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Chris Wanstrath

                           http://defunkt.github.com




hi everyone, i’m chris wanstrath
i love randy rhoads
and kurt vonnegut
i live in san francisco
and work at github
(which is written in rails)
but! i’m not gonna talk about any of that stuff
today i want to talk about python
and comet

(among other things)
the
real-time
web                                                        (And other buzzwords)
                                                                By Chris Wanstrath
this talk is titled “the real-time web (and other buzzwords)”
so what is the “real-time” web?
                                  ?
techcrunch and readwriteweb would have you believe it’s a way to get your RSS stories
faster
but is that it?
no.
it’s all about pushing
instead of polling
it’s getting told what’s new
                               !
?
instead of asking for what’s new
instant chat in the browser
and information the moment it’s available
Server
                   Client




one persistent connection
Client
                                           Server




instead of many, short lived connections
right now when we say “real-time web” we usually mean one of three things
comet
flash’s XMLSocket
or HTML5’s WebSocket
let’s start with comet
?
how many people know what comet is?

how many people know how it differs from XML socket or WebSocket?

good! for a long time i had no idea what comet was
i think it has a big marketing problem.
                                          !
see, comet is a cleaning product.
just like ajax
so it’s kind of like,
Me, too!




“me too”
I, too, am a
                                                                                   revolutionary web
                                                                               technique you didn’t know
                                                                               existed and can start using
                                                                             today that will forever change
                                                                                the way you imagine the
                                                                                  web experience.




“I, too, am a revolutionary web technique you didn’t know existed and can start using today
that will forever change the way you think about the web experience.”
...



and you’re like
Uhh...




uh...
AJAX!!!
if i had my way...
i’d call it something else
like maybe asteroid
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
i dunno, there’s some cool imagery there
anything but comet
anyway, comet is any standards compliant technique which pushes or streams data to the
browser over HTTP

with comet you can essentially fake a socket connection between a browser and a backend
server
how about an example

well, for this year’s django dash
me
alex gaynor... whoops...
alex gaynor
and leah culver
( World’s smallest park )




(seen here next to the world’s smallest park)
built leafychat

irc in your browser using comet
you can connect to freenode channels
see who’s online
and do the irc thing

right in your browser (demo?)
all without ajax
how?
       ?
well, there are a few components at play here
Browser




first you’ve got the browser (naturally)
Browser      Apache
                        80




then we have apache
Django
                                                              8000




         Browser                            Apache
                                              80




sitting behind apache is django (via mod_wsgi or whatever)
Django
                                                                        8000




         Browser                             Apache
                                               80




the browser hits leafychat.com, port 80, which hits apache. apache sees it’s a django request
Django
                                       8000




         Browser             Apache
                               80




and hands off the request.
Django
                                                                     8000




         Browser                             Apache
                                               80




once django generates a response, apache takes it and delivers it
Django
                                                                     8000




         Browser                             Apache
                                               80




back to the browser. that’s, more or less, our HTTP request cycle
Browser




comet connections work in a similar fashion
Browser                            Orbited
                                             8100




instead of apache, we have Orbited sitting on port 8100
orbited is an open source, python comet server powered...
by twisted.

it does all of the comet heavy-lifting for us
Browser   Orbited
                 8100




so.
Zeddicus
                                                                     8200




         Browser                           Orbited
                                            8100




sitting behind orbited we have our app-specific comet code. for leafy chat it was a twisted-
based daemon named zeddicus. it handled all the IRC stuff - connecting to channels, sending
messages, receiving private messages, logging, all that
Orbited
                                            8100




orbited handles generic browser stuff...
Zeddicus
                                                                     8200




while our app-specific daemon (zeddicus) deals with the business logic.

in this case, irc stuff
Zeddicus
                                      8200




          Browser          Orbited
                            8100




does this look familiar?
Django
                              8000




          Browser   Apache
                      80




no? ok.
Zeddius
                                                                       Zeddicus
                                                                        8200




          Browser                            Orbited
                                              8100




anyway, the browser (using orbited’s bundled js library) makes a request...
Zeddius
                                                                       Zeddicus
                                                                        8200




          Browser                            Orbited
                                              8100




to port 8100. orbited sees it’s a request for zeddicus and hands it off to our backend
Zeddius
                                                                     Zeddicus
                                                                      8200




         Browser                            Orbited
                                             8100




zeddicus sees a new socket connection open, does some stuff, then writes to the socket
Zeddius
                                                                    Zeddicus
                                                                     8200




         Browser                           Orbited
                                            8100




orbited reads what zeddicus wrote to the socket connection they share
Zeddius
                                                     Zeddicus
                                                      8200




         Browser                           Orbited
                                            8100




then sends it back the browser via comet
Django
                              8000




          Browser   Apache
                      80




just like before
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
    "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
<head>

    <script>
        // session data
        var session_nick = ""
        var session_channels = []
    </script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/soundmanager2/soundmanager2-nodebug-jsmin.js"></script
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/audio-player.js"></script>

    <title>Leafy Chat</title>

    <link rel="icon" href="/static/img/favicon.ico"/>

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/reset.css" type="text/css" media="screen" />
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/facebox.css" type="text/css" media="screen/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="/static/css/base.css" type="text/css" media="screen" />

    <script> document.domain = document.domain; </script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.3.2/jquery.min.js">
    <script type="text/javascript" src="http://leafychat.com:8100/static/Orbited.js"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/facebox.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/cookie.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/leafy.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="/static/js/kahlan.js" charset="utf-8"></script>


<div id="main">
    <div id="header">
        <div id="navigation" class="rounded">
            <ul class="nav-list">
                <!-- this should be a list -->
                <li>Hi <span id="welcome-user">there</span>!</li>



but while apache and django deal with html
Zeddius
                                                         Zeddicus
                                                          8200




         Browser                            Orbited
                                             8100




zeddicus, our back-end daemon, concerns itself only...
with json.

orbited supports STOMP, XMPP, and raw IRC, too, but JSON is the way to go.

why do i say that?
well, unfortunately this is where orbited does not rock
orbited only cares about giving you a socket, you have to do everything else yourself.

that’s the deal
so you need to design your own protocol...
how it interacts with your back-end daemon
how events are fired and responded to
all that boring stuff
we ended up using a combination of django signals and json
Zeddius
                                                        Zeddicus
                                                         8200




         Browser                            Orbited
                                             8100




so this is our overview, except with one small change
Zeddius
                                                      Zeddicus
                                                       8200




          Browser                           Orbited
                                             8100




these are actually persistent connections
Zeddius
                                                      Zeddicus
                                                       8200




         Browser                            Orbited
                                             8100




between orbited and zeddicus it’s a tcpsocket
Zeddius
                                                         Zeddicus
                                                          8200




         Browser                           Orbited
                                            8100




between the browser and orbited it’s a comet technique
Zeddicus
                        Browser
                                                             8200




we jump through all these hoops because it allows us to write our app as if the browser is
connecting DIRECTLY to zeddicus via a tcpsocket
Zeddicus
                        Browser
                                                             8200




which is what the “real time” web is all about and what comet gives us

the browser writes to and reads from a socket, our back-end daemon does the same.
fast communication
Zeddius
                                                          Zeddicus
                                                           8200




          Browser                               Orbited
                                                 8100




alright, so let’s talk about this part a bit more

the comet part
Zeddius
                                                                       Zeddicus
                                                                        8200




          Browser                            Orbited
                                              8100




there are a few different ways to fake a persistent connection to a server with modern
browsers
xhr long polling

- hang an xhr request until we get a response or 30s, then re-open and wait again
<script>
script tag long polling

- dynamically create a script tag pointing to a url that hangs or times out, rinse and repeat
<iframe>
forever frame

- open a Content-Encoded: chunked url in an iframe, each chunk is a <script> tag that runs
xhr streaming

- set content-encoding: chunked and trigger onreadystate callback with each chunk
so now you know our white lie: we don’t have real persistence, or a real socket.

we fake it at both ends.
or, really, orbited fakes it at both ends
all that to get irc in your browser
well, kinda
Zeddius
                                                               freenode
                                                               Zeddicus
                                                                 8200
                                                                 6667




          Browser                             Orbited
                                               8100




see, with orbited, you can connect directly to an irc server

and why not? it’s just a socket connection
in fact you can demo a (somewhat functional) irc connection on the orbited website
Zeddius
                                                                    Zeddicus
                                                                     8200




         Browser                           Orbited
                                            8100

                                                                             Zeddius
                                                                            freenode
                                                                            Zeddicus
                                                                              8200
                                                                              6667




but with leafychat we wrote our own backend daemon that connected to irc.

why?
logging.
Zeddius
                                                                       Zeddicus
                                                                        8200




          Browser                            Orbited
                                              8100




if we loaded our django code into zeddicus, we could easily log irc chats you’re interested in
based on your session id.

it works very well.
Django     Orbited
                                                                    8000




          Browser                              Apache
                                                 80

                                                                      Zeddius
                                                                       8200




at this point i should mention the older tutorials online explaining how to load orbited into
django.
Apache                    Django
                                                80                       8000

         Browser


                                              Orbited                  Zeddicus
                                               8100                     8200




but i the best (and simplest) way is to let each component be its own daemon

it works great for production as well as dev mode - the django dash judges were able to start
and run our app locally, despite the number of daemons that needed to run
if you want to get a comet app up and running locally, check out orbited

it supports a ton of comet transports and is actively maintained
using java? jetty has comet support
the ruby world has juggernaut
while perl has meteor
there’s the interesting in-progress Ajax Push Engine
and in erlang there’s erlycomet (built on mochiweb)
so, flash’s XMLSocket
Zeddius
                               Zeddicus
                                8200




           Browser   Orbited
                      8100




it turns this
Zeddicus
            Browser
                       8200




into this
how? flash allows you to make tcp connections in actionscript.

by providing a javascript api to those tcp connections, we can use flash to create persistent,
socket connections from the browser
no lying needed
of course, it may be non-standard and might not work great across firewalls. but if you can
use it, it’s pretty great
a popular technique is to attempt to open a flash socket, then fall back to standards based
comet methods if it fails

it’s good backup
there are a few nice libraries for xml socket on github
tmm1 / jssocket



my favorite is tmm1’s jssocket
defunkt / jssocket



(i have a fork which removes the jquery dependencies)
finally: HTML5’s WebSocket
it’s still a proposed draft

but it’ll let you open a socket to any serve that speaks the special WebSocket protocol
ws://
servers need to speak the WebSocket protocol - you can’t open arbitrary connections to irc or
xmpp gateways

this plugs up the obvious security holes but also makes it a bit harder to implement than
something like XMLSocket

your server needs to speak ws
so, in review
                ?
comet
should be called asteroid
flash’s XMLSocket
is non-standard but nice
HTML5’s WebSocket
not yet here

but futuristic
you should give orbited a shot
with json
0
probably null terminated
Django   Orbited
                                8000




don’t load orbited in django
Orbited
                                 8100




use them alongside each other
is that it?
              ?
that’s it
            !
Thank You
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mojombo/3785549701/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/voteprime/2361330726/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnkerr/2371310025/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/h19/182898904/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ukinindia/3595042998/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/scott1027/3189137578/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/foxypar4/2124673642/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/nickwheeleroz/2166114756/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/nickwheeleroz/2178146080/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/diyromarcade/3006368260/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/boopsiedaisy/3611187885/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/bastispicks/2834869959/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/courtenay/2536259393/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jardinle/3335907363/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/tim-miley/3569809538/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dexterousartisan/3209508363/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/equanimity/3763158824/sizes/l/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/24617281@N04/2329660856/sizes/o/
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3555/3767120120_8f43f885e1.jpg
http://www.flickr.com/photos/raffaella/64701476/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/monicareyes/405402858/sizes/o/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/11016633@N07/2232831953/

flickr

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