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The Physical Universe, 11/e Konrad B. Krauskopf, Prof. Emeritus of Geochemistry, Stanford Univ. Arthur Beiser ISBN:  0072418265 Copyright year:  2004
Chapter 7  ,[object Object]
The Nucleus: Main Ideas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Atom and its Nucleus ,[object Object],[object Object]
Very little was known ,[object Object],[object Object]
Rutherford’s discovery ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Quick look at simple Atomic Structure ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],These are “nucleons”
Rutherford’s conclusion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],dense
Atom Identity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Isotopes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
NUCLIDE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radioactivity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radioactive elements ,[object Object],[object Object]
Radioactive atoms ,[object Object],Radioactivity  is the term given to the  spontaneous “falling apart”  of an atomic nucleus When the nucleus falls apart,  LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY can be released…..
Why do nuclei decay? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radioactivity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The nucleus of an atom becomes UNSTABLE. As a radioactive nucleus begins to DECAY,  these particles/rays are emitted
Five Decay Processes
What’s the difference?? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What’s the difference??  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What’s the difference?? (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Alpha Beta Gamma
After Decay ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
WHEN DO ATOMS DECAY? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
BUT, we can MEAUSURE ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HALF-LIFE
Characterizing Radioactive Elements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
More about half life ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],FAST rate -> SHORT half-life SLOW rate -> LONG half-life
Here is how it goes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radiation Hazards ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radiation Exposure: Sources
Measuring radiation exposure ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Typical Radiation doses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Dose Limits ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nuclear Energy ,[object Object],[object Object]
The atomic mass unit ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Electronvolt ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The MEGAelectronvolt ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What holds the nucleus together ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
When a nucleus decays ,[object Object],[object Object]
Energy Equivalent ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Binding energy per nucleon ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Two remarkable conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Fission/Fusion means CONfusion?!? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Binding energy to Nuclear Energy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Difficulties in harnessing nuclear energy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Chain reaction
The Chain Reaction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nuclear Fission Reactor ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Historic anniversary ,[object Object],[object Object]
KEY – 1 - : CRITICALITY ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
KEY –2-: MODERATION ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Modern Nuclear Power Plants ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Nuclear fuel ,[object Object],LAST, and VERY IMPORTANT is the COOLING of the whole system. This is the ONLY WATER THAT IS NOT COMPLETELY ENCLOSED. Usually comes from a nearby lake or river, recirculated back into the river… NUCLEAR DECAY PRODUCES HEAT ENCLOSED water circulates around fuel—gets HOTHOTHOT More ENCLOSED water is heated to boiling,  producing steam,  which turns a turbine—causing the coils of an ELECTRIC GENERATOR to rotate---remember Ampere’s law?
What about nuclear FUSION? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Smaller pieces of matter ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A word on ANTIMATTER ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fundamental Interactions ,[object Object],[object Object]
The Basic Four ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Unification ,[object Object]
Leptons and Hadrons ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Hadrons Leptons
Six kinds of quarks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Let’s sum it up ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture Quiz Questions Chapter 7
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In-Lecture QUIZ CHAPTER 7 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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