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The Open Science Agenda in Europe:
Policy convergence & diversity of approaches
Susan Reilly
Executive Director
SPARC More, March 6th
@skreilly
Overview
 Introduction to LIBER
Open Science in Europe: how did we get here?
Highlights
Open Science Cloud
Copyright reform
Open access
What is LIBER?
 A pan-European membership organisation
representing 420+ research libraries from
across Europe
Mission to create an information
infrastructure that enables research in LIBER
institutions to be world class
LIBER on Open Science
Our Advocacy Strategy
Open
Science
Council of Europe
European Commission
• H2020 Open Data
Pilot
• Digital Single Market
• Open Science Cloud
• Development of open
science agenda
• Importance of skills,
infra
Open Science in Europe
European Parliament
• Copyright legislation
• H2020 funding
Science in Transition: from Science 2.0
to Open Science
 EU consultation on Science 2.0 (July-
September 2014)
 498 responses and 27 position statements
 43% of respondents chose “Open Science” as
their preferred term out of 6 terms
Drivers for Open Science
Areas for Policy Intervention
 Open Access & Copyright
 Citizen Science
 Researchers’ Careers
 Peer Review & Research Evaluation
 New Metrics
 Other: Funding, Skills, Infra
Polarity of Positions
Convergence: The Digital Single
Market Strategy (May 2015)
 Online access for consumers and business across
Europe
 Fit for purpose copyright framework
 Maximising the growth potential of the digital economy
 Build a data economy
 Interoperability and standardisation
 Inclusive e-society
 Digital skills
Convergence: Open Science Cloud
(OSC)
 “a trusted environment for hosting and
processing research data to support EU
science in its global leading role”
 H2020 Open Data Pilot
 Proliferation of Infrastructure
 Need for Interoperability
 Drive for Knowledge transfer
LIBER on the OSC
 “Open & Community Driven”
http://libereurope.eu/blog/2015/11/04/an-open-and-community-driven-
open-science-cloud
 Not sufficient to provide infrastructure
 Skills and training
 Local support
 Incentivise Open Science
 Commons
Convergence: Copyright
 Recognition that copyright needs to be modernised to
support Open Science and the Digital Single Market
 European Commission to publish proposals for
copyright reform in June 2016
 TDM
 Cross Border
Copyright & TDM
• TDM potentially worth 5.3 billion euro a year to European
research budget (2%)
• Knock-on effect would be a minimum of 32.5 billion euro
increase in GDP
• Increased capacity of digital technology
• Licences don’t scale and infringe
academic freedom
Elsevier TDM Policy
• Access through API only
• Text only- no images, tables
• Research must register details
• Click-through licence
• Terms can change any time
• Reproducibility of results
1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY WAS NOT
DESIGNED TO REGULATE THE FREE
FLOW OF FACTS, DATA AND IDEAS,
BUT HAS AS A KEY OBJECTIVE THE
PROMOTION OF RESEARCH ACTIVITY
7. Where research funders or other bodies require, and
where authors wish, research outputs to be made available
under specific licences, these should typically be CC-BY for
publications and CC0 for research data.
8. Every university, research organisation, research funder
and commercial business should ensure that their policies
advocate content mining as a research methodology which
has the potential to transform the way research is
performed. The growth of open access and open data has
been, and will continue to be, a key enabler of content
mining.
Divergence: Open Access
 Communication From The Commission To The
European Parliament, The Council, The European
Economic And Social Committee And The Committee
Of The Regions (2012)
 Policies for open access to scientific articles and data in place in all
members states by 2014
 60% of publically funded scientific articles available open access by
2016
 Various approaches in place
 Legislation to enable green OA e.g. Spain, Italy, Germany
 Funder/Government mandates e.g.UK & NL
 Extra funding for gold
 Off-setting agreements
Open Access
 OpenAire Open Access Publishing Pilot
 New focus on “fair open access”
 Concerns over cost of open access: “Christmas is
over!”
Research Data
Thank You!
Any questions?
@skreilly
www.libereurope.eu

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  • 1. The Open Science Agenda in Europe: Policy convergence & diversity of approaches Susan Reilly Executive Director SPARC More, March 6th @skreilly
  • 2. Overview  Introduction to LIBER Open Science in Europe: how did we get here? Highlights Open Science Cloud Copyright reform Open access
  • 3. What is LIBER?  A pan-European membership organisation representing 420+ research libraries from across Europe Mission to create an information infrastructure that enables research in LIBER institutions to be world class
  • 4. LIBER on Open Science
  • 6. Council of Europe European Commission • H2020 Open Data Pilot • Digital Single Market • Open Science Cloud • Development of open science agenda • Importance of skills, infra Open Science in Europe European Parliament • Copyright legislation • H2020 funding
  • 7. Science in Transition: from Science 2.0 to Open Science  EU consultation on Science 2.0 (July- September 2014)  498 responses and 27 position statements  43% of respondents chose “Open Science” as their preferred term out of 6 terms
  • 9. Areas for Policy Intervention  Open Access & Copyright  Citizen Science  Researchers’ Careers  Peer Review & Research Evaluation  New Metrics  Other: Funding, Skills, Infra
  • 11. Convergence: The Digital Single Market Strategy (May 2015)  Online access for consumers and business across Europe  Fit for purpose copyright framework  Maximising the growth potential of the digital economy  Build a data economy  Interoperability and standardisation  Inclusive e-society  Digital skills
  • 12. Convergence: Open Science Cloud (OSC)  “a trusted environment for hosting and processing research data to support EU science in its global leading role”  H2020 Open Data Pilot  Proliferation of Infrastructure  Need for Interoperability  Drive for Knowledge transfer
  • 13. LIBER on the OSC  “Open & Community Driven” http://libereurope.eu/blog/2015/11/04/an-open-and-community-driven- open-science-cloud  Not sufficient to provide infrastructure  Skills and training  Local support  Incentivise Open Science  Commons
  • 14. Convergence: Copyright  Recognition that copyright needs to be modernised to support Open Science and the Digital Single Market  European Commission to publish proposals for copyright reform in June 2016  TDM  Cross Border
  • 15. Copyright & TDM • TDM potentially worth 5.3 billion euro a year to European research budget (2%) • Knock-on effect would be a minimum of 32.5 billion euro increase in GDP • Increased capacity of digital technology • Licences don’t scale and infringe academic freedom
  • 16. Elsevier TDM Policy • Access through API only • Text only- no images, tables • Research must register details • Click-through licence • Terms can change any time • Reproducibility of results
  • 17. 1. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY WAS NOT DESIGNED TO REGULATE THE FREE FLOW OF FACTS, DATA AND IDEAS, BUT HAS AS A KEY OBJECTIVE THE PROMOTION OF RESEARCH ACTIVITY
  • 18. 7. Where research funders or other bodies require, and where authors wish, research outputs to be made available under specific licences, these should typically be CC-BY for publications and CC0 for research data. 8. Every university, research organisation, research funder and commercial business should ensure that their policies advocate content mining as a research methodology which has the potential to transform the way research is performed. The growth of open access and open data has been, and will continue to be, a key enabler of content mining.
  • 19. Divergence: Open Access  Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions (2012)  Policies for open access to scientific articles and data in place in all members states by 2014  60% of publically funded scientific articles available open access by 2016  Various approaches in place  Legislation to enable green OA e.g. Spain, Italy, Germany  Funder/Government mandates e.g.UK & NL  Extra funding for gold  Off-setting agreements
  • 20. Open Access  OpenAire Open Access Publishing Pilot  New focus on “fair open access”  Concerns over cost of open access: “Christmas is over!”

Editor's Notes

  1. LIBER was one of those respondents. In fact we released a statement recognising the importance of open science and calling on the Commission to support 5 key enablers of open science: policy and leadership (roadmaps for open data, coordination of clear policy), advocacy and recognition (promoting open science and recognising contributions, law reform to address contradiction in copyright law, infrastructure (particularly interoperability), roles and skills (training, education, involvement of stakeholders).
  2.  It will foster best practices of global data findability and accessibility (FAIR data), help researchers get their data skills recognised and rewarded (careers, altmetrics); help address issues of access and copyright (IPR) and data subject privacy; allow easier replicability of results and limit data wastage e.g. of clinical trial data (research integrity); contribute to clarification of the funding model for data generation and preservation, reducing rent-seeking and priming the market for innovative research services e.g. advanced TDM (new business models).
  3. The free flow of information and ideas is an essential human right4. It is a catalyst for the production of human knowledge, which underpins welfare and prosperity. Societies around the world have chosen to protect certain limited rights in intellectual property as incentives both to innovation and the dissemination of knowledge. Intellectual property law was never intended to cover facts, ideas and pure data. However the modern application of intellectual property law is increasingly becoming an obstacle to knowledge creation and dissemination that use even these most simple building blocks of knowledge. In some countries, copyright law5 in particular has been interpreted to restrict the ability to apply computer reading and analysis to otherwise legally-available content. Other legislative frameworks such as patent law and database law may have a similar impact. When intellectual property law allows content to be read and analysed manually by humans but not by their machines, it has failed its original purposes.
  4. The free flow of information and ideas is an essential human right4. It is a catalyst for the production of human knowledge, which underpins welfare and prosperity. Societies around the world have chosen to protect certain limited rights in intellectual property as incentives both to innovation and the dissemination of knowledge. Intellectual property law was never intended to cover facts, ideas and pure data. However the modern application of intellectual property law is increasingly becoming an obstacle to knowledge creation and dissemination that use even these most simple building blocks of knowledge. In some countries, copyright law5 in particular has been interpreted to restrict the ability to apply computer reading and analysis to otherwise legally-available content. Other legislative frameworks such as patent law and database law may have a similar impact. When intellectual property law allows content to be read and analysed manually by humans but not by their machines, it has failed its original purposes.