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The Impact of Imperial Mode of Living on Migration: A Case Study of Bhopal and the
Industrial Disaster
Christopher Serrano
California State University, Los Angeles
Sociology 3500: International Migration
2
Introduction
The innocent natives of Bhopal, India, are experiencing a chemical erasure of their future
due to the impacts of this “imperial mode of living.” This imperialistic pursuit, driven by
investments in poorly regulated factories, has led to ongoing health crises for over 30 years, with
residents suffering from cancers and other disorders such as birth defects, neurological problems,
and various health abnormalities. Ulrich Brand's concept of the "imperial mode of living"
illustrates how these actions divide the North from the South, leaving Bhopal's residents without
adequate health services or benefits. The water remains contaminated with chemicals from the
explosions, deemed poisonous by the government. However, the local population lacks the
necessary resources, medical tools, or compensation to mitigate these effects.
The primary culprit, Union Carbide Corporation from the U.S., neglected responsibility,
blaming worker sabotage. The corporation's compensation of $470 million, translating to about
$400 per month per victim, is insufficient. Consequently, many spend it on consultation fees,
leaving them unable to access proper medical care. Due to this incident, chemical scientists have
taken into consideration the effects of Methyl Isocyanate, noting that the people living there are
becoming guinea pigs for the corporation's horrible infrastructure. Methyl Isocyanate had not
been extensively studied because, as Bucher notes, "few studies had been performed to examine
the long-term health effects of exposure" and "chemicals with more widespread human exposure
take priority for the limited resources available for toxicological evaluation." This further
demonstrates that the people in this area are being treated like guinea pigs and, as a result, many
are forced to migrate in search of better living conditions.
This situation exemplifies the imperialistic form of living, as illustrated in the movie
"This Changes Everything: Capitalism & the Climate," where residents of Montana, U.S.A., face
3
the repercussions of nearby factories affecting their water and environment. Union Carbide
opened up a factory in Bhopal during the 1960s and 1970s under the guise of the "Green
Revolution," intended to prevent food shortages across India. However, this initiative failed
because it focused on monocrop, chemically and mechanically maintained agriculture. Poverty-
stricken farmers migrated to Bhopal seeking a better life, many of them lacking proper
documentation such as birth, marriage, or death certificates, which prevented them from
receiving assistance. The high level of industrialization and influx of migrants living in Bhopal at
that time exacerbated their living conditions. When the disaster struck, it created a lasting echo
of health issues, compelling many to migrate once again in search of safer and more sustainable
environments. Despite receiving money from the U.S. government, the local government could
not sustain the affected population, further fueling the migration crisis.
This situation exemplifies the imperialistic form of living, as illustrated in the movie
"This Changes Everything: Capitalism & the Climate," where residents of Montana, U.S.A., face
the repercussions of nearby factories affecting their water and environment. Union Carbide
opened up a factory in Bhopal during the 1960s and 1970s under the guise of the "Green
Revolution," intended to prevent food shortages across India. However, this initiative failed
because it focused on monocrop, chemically and mechanically maintained agriculture. Poverty-
stricken farmers migrated to Bhopal seeking a better life, many of them lacking proper
documentation such as birth, marriage, or death certificates, which prevented them from
receiving assistance. The high level of industrialization and influx of migrants living in Bhopal at
that time exacerbated their living conditions. When the disaster struck, it created a lasting echo
of health issues, compelling many to migrate once again in search of safer and more sustainable
4
environments. Despite receiving money from the U.S. government, the local government could
not sustain the affected population, further fueling the migration crisis.
To this day, as stated in The Atlantic, “toxic materials remain…for decades survivors
have been fighting to have the site cleaned up, but they say the efforts were slowed.” There is no
significant change happening for those living in the area, and they continue to be affected,
including children. The article features pictures of “a worker cleaning dust as he displays a panel
of photographs of some of the thousands of people who died in the 1984 Bhopal disaster,” which
is disheartening. These photographs include children, women, men, and teenagers—all innocent
individuals striving for a better life whose lives were ended because of the imperialistic mode of
living. The U.S. is not the only party to blame; the Indian government also holds responsibility,
as they have the power to initiate change. However, this form of thinking perpetuates a never-
ending cycle of greed and exploitation.
Demographic Portrait
India is known for its significant population density. According to Gallup, "India
overtook China to become the most populous nation in the world." This demographic reality
raises important questions about how external corporations exploit rural areas, often populated
by impoverished communities. The case of Union Carbide's investment in India, despite the
country's vast population, underscores a critical issue: the lack of corporate responsibility and
assistance to those in need.
As the population of a country increases, so does its geopolitical and economic
significance. From a global perspective, India has been a significant host for asylum seekers and
refugees from neighboring countries, as noted by the Global Detention Project. This influx of
people often leads to heightened military surveillance in these regions.
5
The residents of Bhopal face numerous systemic challenges, including inappropriate
waste management practices, inadequate labor for waste collection and transport, and insufficient
waste treatment and disposal facilities (Katiyar, Suresh, et al.). These issues are compounded by
the widespread poverty and lack of attention to the needs of the local population, contributing to
unhealthy living conditions.
Historically, Bhopal was ruled by four generations of Muslim queens throughout the 19th
and 20th centuries, who distinguished themselves as warriors, scholars, builders, and social
reformers (Hurley). Over time, India has evolved into a diverse nation, proud of its
heterogeneous population and cultural richness. However, the Bhopal gas victims are primarily
Hindi-speaking, poor, and often illiterate (Marcus, 221). They face ongoing struggles with
lifelong diseases caused by the disaster.
Despite the chaos, organizations like the Bhopal Group for Information and Action
(BGIA) have emerged. These middle-class activists serve as intermediaries between gas victims
and official rehabilitation bodies. The victims, often referred to as "valiant victims," live on the
streets seeking help and rehabilitation. Gender dynamics also play a crucial role, with groups
such as the Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Udyog Sangathan, the largest organization of gas victims,
advocating for their rights and support.
The true issue lies in the lifelong health struggles these people face, with organizations
stepping in to fill the gap left by governmental and international negligence. The U.S.
government's inaction in assisting these victims highlights the broader problem of global
inequity and corruption. Although India allowed the disaster to happen, there has been
6
insufficient effort to prevent such tragedies. It is disheartening to see that despite the clear need
for intervention, the U.S. has refrained from offering substantial aid to those affected.
Challenges for Save and Sustainable Livelihoods
India faces significant challenges in providing safe and sustainable livelihoods, particularly for its
refugee and migrant populations. With approximately 215,000 refugees, India is a critical host nation for
individuals fleeing neighboring countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has further complicated this
situation, leading to a decrease in the number of refugees. India's refusal to ratify the 1951 Convention
relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Optional Protocol exacerbates these challenges, as does the
country's strict border control policies. These policies, including a comprehensive detention regime,
disproportionately affect the Rohingya Muslims, who are often deemed a threat to Indian society. The
lack of judicial intervention and protection for refugees underscores a severe gap in the legal framework,
leaving many without adequate support.
Women and children are particularly vulnerable, often filling detention centers designed to
control refugee populations. Sanjay's story illustrates the profound impact of these challenges. As one of
seven siblings who survived the Bhopal gas leak, she witnessed five of her siblings die due to the disaster
and later suffered a stroke that paralyzed half of her body. The local population, including Sanjay,
continues to suffer from illnesses caused by contaminated drinking water. Despite these hardships, Sanjay
and others have shown resilience by demanding to meet the prime minister and protesting for their rights.
Her brother's suicide, attributed to depression from the gas leak, highlights the long-term psychological
effects on survivors.
The mental and physical toll on these individuals is immense. Despite their protests and hunger
strikes, the government's response has been limited to vague promises, offering little hope for substantial
change.
Imperialistic modes of living present another significant challenge, especially for migrant
populations. Investors exploit poverty-stricken areas, knowing that high migration rates and economic
7
desperation make these regions vulnerable. The Bhopal disaster exemplifies how corporations take
advantage of impoverished communities, neglecting their responsibility to protect and assist the local
population. This exploitation is often driven by the search for cheap labor and resources, further
entrenching poverty and inequality.
The pursuit of wealth and power under the guise of imperialism leads to disasters in developing
countries like India. This mindset perpetuates inequality, with the global South seen as inferior to the
global North. As noted by Lang, we must adopt new perceptions of a good and successful life, moving
away from materialism governed by money. This shift in thinking is crucial to prevent further harm to
human civilization and the planet.
The challenges faced by India, from predatory investors to inadequate refugee protections, are
intricately linked to the broader theme of migration. Without addressing these issues, the cycle of poverty
and exploitation will continue, exacerbating the suffering of vulnerable populations. Addressing the needs
of migrants and refugees, along with systemic changes in global economic practices, is essential for
creating safe and sustainable livelihoods.
Recommendation for Human Rights
For meaningful change to occur, it is imperative to identify and address the country's
failings, and in this case, India has several. The human rights violation under scrutiny falls under
the "Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
Degrading Treatment or Punishment," which India is blatantly violating. The people of Bhopal
are suffering mistreatment by their own nation and the corrupt regime, as highlighted by their
pleas to the Prime Minister for change. To ensure the protection of human rights, India must
ratify the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Optional Protocol.
This would provide a legal framework to protect the rights of migrants, who often seek asylum in
places like Bhopal. Legal protections for workers and refugees should align with the
"International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members
8
of Their Families." Ensuring such protections is crucial for those who endured the gas leak
disaster, preventing future incidents by holding entities accountable.
Accountability must be established for those responsible for the Bhopal disaster, which was
wrongly attributed to sabotage by workers when, in reality, safety protocols were ignored.
Survivors need comprehensive rehabilitation programs, especially those giving birth to children
with disabilities caused by the disaster. There must be independent judicial bodies to oversee the
treatment of refugees and victims of industrial disasters. Additionally, mental health support
should be provided to all affected individuals, recognizing the severe trauma they have
experienced.
Decades after the incident, the environment, including water sources, remains
contaminated. The government’s aid of $400 a month is insufficient. Comprehensive
environmental cleanup and continuous monitoring are necessary to prevent further harm. This
environmental negligence not only affects the residents of Bhopal but also impacts migrants
seeking refuge in the area, as they encounter similar health hazards. Immediate action to
decontaminate the water and land is essential to ensure a safe living environment for both locals
and migrants.
Global education on the Bhopal disaster is essential. Public history books, news outlets,
and educational programs should highlight this tragedy, ensuring it is never forgotten. First-hand
victim stories should be continuously shared to keep the narrative alive and promote empathy
and understanding. By raising awareness, we can prevent similar occurrences and push for better
policies and protections. Education can also play a significant role in changing public perception
and fostering a more compassionate approach toward migrants and refugees.
9
Better emergency response and preparedness plans must be developed to address
industrial disasters and humanitarian crises. The current lack of adequate response mechanisms
exacerbates the suffering of both residents and migrants. There needs to be a shift in our values,
moving away from imperialistic greed towards protecting human lives and the environment. This
shift requires a commitment to human rights and a dedication to preventing such tragedies in the
future.
Human rights are being violated, and it is heartbreaking that people are still suffering
today. There must be immediate fixes for the environment, programs providing medical
assistance, and access to clean water. A paradigm shift is needed to prioritize human rights and
dignity over profit. The global community must come together to support those affected by the
Bhopal disaster and ensure that such an atrocity never happens again. By addressing these issues,
we can create a safer and more just world for migrants and all individuals impacted by industrial
negligence.
10
References
Arslan, Mustafa, and Şemsettin Tosun. 2010. "The Effects of Foreign Direct Investments on the Host
Country Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis for Developing Countries." Journal of Yaşar
University 5(20): 3011-3026. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-
file/164094.
Beck, Roy, and Lowell L. Bryan. 1987. "Industrial Policy for a Mature Economy." Journal of Policy
Modeling 9(1): 1-23. Retrieved from
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0272059087900194?via%3Dihub.
Broughton, Edward. 2005. "The Bhopal Disaster and Its Aftermath: A Review." Environmental Health: A
Global Access Science Source 4:6. Retrieved from http://www.ehjournal.net/content/4/1/6.
District Administration Bhopal. n.d. "History." Retrieved from https://bhopal.nic.in/en/history/.
Gallup, Inc. 2023. "India’s Youth Dividend: High Hopes for Today and Tomorrow." Gallup. Retrieved
from https://www.gallup.com.
Global Detention Project. 2022. "India: Submission to the Universal Periodic Review 41st Session."
Retrieved from https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/INDIA-
Submission-to-the-Universal-Periodic-Review-41ST-session.pdf.
Global Detention Project. 2023. "India Immigration Detention Profile." Retrieved from
https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/countries/asia-pacific/india.
Lang, Miriam. 2018. "The Migration Crisis and the Imperial Mode of Living." Uneven Earth. Retrieved
from https://unevenearth.org/2018/03/the-migration-crisis-and-the-imperial-mode-of-living/.
Mishra, Arima, and Sanghamitra Pati. 2023. "Impact of COVID-19 on Health Service Utilisation
in a Rural Area of India: A Mixed Methods Study." BMJ Open 13(6): e066733. Retrieved
from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/13/6/e066733.full.pdf.
National Solid Waste Association of India. n.d. "Bhopal: A Case Study of International Standards in
Disaster Management." Retrieved from https://nswai.org/docs/m.p_bhopal.pdf.
11
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). n.d. "Instruments
Listings." Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-listings.
Rao, V. 2023. "Inside India: The World’s Most Populous Nation Looks Ahead." Gallup. Retrieved from
https://news.gallup.com/opinion/gallup/510488/inside-india-world-populous-nation-looks-
ahead.aspx.
Taylor, Alan. 2014. "Bhopal: The World's Worst Industrial Disaster, 30 Years Later." The Atlantic.
Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/12/bhopal-the-worlds-worst-industrial-
disaster-30-years-later/100864/.
The Economist. 2021. "Bhopal: The World's Worst Industrial Disaster." YouTube. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwPSDMUtNmk&t=55s.
U.S. Chemical Safety Board. 2014. "Reflections on Bhopal After Thirty Years." CSB Videos. Retrieved
from https://www.csb.gov/videos/reflections-on-bhopal-after-thirty-years/.
Voice of Witness. n.d. "Sanjay's Story: Bhopal Chemical Disaster." Retrieved from
https://voiceofwitness.org/sanjays-story-bhopal-chemical-disaster/.

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The Impact of Imperial Mode of Living on Migration.pdf

  • 1. The Impact of Imperial Mode of Living on Migration: A Case Study of Bhopal and the Industrial Disaster Christopher Serrano California State University, Los Angeles Sociology 3500: International Migration
  • 2. 2 Introduction The innocent natives of Bhopal, India, are experiencing a chemical erasure of their future due to the impacts of this “imperial mode of living.” This imperialistic pursuit, driven by investments in poorly regulated factories, has led to ongoing health crises for over 30 years, with residents suffering from cancers and other disorders such as birth defects, neurological problems, and various health abnormalities. Ulrich Brand's concept of the "imperial mode of living" illustrates how these actions divide the North from the South, leaving Bhopal's residents without adequate health services or benefits. The water remains contaminated with chemicals from the explosions, deemed poisonous by the government. However, the local population lacks the necessary resources, medical tools, or compensation to mitigate these effects. The primary culprit, Union Carbide Corporation from the U.S., neglected responsibility, blaming worker sabotage. The corporation's compensation of $470 million, translating to about $400 per month per victim, is insufficient. Consequently, many spend it on consultation fees, leaving them unable to access proper medical care. Due to this incident, chemical scientists have taken into consideration the effects of Methyl Isocyanate, noting that the people living there are becoming guinea pigs for the corporation's horrible infrastructure. Methyl Isocyanate had not been extensively studied because, as Bucher notes, "few studies had been performed to examine the long-term health effects of exposure" and "chemicals with more widespread human exposure take priority for the limited resources available for toxicological evaluation." This further demonstrates that the people in this area are being treated like guinea pigs and, as a result, many are forced to migrate in search of better living conditions. This situation exemplifies the imperialistic form of living, as illustrated in the movie "This Changes Everything: Capitalism & the Climate," where residents of Montana, U.S.A., face
  • 3. 3 the repercussions of nearby factories affecting their water and environment. Union Carbide opened up a factory in Bhopal during the 1960s and 1970s under the guise of the "Green Revolution," intended to prevent food shortages across India. However, this initiative failed because it focused on monocrop, chemically and mechanically maintained agriculture. Poverty- stricken farmers migrated to Bhopal seeking a better life, many of them lacking proper documentation such as birth, marriage, or death certificates, which prevented them from receiving assistance. The high level of industrialization and influx of migrants living in Bhopal at that time exacerbated their living conditions. When the disaster struck, it created a lasting echo of health issues, compelling many to migrate once again in search of safer and more sustainable environments. Despite receiving money from the U.S. government, the local government could not sustain the affected population, further fueling the migration crisis. This situation exemplifies the imperialistic form of living, as illustrated in the movie "This Changes Everything: Capitalism & the Climate," where residents of Montana, U.S.A., face the repercussions of nearby factories affecting their water and environment. Union Carbide opened up a factory in Bhopal during the 1960s and 1970s under the guise of the "Green Revolution," intended to prevent food shortages across India. However, this initiative failed because it focused on monocrop, chemically and mechanically maintained agriculture. Poverty- stricken farmers migrated to Bhopal seeking a better life, many of them lacking proper documentation such as birth, marriage, or death certificates, which prevented them from receiving assistance. The high level of industrialization and influx of migrants living in Bhopal at that time exacerbated their living conditions. When the disaster struck, it created a lasting echo of health issues, compelling many to migrate once again in search of safer and more sustainable
  • 4. 4 environments. Despite receiving money from the U.S. government, the local government could not sustain the affected population, further fueling the migration crisis. To this day, as stated in The Atlantic, “toxic materials remain…for decades survivors have been fighting to have the site cleaned up, but they say the efforts were slowed.” There is no significant change happening for those living in the area, and they continue to be affected, including children. The article features pictures of “a worker cleaning dust as he displays a panel of photographs of some of the thousands of people who died in the 1984 Bhopal disaster,” which is disheartening. These photographs include children, women, men, and teenagers—all innocent individuals striving for a better life whose lives were ended because of the imperialistic mode of living. The U.S. is not the only party to blame; the Indian government also holds responsibility, as they have the power to initiate change. However, this form of thinking perpetuates a never- ending cycle of greed and exploitation. Demographic Portrait India is known for its significant population density. According to Gallup, "India overtook China to become the most populous nation in the world." This demographic reality raises important questions about how external corporations exploit rural areas, often populated by impoverished communities. The case of Union Carbide's investment in India, despite the country's vast population, underscores a critical issue: the lack of corporate responsibility and assistance to those in need. As the population of a country increases, so does its geopolitical and economic significance. From a global perspective, India has been a significant host for asylum seekers and refugees from neighboring countries, as noted by the Global Detention Project. This influx of people often leads to heightened military surveillance in these regions.
  • 5. 5 The residents of Bhopal face numerous systemic challenges, including inappropriate waste management practices, inadequate labor for waste collection and transport, and insufficient waste treatment and disposal facilities (Katiyar, Suresh, et al.). These issues are compounded by the widespread poverty and lack of attention to the needs of the local population, contributing to unhealthy living conditions. Historically, Bhopal was ruled by four generations of Muslim queens throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, who distinguished themselves as warriors, scholars, builders, and social reformers (Hurley). Over time, India has evolved into a diverse nation, proud of its heterogeneous population and cultural richness. However, the Bhopal gas victims are primarily Hindi-speaking, poor, and often illiterate (Marcus, 221). They face ongoing struggles with lifelong diseases caused by the disaster. Despite the chaos, organizations like the Bhopal Group for Information and Action (BGIA) have emerged. These middle-class activists serve as intermediaries between gas victims and official rehabilitation bodies. The victims, often referred to as "valiant victims," live on the streets seeking help and rehabilitation. Gender dynamics also play a crucial role, with groups such as the Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Udyog Sangathan, the largest organization of gas victims, advocating for their rights and support. The true issue lies in the lifelong health struggles these people face, with organizations stepping in to fill the gap left by governmental and international negligence. The U.S. government's inaction in assisting these victims highlights the broader problem of global inequity and corruption. Although India allowed the disaster to happen, there has been
  • 6. 6 insufficient effort to prevent such tragedies. It is disheartening to see that despite the clear need for intervention, the U.S. has refrained from offering substantial aid to those affected. Challenges for Save and Sustainable Livelihoods India faces significant challenges in providing safe and sustainable livelihoods, particularly for its refugee and migrant populations. With approximately 215,000 refugees, India is a critical host nation for individuals fleeing neighboring countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has further complicated this situation, leading to a decrease in the number of refugees. India's refusal to ratify the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Optional Protocol exacerbates these challenges, as does the country's strict border control policies. These policies, including a comprehensive detention regime, disproportionately affect the Rohingya Muslims, who are often deemed a threat to Indian society. The lack of judicial intervention and protection for refugees underscores a severe gap in the legal framework, leaving many without adequate support. Women and children are particularly vulnerable, often filling detention centers designed to control refugee populations. Sanjay's story illustrates the profound impact of these challenges. As one of seven siblings who survived the Bhopal gas leak, she witnessed five of her siblings die due to the disaster and later suffered a stroke that paralyzed half of her body. The local population, including Sanjay, continues to suffer from illnesses caused by contaminated drinking water. Despite these hardships, Sanjay and others have shown resilience by demanding to meet the prime minister and protesting for their rights. Her brother's suicide, attributed to depression from the gas leak, highlights the long-term psychological effects on survivors. The mental and physical toll on these individuals is immense. Despite their protests and hunger strikes, the government's response has been limited to vague promises, offering little hope for substantial change. Imperialistic modes of living present another significant challenge, especially for migrant populations. Investors exploit poverty-stricken areas, knowing that high migration rates and economic
  • 7. 7 desperation make these regions vulnerable. The Bhopal disaster exemplifies how corporations take advantage of impoverished communities, neglecting their responsibility to protect and assist the local population. This exploitation is often driven by the search for cheap labor and resources, further entrenching poverty and inequality. The pursuit of wealth and power under the guise of imperialism leads to disasters in developing countries like India. This mindset perpetuates inequality, with the global South seen as inferior to the global North. As noted by Lang, we must adopt new perceptions of a good and successful life, moving away from materialism governed by money. This shift in thinking is crucial to prevent further harm to human civilization and the planet. The challenges faced by India, from predatory investors to inadequate refugee protections, are intricately linked to the broader theme of migration. Without addressing these issues, the cycle of poverty and exploitation will continue, exacerbating the suffering of vulnerable populations. Addressing the needs of migrants and refugees, along with systemic changes in global economic practices, is essential for creating safe and sustainable livelihoods. Recommendation for Human Rights For meaningful change to occur, it is imperative to identify and address the country's failings, and in this case, India has several. The human rights violation under scrutiny falls under the "Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment," which India is blatantly violating. The people of Bhopal are suffering mistreatment by their own nation and the corrupt regime, as highlighted by their pleas to the Prime Minister for change. To ensure the protection of human rights, India must ratify the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Optional Protocol. This would provide a legal framework to protect the rights of migrants, who often seek asylum in places like Bhopal. Legal protections for workers and refugees should align with the "International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members
  • 8. 8 of Their Families." Ensuring such protections is crucial for those who endured the gas leak disaster, preventing future incidents by holding entities accountable. Accountability must be established for those responsible for the Bhopal disaster, which was wrongly attributed to sabotage by workers when, in reality, safety protocols were ignored. Survivors need comprehensive rehabilitation programs, especially those giving birth to children with disabilities caused by the disaster. There must be independent judicial bodies to oversee the treatment of refugees and victims of industrial disasters. Additionally, mental health support should be provided to all affected individuals, recognizing the severe trauma they have experienced. Decades after the incident, the environment, including water sources, remains contaminated. The government’s aid of $400 a month is insufficient. Comprehensive environmental cleanup and continuous monitoring are necessary to prevent further harm. This environmental negligence not only affects the residents of Bhopal but also impacts migrants seeking refuge in the area, as they encounter similar health hazards. Immediate action to decontaminate the water and land is essential to ensure a safe living environment for both locals and migrants. Global education on the Bhopal disaster is essential. Public history books, news outlets, and educational programs should highlight this tragedy, ensuring it is never forgotten. First-hand victim stories should be continuously shared to keep the narrative alive and promote empathy and understanding. By raising awareness, we can prevent similar occurrences and push for better policies and protections. Education can also play a significant role in changing public perception and fostering a more compassionate approach toward migrants and refugees.
  • 9. 9 Better emergency response and preparedness plans must be developed to address industrial disasters and humanitarian crises. The current lack of adequate response mechanisms exacerbates the suffering of both residents and migrants. There needs to be a shift in our values, moving away from imperialistic greed towards protecting human lives and the environment. This shift requires a commitment to human rights and a dedication to preventing such tragedies in the future. Human rights are being violated, and it is heartbreaking that people are still suffering today. There must be immediate fixes for the environment, programs providing medical assistance, and access to clean water. A paradigm shift is needed to prioritize human rights and dignity over profit. The global community must come together to support those affected by the Bhopal disaster and ensure that such an atrocity never happens again. By addressing these issues, we can create a safer and more just world for migrants and all individuals impacted by industrial negligence.
  • 10. 10 References Arslan, Mustafa, and Şemsettin Tosun. 2010. "The Effects of Foreign Direct Investments on the Host Country Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis for Developing Countries." Journal of Yaşar University 5(20): 3011-3026. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article- file/164094. Beck, Roy, and Lowell L. Bryan. 1987. "Industrial Policy for a Mature Economy." Journal of Policy Modeling 9(1): 1-23. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0272059087900194?via%3Dihub. Broughton, Edward. 2005. "The Bhopal Disaster and Its Aftermath: A Review." Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 4:6. Retrieved from http://www.ehjournal.net/content/4/1/6. District Administration Bhopal. n.d. "History." Retrieved from https://bhopal.nic.in/en/history/. Gallup, Inc. 2023. "India’s Youth Dividend: High Hopes for Today and Tomorrow." Gallup. Retrieved from https://www.gallup.com. Global Detention Project. 2022. "India: Submission to the Universal Periodic Review 41st Session." Retrieved from https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/INDIA- Submission-to-the-Universal-Periodic-Review-41ST-session.pdf. Global Detention Project. 2023. "India Immigration Detention Profile." Retrieved from https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/countries/asia-pacific/india. Lang, Miriam. 2018. "The Migration Crisis and the Imperial Mode of Living." Uneven Earth. Retrieved from https://unevenearth.org/2018/03/the-migration-crisis-and-the-imperial-mode-of-living/. Mishra, Arima, and Sanghamitra Pati. 2023. "Impact of COVID-19 on Health Service Utilisation in a Rural Area of India: A Mixed Methods Study." BMJ Open 13(6): e066733. Retrieved from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/13/6/e066733.full.pdf. National Solid Waste Association of India. n.d. "Bhopal: A Case Study of International Standards in Disaster Management." Retrieved from https://nswai.org/docs/m.p_bhopal.pdf.
  • 11. 11 Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). n.d. "Instruments Listings." Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-listings. Rao, V. 2023. "Inside India: The World’s Most Populous Nation Looks Ahead." Gallup. Retrieved from https://news.gallup.com/opinion/gallup/510488/inside-india-world-populous-nation-looks- ahead.aspx. Taylor, Alan. 2014. "Bhopal: The World's Worst Industrial Disaster, 30 Years Later." The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/12/bhopal-the-worlds-worst-industrial- disaster-30-years-later/100864/. The Economist. 2021. "Bhopal: The World's Worst Industrial Disaster." YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwPSDMUtNmk&t=55s. U.S. Chemical Safety Board. 2014. "Reflections on Bhopal After Thirty Years." CSB Videos. Retrieved from https://www.csb.gov/videos/reflections-on-bhopal-after-thirty-years/. Voice of Witness. n.d. "Sanjay's Story: Bhopal Chemical Disaster." Retrieved from https://voiceofwitness.org/sanjays-story-bhopal-chemical-disaster/.