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The Improvement Professional’s
Evolving Role:
From Practitioner to Facilitator to Coach
August 11, 2011
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Your Instructor
 Early career as a scientist; migrated to quality &
operations design in the mid-80’s.
 Launched Karen Martin & Associates in 1993.
 Provide business performance improvement and
Lean transformation support in office, service &
knowledge work environments.
 Co-author of The Kaizen Event Planner; co-
developer of Metrics-Based Process Mapping:
An Excel-Based Solution; author of forthcoming
book with a unique look at excellence (McGraw-
Hill, May 2012).
 Instructor in University of California, San Diego’s
Lean Enterprise program.
2
Karen Martin,
Principal
Karen Martin &
Associates
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
How Skilled as a Coach
Moderately
Proficient
(47%)
Highly
Proficient
(13%)
Just
Beginning
to Learn
(34%)
3
Not Sure
(6%)
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
How Skilled as a Facilitator
Moderately
Proficient
(37%)
Highly
Proficient
(21%)
Some
Proficiency
(29%)
4
No
Experience
(5%)
No
Response
(8%)
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Industries Represented
Advertising
Banking & financial
services
Consulting
Education
Energy & utilities
Government
Healthcare
Information technology
Insurance
Manufacturing
Pharmaceuticals
Retail
Telecommunications
Transportation
Travel & tourism
5
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
You Will Learn…
How “doing” violates Toyota’s core
principle of respect for people.
The differences between facilitating and
coaching.
Traits and skills you need to be an
effective coach.
How to roll out a development program
across your organization.
6
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
The Improvement Continuum:
Current State
7
Our Learning Continuum
8
2010200820041996 2011
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Demonstrating Respect for People
Removing obstacles to their success.
Helping them achieve their intellectual and
creative potential.
9
This means we must engage them in
the problem-solving process, helping
them meet both needs.
Engaging ≠ Doing for them
We’ve Moved Beyond…
10
We’ve moved beyond…
To…
In search of
in need of
We’ve Moved Beyond…
11
We’re rapidly moving toward
Problem-Based Management
To…
Problems
are Golden
Problems
are Hidden
and “Bad”
From…
We’ve Moved Beyond…
12
So We Need to Move From…
To…
Relying on a
small team of
experts to
solve problems
Teaching
everyone
how to solve
problems
Dreyfus Model of
Skill Acquisition
Stuart & Hubert Dreyfus, 1980,
University of California, Berkeley
13
Novice
Advanced
Beginner
Competent
Proficient
Expert
Adherence to strict rules;
low degrees of confidence;
high degrees of concentration
Knows when to break “the rules”;
high degrees of confidence;
operates on “auto pilot”
Improvement Skills Matrix – Philosophical
(draft)
14
No 
Knowledge
Novice
Advanced 
Beginner
Competent Proficient Expert
Not 
Applicable
0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A
PDCA / PDSA
Customer value
Flow
Eight wastes
Process ownership
Value stream alignment
Supplier‐Customer relationship
Cross‐functional relationships
Monument identification
Obstacles to flow
Area of 
Expertise
Category Specific Knowledge or Skill
Philosophy
Improvement principles
Process design
Improvement Skills Matrix – Technical (draft)
15
No 
Knowledge
Novice
Advanced 
Beginner
Competent Proficient Expert
Not 
Applicable
0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A
Improvement Strategy Strategy deployment / hoshin kanri
A3
Toyota Kata
Value Stream Mapping
Metrics‐Based Process Mapping
5 Why's
Check sheets
Cause‐and‐effect / fishbone diagrams
Pareto charts
5S
Batch analysis / reduction
Changeover / setup reduction
Co‐location / work cells
Error‐proofing / quality‐at‐the‐source
FIFO lane pull systems
Kanban pull systems
Load leveling / heijunka
Visual management
Work balancing / takt time
Work standardization / job aids
Implementation Techniques Kaizen Events
Key performance indicators (KPI)
KPI trend analysis
Process audits
Excel
PowerPoint
Word
Visio
Mapping tools (iGrafx, etc.)
Project management
Time management
Software
Other
Area of 
Expertise
Category Specific Knowledge or Skill
Technical
Problem‐Solving
Mapping Tools
Root Cause Analysis
Countermeasures
Process management
Improvement Skills Matrix – People
(draft)
16
No 
Knowledge
Novice
Advanced 
Beginner
Competent Proficient Expert
Not 
Applicable
0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A
Basic psychology (Maslow, resistance, etc.)
Coaching leadership
Communication needs
Innovation / Design theory
Learning theory
Mediation skills / conflict resolution
Paradigm identification
Rewards & incentives
Socratic questions / appreciative inquiry
Working with senior leadership
Area of 
Expertise
Category Specific Knowledge or Skill
People Leading Change 
Improvement Skills Matrix – Business
(draft)
17
No 
Knowledge
Novice
Advanced 
Beginner
Competent Proficient Expert
Not 
Applicable
0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A
Cash flow
Expense categories / amounts
Margins / profit
Revenue sources / management
Budget creation / management
Customer service
Inventory management
Opportunities
Trends
Applicable law
Industry standards
Agile / Scrum
Lean business management
Six sigma
Baldrige
ISO‐9000
Shingo
Staying current  Read, attend conferences, network
Business
Finance
Operations
Sales & Marketing
Legal/Regulatory
Improvement approaches
Certification programs
Area of 
Expertise
Category Specific Knowledge or Skill
Create a Development Plan
How to you move from one stage
to the next?
Expert help and practice.
18
19
Name/
Skill
5S A3 Coach A3 Owner
Batch Size 
Reduction
Changeover 
Reduction
Co‐location Data Display Error‐Proofing
Alex J
Barbara K
Bill R
Bob P
Bob V
Carol D
Frank L
Gary B
Jane G
Lori M
Nancy J
Nick D
Pedro R
Sam S
Tameka T
Zack R
Lean Coach Skills Matrix
Tracking Development
Or numbering system (Dreyfus):
0 - No experience
1 - Novice
2 - Advanced beginner
3 - Competent
4 - Proficient
5 - Expert
Green – Highly proficient; can teach others
Yellow – Competent; can do with minimal or no help
Red – No experience
Or role:
Green – Coach (+ practitioner and facilitator)
Yellow – Facilitator (+ practitioner)
Red – Practitioner
Improvement Professional Roles
Role
Primary
Focus
# People
Involved
Outcomes
Focus
Practitioner Doing it 1 Results
Facilitator
Leading
others in
doing it
Many
Primary - results;
Secondary -
people
development
Coach
Teaching
others how
to do it
2-5
Primary - people
development;
Secondary -
results
20
The Facilitator’s Many Hats
21
Mentoring RelationshipCoaching Relationship
?
?
Focus: Asking questions Focus: Providing information
Wisdom Wisdom
Coach Coachee Mentor
?
? ? ?
Mentee
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Coaching the Improvement Kata:
Five Questions
1. What’s your target condition?
 How do we want to operate? (Not a metric
outcome.
2. What’s the actual condition now?
3. What obstacles are preventing you
from reaching the target condition?
4. What’s your next step?
5. When can we go and see what we’ve
learned from taking that step?
23
Kata – routine or pattern
that is practiced so that it
becomes second nature.
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Socratic Questioning
Named for Socrates
Based on his belief that the
most effective learning results
from a disciplined practice of
thoughtful questioning.
 Way of assuring “rigorous
thinking”
Open-ended questions that
cause the learner to think
deeply.
24
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Socratic Questions
 Clarification & reinforcing
knowledge
 “Why do you say that?”
 “What does this mean?”
 “Can you give me an example?”
 “What do we already know?”
 Probing assumptions
 “What else could we assume?”
 “What would happen if…?”
 “Why are you assuming…?”
 Probing reasons & evidence
 “How do you know this?”
 “Are these reasons they only
reasons?”
 “What do you think causes…?”
 “Would it stand up in court?”
 Probing viewpoints & perspectives
 “Why is this better than that?”
 “What would ___ say about it”?
 “What are the pros and cons of…?”
 “What’s the difference between ___
and ___?”
 Probing implications &
consequences
 “Then what would happen?”
 “How does ___ affect ___?”
 “How could ___ be used to ___?”
 “Why is ___ important?”
 Questions about a question
 “Why are you asking that question?”
 “To answer this question, what
questions would we have to answer
first?”
25
The Wisdom Comes in Knowing When
to Coach and When to Mentor
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Coaching Traits Needed
 Service mentality
 Critical thinking
 Self-awareness
 Psychological know-how
 Knowing when to push and when to back off
 Patience
 Empathy (“I understand…”
 Balance between rah-rah and results
 Technical expertise
 Ability to clearly communicate
 No self-interest or need to control
27
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
Development Program
Senior Leadership
 Learn PDCA & A3 Process
 Coach managers
Managers
 Learn PDCA, A3 & Kata
 Coach the frontlines
Improvement professionals
 Coach senior leaders & managers
 Facilitate improvement activities
28
80%
70%
50%
30%
20%
10%
Problem-Solve
Experience
Discuss
See & Hear
See
Hear
Read
% Information Retained
29
“I hear and I forget.
I see and I remember.
I do and I understand.”
– Confucius
Workforce Development Considerations
95%
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
You Will Learn…
How “doing” violates Toyota’s core
principle of respect for people.
The differences between facilitating and
coaching.
Traits and skills you need to be an
effective coach.
How to roll out a development program
across your organization.
30
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates
7770 Regents Road #635
San Diego, CA 92122
858.677.6799
ksm@ksmartin.com
31
For Further Idea Exchange
Connect & learn
Monthly newsletter: www.ksmartin.com/subscribe

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The Improvement Professional's Evolving Role: From Practitioner to Facilitator to Coach

  • 1. Company LOGO The Improvement Professional’s Evolving Role: From Practitioner to Facilitator to Coach August 11, 2011
  • 2. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Your Instructor  Early career as a scientist; migrated to quality & operations design in the mid-80’s.  Launched Karen Martin & Associates in 1993.  Provide business performance improvement and Lean transformation support in office, service & knowledge work environments.  Co-author of The Kaizen Event Planner; co- developer of Metrics-Based Process Mapping: An Excel-Based Solution; author of forthcoming book with a unique look at excellence (McGraw- Hill, May 2012).  Instructor in University of California, San Diego’s Lean Enterprise program. 2 Karen Martin, Principal Karen Martin & Associates
  • 3. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates How Skilled as a Coach Moderately Proficient (47%) Highly Proficient (13%) Just Beginning to Learn (34%) 3 Not Sure (6%)
  • 4. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates How Skilled as a Facilitator Moderately Proficient (37%) Highly Proficient (21%) Some Proficiency (29%) 4 No Experience (5%) No Response (8%)
  • 5. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Industries Represented Advertising Banking & financial services Consulting Education Energy & utilities Government Healthcare Information technology Insurance Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals Retail Telecommunications Transportation Travel & tourism 5
  • 6. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates You Will Learn… How “doing” violates Toyota’s core principle of respect for people. The differences between facilitating and coaching. Traits and skills you need to be an effective coach. How to roll out a development program across your organization. 6
  • 7. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates The Improvement Continuum: Current State 7
  • 9. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Demonstrating Respect for People Removing obstacles to their success. Helping them achieve their intellectual and creative potential. 9 This means we must engage them in the problem-solving process, helping them meet both needs. Engaging ≠ Doing for them
  • 10. We’ve Moved Beyond… 10 We’ve moved beyond… To… In search of in need of
  • 11. We’ve Moved Beyond… 11 We’re rapidly moving toward Problem-Based Management To… Problems are Golden Problems are Hidden and “Bad” From…
  • 12. We’ve Moved Beyond… 12 So We Need to Move From… To… Relying on a small team of experts to solve problems Teaching everyone how to solve problems
  • 13. Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Stuart & Hubert Dreyfus, 1980, University of California, Berkeley 13 Novice Advanced Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Adherence to strict rules; low degrees of confidence; high degrees of concentration Knows when to break “the rules”; high degrees of confidence; operates on “auto pilot”
  • 14. Improvement Skills Matrix – Philosophical (draft) 14 No  Knowledge Novice Advanced  Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Not  Applicable 0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A PDCA / PDSA Customer value Flow Eight wastes Process ownership Value stream alignment Supplier‐Customer relationship Cross‐functional relationships Monument identification Obstacles to flow Area of  Expertise Category Specific Knowledge or Skill Philosophy Improvement principles Process design
  • 15. Improvement Skills Matrix – Technical (draft) 15 No  Knowledge Novice Advanced  Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Not  Applicable 0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Improvement Strategy Strategy deployment / hoshin kanri A3 Toyota Kata Value Stream Mapping Metrics‐Based Process Mapping 5 Why's Check sheets Cause‐and‐effect / fishbone diagrams Pareto charts 5S Batch analysis / reduction Changeover / setup reduction Co‐location / work cells Error‐proofing / quality‐at‐the‐source FIFO lane pull systems Kanban pull systems Load leveling / heijunka Visual management Work balancing / takt time Work standardization / job aids Implementation Techniques Kaizen Events Key performance indicators (KPI) KPI trend analysis Process audits Excel PowerPoint Word Visio Mapping tools (iGrafx, etc.) Project management Time management Software Other Area of  Expertise Category Specific Knowledge or Skill Technical Problem‐Solving Mapping Tools Root Cause Analysis Countermeasures Process management
  • 16. Improvement Skills Matrix – People (draft) 16 No  Knowledge Novice Advanced  Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Not  Applicable 0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Basic psychology (Maslow, resistance, etc.) Coaching leadership Communication needs Innovation / Design theory Learning theory Mediation skills / conflict resolution Paradigm identification Rewards & incentives Socratic questions / appreciative inquiry Working with senior leadership Area of  Expertise Category Specific Knowledge or Skill People Leading Change 
  • 17. Improvement Skills Matrix – Business (draft) 17 No  Knowledge Novice Advanced  Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Not  Applicable 0 1 2 3 4 5 N/A Cash flow Expense categories / amounts Margins / profit Revenue sources / management Budget creation / management Customer service Inventory management Opportunities Trends Applicable law Industry standards Agile / Scrum Lean business management Six sigma Baldrige ISO‐9000 Shingo Staying current  Read, attend conferences, network Business Finance Operations Sales & Marketing Legal/Regulatory Improvement approaches Certification programs Area of  Expertise Category Specific Knowledge or Skill
  • 18. Create a Development Plan How to you move from one stage to the next? Expert help and practice. 18
  • 19. 19 Name/ Skill 5S A3 Coach A3 Owner Batch Size  Reduction Changeover  Reduction Co‐location Data Display Error‐Proofing Alex J Barbara K Bill R Bob P Bob V Carol D Frank L Gary B Jane G Lori M Nancy J Nick D Pedro R Sam S Tameka T Zack R Lean Coach Skills Matrix Tracking Development Or numbering system (Dreyfus): 0 - No experience 1 - Novice 2 - Advanced beginner 3 - Competent 4 - Proficient 5 - Expert Green – Highly proficient; can teach others Yellow – Competent; can do with minimal or no help Red – No experience Or role: Green – Coach (+ practitioner and facilitator) Yellow – Facilitator (+ practitioner) Red – Practitioner
  • 20. Improvement Professional Roles Role Primary Focus # People Involved Outcomes Focus Practitioner Doing it 1 Results Facilitator Leading others in doing it Many Primary - results; Secondary - people development Coach Teaching others how to do it 2-5 Primary - people development; Secondary - results 20
  • 22. Mentoring RelationshipCoaching Relationship ? ? Focus: Asking questions Focus: Providing information Wisdom Wisdom Coach Coachee Mentor ? ? ? ? Mentee
  • 23. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Coaching the Improvement Kata: Five Questions 1. What’s your target condition?  How do we want to operate? (Not a metric outcome. 2. What’s the actual condition now? 3. What obstacles are preventing you from reaching the target condition? 4. What’s your next step? 5. When can we go and see what we’ve learned from taking that step? 23 Kata – routine or pattern that is practiced so that it becomes second nature.
  • 24. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Socratic Questioning Named for Socrates Based on his belief that the most effective learning results from a disciplined practice of thoughtful questioning.  Way of assuring “rigorous thinking” Open-ended questions that cause the learner to think deeply. 24
  • 25. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Socratic Questions  Clarification & reinforcing knowledge  “Why do you say that?”  “What does this mean?”  “Can you give me an example?”  “What do we already know?”  Probing assumptions  “What else could we assume?”  “What would happen if…?”  “Why are you assuming…?”  Probing reasons & evidence  “How do you know this?”  “Are these reasons they only reasons?”  “What do you think causes…?”  “Would it stand up in court?”  Probing viewpoints & perspectives  “Why is this better than that?”  “What would ___ say about it”?  “What are the pros and cons of…?”  “What’s the difference between ___ and ___?”  Probing implications & consequences  “Then what would happen?”  “How does ___ affect ___?”  “How could ___ be used to ___?”  “Why is ___ important?”  Questions about a question  “Why are you asking that question?”  “To answer this question, what questions would we have to answer first?” 25
  • 26. The Wisdom Comes in Knowing When to Coach and When to Mentor
  • 27. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Coaching Traits Needed  Service mentality  Critical thinking  Self-awareness  Psychological know-how  Knowing when to push and when to back off  Patience  Empathy (“I understand…”  Balance between rah-rah and results  Technical expertise  Ability to clearly communicate  No self-interest or need to control 27
  • 28. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates Development Program Senior Leadership  Learn PDCA & A3 Process  Coach managers Managers  Learn PDCA, A3 & Kata  Coach the frontlines Improvement professionals  Coach senior leaders & managers  Facilitate improvement activities 28
  • 29. 80% 70% 50% 30% 20% 10% Problem-Solve Experience Discuss See & Hear See Hear Read % Information Retained 29 “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” – Confucius Workforce Development Considerations 95%
  • 30. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates You Will Learn… How “doing” violates Toyota’s core principle of respect for people. The differences between facilitating and coaching. Traits and skills you need to be an effective coach. How to roll out a development program across your organization. 30
  • 31. © 2011 Karen Martin & Associates 7770 Regents Road #635 San Diego, CA 92122 858.677.6799 ksm@ksmartin.com 31 For Further Idea Exchange Connect & learn Monthly newsletter: www.ksmartin.com/subscribe