused on researching the capitals of the Zaitouna mosque and their origins
  • 10. ` Technical sheet of the Zaitouna mosque: Function Religious Date of completion 864 Area 5000 m² Materials used Stone, brick, Marble Legal status Tunisian Ministry of Religious Affairs Situation Medina of Tunis, Tunisia Built state Good condition
  • 11. ` - Spatial study of the mosque: The Zaitouna mosque is composed of two architectural spaces: 1-a prayer room, covers an area of 1344 m², composed of 15 naves and 7 bays, with a skeleton ceiling which occupies almost the southern half of the building and which in addition to two cupolas: the 1st above the mihrab the 2nd on the above the entrance; this space is set on arches and columns4 4 2- a trapezoidal courtyard, surrounded by an arcade gallery There are also other components such as the minaret (3) located in the North West corner, and the ablution room (4), in the basement. N : central nave S : Span Fig. 7 Plan of the Zaitouna mosque Source: website: www.DiscoverIslamicart.org http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;tn;Mon01;1;fr 4 www.Discoverisamicart.org , http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;tn;Mon01;1;fr N S
  • 12. ` Fig. 8 the eastern gallery, Source: pp Fig. 9 the entrance to the prayer room from the eastern gallery Fig. 10 ablution room, level -1, Source: pp
  • 13. ` Fig. 11 the central nave which ends with the mihrab Fig. 12 A bay of the mosque Source: pp Fig. 13 The minaret has a square base and 43m high Source: pp Fig. 14 the courtyard and the entrance to the narthex gallery, Source pp
  • 14. ` Fig. 15 view from the eastern gallery of the mosque (the entrance), Source: pp Fig. 16 aerial view of the prayer hall and the two domes Source: www.Discoverisamicart.org Mihrab Dome Entrance Dome
  • 15. ` Originality of the capitals: The Zaitouna Mosque has more than 160 columns and capitals some are from the ancient period, and some from the Islamic period5 , but what is evident that this ancient material comes from the ruins of Carthage6 . A-Courtyard capitals: The courtyard is surrounded by 4 arcade galleries including: The narthex gallery: Located to the north west of the courtyard, it rests on 22 Antique7 7 columns and capitals, surmounted by a dome supported by 6 columns, which marks the entrance to the prayer room Fig. 17. mosque courtyard plan Fig. 18 the narthex gallery of the mosque Source: pp the capitals of this gallery vary between Corinthian, composite, ionic, but we can clearly see that their state of conservation is average, and they have somewhat disfigured Fig. 19 Zoom on the capitals and columns supporting the dome Source: Ep 5 Saadaoui, Ahmed The re-employment in Ifrîqiyan mosques in medieval and modern times, CNRS ÉDITIONS, Paris, 2008 6 www.discoverislamicart.org 7 Ibid
  • 16. ` Fig. 20 Front view of the trio column and capital supporting the dome Source: Ep Analysis: one notices that the 2 capitals on the right are higher than the one on the left The presence of 2 white marble blocks of different typology that connects the columns with the arch We also notice the red color of the column in the middle while its capital is white The capitals of the other three galleries: North West, North East and North gallery. These are composite capitals in white marble imported from Italy, this operation is carried out under Minister Khaznaar in the middle of the 19th century8 Fig. 21 plan of the mosque, showing the galleries with imported columns 8 : www.Discoverisamicart.org Galerie N-W: it rests on 10 imported white marble columns, surmounted by composite capitals -Gallery N: it rests on 12 imported white marble columns, surmounted by composite capitals -N-E gallery: it rests on 10 imported white marble columns and overworked by composite capitals Shaft Capital Architrave Arch
  • 17. ` Fig. 22 north-west gallery, parallel to that of the narthex. Source: pp Fig. 23 West gallery of the courtyard rests on columns and capitals imported from Italy in the middle of the 19th century Source: pp
  • 18. ` Fig. 24 Columns of the north gallery which rests on columns and capitals imported from Italy in the 19th century Source: pp Fig. 25 mosque courtyard plan Source: pe The typical arc of the gallery
  • 19. ` Fig. 26 column imported from the east gallery Source: pp Dimensions: height: 0.5 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm. Condition: Generally in good condition Analysis: - We notice that the arc begins just after the capital, and this is the normal case, as we said before that these columns were imported from Italy to measure Fig. 27 front view of a column of the northwest gallery (framed in Fig. 16) Source: pe
  • 20. ` B- Capitals of the prayer room: -The capitals of the prayer room are reused (from antiquity) -The 4 capitals of the mihrab are from the Islamic period, made of white marble, they are based on 4 cylindrical barrels on the other hand the barrels from the ancient period are curved (5). in this study will take 3 type capitals which represent practically all the capitals of the prayer room and study them. 1- big top B7, 2- big top D1, 3- big top G7. Fig. 28 Location plan of the prayer hall of the mosque, Source: pe
  • 21. ` -Description of Capital B7 : It is a typical capital which represents the capitals of the central nave, (A7, C7, D7, E7, F7, G7) and (A8, B8, C8, D8, E7, F8, G8) Fig. 29 Capital B7 Fig. 30: front view of marquee B7, Source: pe
  • 22. ` - Data Material: marble Dimensions: high. : 0.4 m; laying bed: circular base 0.3 m in diameter. Condition: Broken angles, several breaks on the abacus and astragalus; the carved decoration Analysis: - We notice that the arc does not start from the capital, but after 3 blocks of different dimensions - Block number 1 is 8-11 cm high - The block num. 2 is 45-50cm tall - The block num. 3 is 7-10cm tall - The color of the column is red, the capital, white - We also notice that the materials of these blocks are different - From this analysis we can say that the column is not authentic because its height and the height of the beginning of the arc are different, so the capital is also reused. - Description of Capital D 5: Fig. 37 the capital D5, Source : pp Fig.32 vue de face du chapiteau D5, Source : pe
  • 23. ` Data: Dimensions: high. : 0.3 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm. Conservation state : Generally in good condition - Analysis: This capital resembles the capitals À, B, C, D, E, F (1-5) -We note that the arc of the gallery rests on a rectangular base element which is enlarged, 60-70 cm in height. height - the color of the column and the capital is the same - the block that connects the column and the arch is designed by a different material than the rest of the column our hypothesis is that the column is not authentic so the capital is also reused Description of Capital F9: Fig. 33 double columns under an arch, Source: pp
  • 24. ` Fig. 34 front view of the double column F9, Source: pe Data: Dimensions: high: 0.4 m; laying bed: circular, D = 30 cm. X 2 Conservation state: Generally, in good condition - Analysis: This capital also represents the double capital F (8, 9, 10,11,12,13,14)) We notice that the arc of the gallery rests on a rectangular base element but larger than that of the capital D5, 60-70 cm high, we can have made this block especially so that the column can join the arch The block that connects the column is specific for this whole gallery (F) - The order of these capitals is Corinthian - The material used in the column and the block is different - We also notice that the two capitals are not 100% alike - The result is the same: difference in materials, color and type means difference in construction period
  • 25. ` - Conclusion : From the analyzes and the study that we have done on these three capitals with the help of historical documents, articles and reviews, we can come to the following conclusion: - The capitals of the Zaitouna mosque are divided into 2 parts: - 1- capitals imported from abroad to measure: and inserted directly, and this is the case of the columns and capitals of the three galleries of the courtyard (north, north- east, west) - 2 the re-used columns and capitals: this is the case of the capitals and columns of the narthex gallery and those of the prayer room, we were able to identify the criteria on which we based to say that these re-use: 1-The homogeneity of capitals and columns in an architectural space 2- the homogeneity of the materials used 3- the homogeneity of the typology of columns and capitals 4- the homogeneity of the orders of the capitals If one of its criteria is missing in an architectural space, we can say that one or more elements have been used Fig. 35 marking plan of the capitals reused and not, Source: pe
  • 26. ` - Bibliography : Ahmed Saadaoui, Re-employment in Ifrîqiyan mosques in medieval and modern times, CNRS ed. Paris 2008 -Jarray & Eric Mercier, Dials of the Grand Mosque al-Zaytûna, Cadran Info N ° 31, May 2015 -Golvin Lucien. Note on the domes of the great Al-Zaytuna mosque in Tunis. In: Review of the Muslim West and the Mediterranean, n ° 2, 1966. pp. 95-109 www.Discoverisamicart.org www.Tunisiens-de-France.com www.commune-tunis.gov.tn www.persée.com www.larousse.fr Google earth Site visit Personal photos Personal efforts