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The Menstrual Cycle
Menstruation
• Is the monthly flow of blood from the uterus.
• It is counted from the first day of your period up
to the first day of the next one.
• It occurs in women from puberty to menopause
(or the time in a woman’s life when
menstruation stops).
• The average length of the menstrual is usually
28 days.
• The process is controlled by hormones
secreted by some endocrine glands.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Phase
or Period
1
Is a period where menstrual cycle starts
and lasts for an average of 3-7 days. The
unfertilized egg cell from the previous
menstrual cycle and the uterine lining that
was not used will be shed from the vagina.
Period blood is usually a combination of
blood, mucus, the unfertilized egg and the
uterine lining and tissue.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Follicular Phase
2
This phase starts from the first day of the period
(overlapping with the menstrual phase) until ovulation.
This phase lasts at an average of 14-16 days. The
pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) to produce and mature follicles (small sacs in
the ovary that contain an immature egg or ovum). Out
of all the 5-20 follicles, only the healthiest oocyte will
remain and mature. This will then signal the estrogen
in the ovaries to thicken the uterine lining in
preparation for the egg being fertilized.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Ovulation
phase
3
This phase usually occurs around day 12-14 (or
midway through the cycle) in the menstrual
cycle. The pituitary gland releases luteinizing
hormone (LH), which causes the release of the
mature ovum from the follicle. The mature ovum
will then travel down to the uterus to await
fertilization by sperm.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Luteal Phase
4
This phase lasts an average of 14 days.
What happens here is when the follicle
releases the mature ovum, the follicle then
changes into the corpus luteum. The corpus
luteum releases progesterone. There is an
increase in estrogen and progesterone in
order to keep the uterine lining thick in case
of the egg being fertilized and pregnancy
occurs.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
If pregnancy does not
occur, the corpus luteum
will be reabsorbed back by
the body, causing a
decrease in estrogen and
progesterone. The
decreased levels of these
hormones will then start
your menstrual period, and
the menstrual cycle begins
again.
If pregnancy occurs, the
body will produce the
hormone HCG (Human
Chorionic Gonadotropin).
This helps maintain the
corpus luteum and uterine
lining. It is also the
hormone detected by
pregnancy tests.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Hormone Review
1. GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing
Hormone)
2. FSH (Follicle-stimulating
Hormone)
3. LH (Luteinizing hormone)
4. Estrogen
5. Progesterone
Hormone Review
Feedback Mechanism – the
process through which the level of
one substance influences the level
of another substance.
Homeostasis – state of balance
within a system
Feedback Mechanisms

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the menstrual cycle in female reproductive system

  • 2. Menstruation • Is the monthly flow of blood from the uterus. • It is counted from the first day of your period up to the first day of the next one. • It occurs in women from puberty to menopause (or the time in a woman’s life when menstruation stops). • The average length of the menstrual is usually 28 days. • The process is controlled by hormones secreted by some endocrine glands.
  • 3. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 4. Menstrual Phase or Period 1 Is a period where menstrual cycle starts and lasts for an average of 3-7 days. The unfertilized egg cell from the previous menstrual cycle and the uterine lining that was not used will be shed from the vagina. Period blood is usually a combination of blood, mucus, the unfertilized egg and the uterine lining and tissue. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 5. Follicular Phase 2 This phase starts from the first day of the period (overlapping with the menstrual phase) until ovulation. This phase lasts at an average of 14-16 days. The pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to produce and mature follicles (small sacs in the ovary that contain an immature egg or ovum). Out of all the 5-20 follicles, only the healthiest oocyte will remain and mature. This will then signal the estrogen in the ovaries to thicken the uterine lining in preparation for the egg being fertilized. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 6. Ovulation phase 3 This phase usually occurs around day 12-14 (or midway through the cycle) in the menstrual cycle. The pituitary gland releases luteinizing hormone (LH), which causes the release of the mature ovum from the follicle. The mature ovum will then travel down to the uterus to await fertilization by sperm. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 7. Luteal Phase 4 This phase lasts an average of 14 days. What happens here is when the follicle releases the mature ovum, the follicle then changes into the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum releases progesterone. There is an increase in estrogen and progesterone in order to keep the uterine lining thick in case of the egg being fertilized and pregnancy occurs. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 8. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will be reabsorbed back by the body, causing a decrease in estrogen and progesterone. The decreased levels of these hormones will then start your menstrual period, and the menstrual cycle begins again. If pregnancy occurs, the body will produce the hormone HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin). This helps maintain the corpus luteum and uterine lining. It is also the hormone detected by pregnancy tests. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Hormone Review 1. GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone) 2. FSH (Follicle-stimulating Hormone) 3. LH (Luteinizing hormone) 4. Estrogen 5. Progesterone
  • 12. Hormone Review Feedback Mechanism – the process through which the level of one substance influences the level of another substance. Homeostasis – state of balance within a system

Editor's Notes

  1. Endometrium is shed; follicle growth in the ovary Estrogen and progesterone levels are low
  2. Corpus luteum - Endometrium thickens and is maintained (progesterone prevents contractions) - Inhibits(nagkagamay ang level) LH and FSH
  3. 1-2 – very small follicles and eventually as it nourishes the egg cell, it will be nurtured until such time, that the egg cell or the ovum comes out of that follicle, then katong naiwan nga follicle nga wala ng egg cell,,that becomes the corpus luteum. An empty follicle transforms into a corpus luteum.
  4. During menstruation, the endometrium is being shed in what we call the menstrual fluid or the blood that comes out of the body. After that is the follicular phase, during this time the follicle start to mature with the egg cell. Then, we have this one day event call ovulation. During this time, the ovum or the egg cell burst out of the follicle. Finally, we have the luteal phase in which the endometrium becomes thick enough to prepare itself to support pregnancy if the egg cell is fertilized. However if not, we will return to the menstruation phase.
  5. Substance – hormones Feedback mechanism is important to achieve homeostasis.
  6. Positive feedback – something that stimulates the increase of the hormones, increase of the levels of the hormones Negative feedback – this inhibits or decreases or stops the production of a certain hormone. For example, on this picture, an example of a positive feedback is the one that happens before ovulation. Prior to ovulation, this is the follicular phase, the hormone estrogen stimulates the production of GnRH and the LH. Ibig sabihin, the presence of estrogen, when it is released by the ovaries, it signals the increase in these hormones. On the other hand, for the negative feedback, after ovulation, remember the follicle becomes corpus luteum and this corpus luteum releases progesterone that inhibits the production of both GnRh and LH. Inhibits meaning pinapababa niya ang level ng GnRh and LH. That is the difference between the positive feedback and negative feedback mechanisms.