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THE
MICROSCOPE
The History
• Many people experimented with making
microscopes
• Was the microscope originally made by
accident? (Most people were creating
telescopes)
• The first microscope was 6 feet long!!!
• The Greeks & Romans used “lenses” to
magnify objects over 1000 years ago.
The History
• Hans and Zacharias Janssen of Holland
in the 1590’s created the “first”
compound microscope
• Anthony van Leeuwenhoek and Robert
Hooke made improvements by working
on the lenses
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek
1632-1723
Robert Hooke
1635-1703
Hooke Microscope
THE HISTORY
Zacharias Jansen
1588-1631
The “First” Microscope
How a Microscope Works
Convex Lenses are
curved glass used to
make microscopes
(and glasses etc.)
Convex Lenses bend
light and focus it in
one spot.
How a Microscope Works
Ocular Lens
(Magnifies Image)
Objective Lens
(Gathers Light,
Magnifies
And Focuses Image
Inside Body Tube)Body Tube
(Image Focuses)
•Bending Light: The objective (bottom) convex lens
magnifies and focuses (bends) the image inside the
body tube and the ocular convex (top) lens of a
microscope magnifies it (again).
THE PARTS OF A
MICROSCOPE
Body Tube
Nose Piece
Objective
Lenses
Stage
Clips
Diaphragm
Light Source
Ocular Lens
Arm
Stage
Coarse Adj.
Fine Adjustment
Base
Skip to Magnification Section
Body Tube
• The body tube holds the objective
lenses and the ocular lens at the proper
distance
Diagram
Nose Piece
• The Nose Piece holds the objective
lenses and can be turned to increase
the magnification
Diagram
Objective Lenses
• The Objective Lenses increase
magnification (usually from 10x to 40x)
Diagram
Stage Clips
• These 2 clips hold the slide/specimen in
place on the stage.
Diagram
Diaphragm
• The Diaphragm controls the amount of
light on the slide/specimen
Turn to let more light in or to
make dimmer.
Diagram
Light Source
• Projects light upwards through the
diaphragm, the specimen and the
lenses
• Some have lights, others have mirrors
where you must move the mirror to
reflect light
Diagram
Ocular Lens/Eyepiece
• Magnifies the specimen image
Diagram
Arm
• Used to support the microscope when
carried. Holds the body tube, nose
piece and objective lenses
Diagram
Stage
• Supports the slide/specimen
Diagram
Coarse Adjustment Knob
• Moves the stage up and down (quickly)
for focusing your image
Diagram
Fine Adjustment Knob
• This knob moves the stage SLIGHTLY
to sharpen the image
Diagram
Base
• Supports the microscope
Diagram
MAGNIFICATION
4x, 10x, 40x, and 100x, also known as scanning, low power, high
power, and(typically) oil immersion objectives, respectively.
Magnification
• To determine your magnification…you
just multiply the ocular lens by the
objective lens
• Ocular 10x Objective 40x:10 x 40 = 400
Objective Lens have
their magnification
written on them.
Ocular lenses usually magnifies by 10x
So the object is 400 times “larger”
Caring for a Microscope
• Clean only with a soft cloth/tissue
• Make sure it’s on a flat surface
• Don’t bang it
• Carry it with 2 HANDS…one on the arm
and the other on the base
CARRY A MICROSCOPE
CORRECTLY
Using a Microscope
• Start on the lowest magnification
• Don’t use the coarse adjustment knob
on high magnification…you’ll break the
slide!!!
• Place slide on stage and lock clips
• Adjust light source (if it’s a mirror…don’t
stand in front of it!)
• Use fine adjustment to focus
FLOURESCENCE
MICROSCOPE
an optical microscope that
uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead
of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to
study properties of organic
or inorganic substances
POCKET MICROSCOPE
Hand-held microscopes used in
banks to inspect money and by
jewelers for inspecting stones and
pieces of jewelry.
DISSECTING MICROSCOPE
Consist of two eyeholes that allow to
views and help see all the angles of the
specimen which is a feature useful in the
dissection of a specimen.
The microscope grade 7

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The microscope grade 7

  • 2. The History • Many people experimented with making microscopes • Was the microscope originally made by accident? (Most people were creating telescopes) • The first microscope was 6 feet long!!! • The Greeks & Romans used “lenses” to magnify objects over 1000 years ago.
  • 3. The History • Hans and Zacharias Janssen of Holland in the 1590’s created the “first” compound microscope • Anthony van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke made improvements by working on the lenses Anthony van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 Robert Hooke 1635-1703 Hooke Microscope
  • 5. How a Microscope Works Convex Lenses are curved glass used to make microscopes (and glasses etc.) Convex Lenses bend light and focus it in one spot.
  • 6. How a Microscope Works Ocular Lens (Magnifies Image) Objective Lens (Gathers Light, Magnifies And Focuses Image Inside Body Tube)Body Tube (Image Focuses) •Bending Light: The objective (bottom) convex lens magnifies and focuses (bends) the image inside the body tube and the ocular convex (top) lens of a microscope magnifies it (again).
  • 7. THE PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE
  • 8. Body Tube Nose Piece Objective Lenses Stage Clips Diaphragm Light Source Ocular Lens Arm Stage Coarse Adj. Fine Adjustment Base Skip to Magnification Section
  • 9. Body Tube • The body tube holds the objective lenses and the ocular lens at the proper distance Diagram
  • 10. Nose Piece • The Nose Piece holds the objective lenses and can be turned to increase the magnification Diagram
  • 11. Objective Lenses • The Objective Lenses increase magnification (usually from 10x to 40x) Diagram
  • 12. Stage Clips • These 2 clips hold the slide/specimen in place on the stage. Diagram
  • 13. Diaphragm • The Diaphragm controls the amount of light on the slide/specimen Turn to let more light in or to make dimmer. Diagram
  • 14. Light Source • Projects light upwards through the diaphragm, the specimen and the lenses • Some have lights, others have mirrors where you must move the mirror to reflect light Diagram
  • 15. Ocular Lens/Eyepiece • Magnifies the specimen image Diagram
  • 16. Arm • Used to support the microscope when carried. Holds the body tube, nose piece and objective lenses Diagram
  • 17. Stage • Supports the slide/specimen Diagram
  • 18. Coarse Adjustment Knob • Moves the stage up and down (quickly) for focusing your image Diagram
  • 19. Fine Adjustment Knob • This knob moves the stage SLIGHTLY to sharpen the image Diagram
  • 20. Base • Supports the microscope Diagram
  • 21. MAGNIFICATION 4x, 10x, 40x, and 100x, also known as scanning, low power, high power, and(typically) oil immersion objectives, respectively.
  • 22. Magnification • To determine your magnification…you just multiply the ocular lens by the objective lens • Ocular 10x Objective 40x:10 x 40 = 400 Objective Lens have their magnification written on them. Ocular lenses usually magnifies by 10x So the object is 400 times “larger”
  • 23. Caring for a Microscope • Clean only with a soft cloth/tissue • Make sure it’s on a flat surface • Don’t bang it • Carry it with 2 HANDS…one on the arm and the other on the base
  • 25. Using a Microscope • Start on the lowest magnification • Don’t use the coarse adjustment knob on high magnification…you’ll break the slide!!! • Place slide on stage and lock clips • Adjust light source (if it’s a mirror…don’t stand in front of it!) • Use fine adjustment to focus
  • 26. FLOURESCENCE MICROSCOPE an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances
  • 27.
  • 28. POCKET MICROSCOPE Hand-held microscopes used in banks to inspect money and by jewelers for inspecting stones and pieces of jewelry.
  • 29.
  • 30. DISSECTING MICROSCOPE Consist of two eyeholes that allow to views and help see all the angles of the specimen which is a feature useful in the dissection of a specimen.