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Ajeenkya DY Patil University, Pune
February 2017
Article Collection and Review
ON
Leadership and Change Management
Compiled, Reviewed and Submitted
For
Continuous Evaluation – 1
By
KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL
Course/Semester:- MBA IN MAC
Enrollment No.:
Academic Year 2016-17
2
Evaluation Sheet for Article Collection and Review
Name of the Student: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL
Course/Semester : MBA IN MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION- 2ND SEM
Enrolment No :
Faculty In Charge : Dr. Makarand Joshi
Sl
No
Description
Max.
Marks
Marks
Awarded
1.
Clarity of Thought: Clear understanding of the underlying concepts and
their applications, Precise narration, Objectivity.
15
2.
Quality of Reviews: Structure, formatting, presentation, use of correct
spellings & grammar, quality of language, flow of thoughts, logical
sequence
5
3.
Originality: Independent thought processes, original contribution,
identifying and presenting learning outcomes.
15
4.
Planning & Implementation: Efficient planning and implementation,
effective time management
10
5. Quality of Articles Chosen for Review 5
Total 50
Signature of Faculty Member Signature of the Student
Name: Dr. Makarand Joshi Name: KHUSHBU MOHAN
PATEL
Date: 15-02-2017
3
Evaluation Sheet for Article Review Presentation
Name of the Student: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL
Course/Semester : MBA IN MEDIA & COMMUNICATION
Enrolment No :____________________________________________________
Faculty In Charge : Dr. Makarand Joshi
Sl
No
Description
Max.
Marks
Marks
Awarded
1.
Quality of Presentation: Objectives, scope & structure of presentation,
color schemes, fonts, pictures, animation, use of supporting material for
presentation, etc.
15
2.
Research Focus: Interpretation of Articles Reviewed, Conceptual Clarity,
Reference to other published material
5
3. Properly chronicled analysis and Understanding 15
4.
Communication ability: Clarity of thought & expression, correct usage of
language, transforming concepts into proper presentation, delivery style,
eye-contact, body-language and confidence
10
5.
Handling Question Answers: Preparedness for unexpected and tricky
questions, convincing ability and precise response to questions.
5
Total 50
Signature of Faculty Member Signature of the Student
Name: Dr. Makarand Joshi Name: Khushbu Mohan
Patel
Date: 15-02-2017
4
Declaration
I, hereby declare that the article reviews written on the articles compiled in this
collection of articles on Leadership and Change Management are the original pieces of
work done by me.
I take full responsibility if the reviews are found to be copied from any source, at any
given point of time.
I also understand, that if found guilty of plagiarism, the Ajeenkya DY Patil University is
free to initiate any action against me.
Signature of Student
Name: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL
Course/Semester: MBA IN MEDIA & COMMUNICATION
Enrollment No.:
Date: 15-02-2017
5
Contents
S.No. Title of the Article Author Page No.
1 THE FOCUSED LEADER DANIEL GOLEMAN 6 TO 14
2 TRUE LEADERS BELIEVE DISSENT IS
AN OBLIGATION
BILL TAYLOR 15 TO 17
3 THE BEST STRATEGIC LEADERS
BALANCE AGILITY AND
CONSISTENCY
JOHN COLEMAN 18 TO 21
4 HOW TO THINK ABOUT BUILDING
YOUR LEGACY
KIMBERLY WADE-
BENZONI
22 TO 24
5 WHY LEADERS FAIL MARK SANBORN 25 TO 28
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The Focused Leader
By Daniel Goleman
A primary task of leadership is to direct attention.To do so, leaders must learn to focus their own
attention. When we speak about being focused, we commonly mean thinking about one thing
while filtering out distractions. But a wealth of recent research in neuroscience shows that we
focus in many ways, for different purposes, drawing on different neural pathways—some of
which work in concert, while others tend to stand in opposition.
Grouping these modes of attention into three broad buckets—focusing on yourself, focusing
on others, and focusing on the wider world—sheds new light on the practice of many essential
leadership skills. Focusing inward and focusing constructively on others helps leaders cultivate
the primary elements of emotional intelligence. A fuller understanding of how they focus on the
wider world can improve their ability to devise strategy, innovate, and manage organizations.
Every leader needs to cultivate this triad of awareness, in abundance and in the proper balance,
because a failure to focus inward leaves you rudderless, a failure to focus on others renders you
clueless, and a failure to focus outward may leave you blindsided.
Focusing on Yourself
Emotional intelligence begins with self-awareness—getting in touch with your inner voice.
Leaders who heed their inner voices can draw on more resources to make better decisions and
connect with their authentic selves. But what does that entail? A look at how people focus
inward can make this abstract concept more concrete.
Self-awareness.
Hearing your inner voice is a matter of paying careful attention to internal physiological signals.
These subtle cues are monitored by the insula, which is tucked behind the frontal lobes of the
brain. Attention given to any part of the body amps up the insula’s sensitivity to that part. Tune
in to your heartbeat, and the insula activates more neurons in that circuitry. How well people can
sense their heartbeats has, in fact, become a standard way to measure their self-awareness.
Gut feelings are messages from the insula and the amygdala, which the neuroscientist Antonio
Damasio, of the University of Southern California, calls somatic markers. Those messages are
sensations that something “feels” right or wrong. Somatic markers simplify decision making by
guiding our attention toward better options. They’re hardly foolproof (how often was that feeling
that you left the stove on correct?), so the more comprehensively we read them, the better we use
our intuition.
Consider, for example, the implications of an analysis of interviews conducted by a group of
British researchers with 118 professional traders and 10 senior managers at four City of London
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investment banks. The most successful traders (whose annual income averaged £500,000) were
neither the ones who relied entirely on analytics nor the ones who just went with their guts. They
focused on a full range of emotions, which they used to judge the value of their intuition. When
they suffered losses, they acknowledged their anxiety, became more cautious, and took fewer
risks. The least successful traders (whose income averaged only £100,000) tended to ignore their
anxiety and keep going with their guts. Because they failed to heed a wider array of internal
signals, they were misled.
Zeroing in on sensory impressions of ourselves in the moment is one major element of self-
awareness. But another is critical to leadership: combining our experiences across time into a
coherent view of our authentic selves.
To be authentic is to be the same person to others as you are to yourself. In part that entails
paying attention to what others think of you, particularly people whose opinions you esteem and
who will be candid in their feedback. A variety of focus that is useful here is open awareness, in
which we broadly notice what’s going on around us without getting caught up in or swept away
by any particular thing. In this mode we don’t judge, censor, or tune out; we simply perceive.
Leaders who are more accustomed to giving input than to receiving it may find this tricky.
Someone who has trouble sustaining open awareness typically gets snagged by irritating details,
such as fellow travelers in the airport security line who take forever getting their carry-ons into
the scanner. Someone who can keep her attention in open mode will notice the travelers but not
worry about them, and will take in more of her surroundings.
Of course, being open to input doesn’t guarantee that someone will provide it. Sadly, life affords
us few chances to learn how others really see us, and even fewer for executives as they rise
through the ranks. That may be why one of the most popular and overenrolled courses at Harvard
Business School is Bill George’s Authentic Leadership Development, in which George has
created what he calls True North groups to heighten this aspect of self-awareness.
These groups (which anyone can form) are based on the precept that self-knowledge begins with
self-revelation. Accordingly, they are open and intimate, “a safe place,” George explains, “where
members can discuss personal issues they do not feel they can raise elsewhere—often not even
with their closest family members.” What good does that do? “We don’t know who we are until
we hear ourselves speaking the story of our lives to those we trust,” George says. It’s a structured
way to match our view of our true selves with the views our most trusted colleagues have—an
external check on our authenticity.
Self-control.
“Cognitive control” is the scientific term for putting one’s attention where one wants it and
keeping it there in the face of temptation to wander. This focus is one aspect of the brain’s
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executive function, which is located in the prefrontal cortex. A colloquial term for it is
“willpower.”
Cognitive control enables executives to pursue a goal despite distractions and setbacks. The same
neural circuitry that allows such a single-minded pursuit of goals also manages unruly emotions.
Good cognitive control can be seen in people who stay calm in a crisis, tame their own agitation,
and recover from a debacle or defeat.
Decades’ worth of research demonstrates the singular importance of willpower to leadership
success. Particularly compelling is a longitudinal study tracking the fates of all 1,037 children
born during a single year in the 1970s in the New Zealand city of Dunedin. For several years
during childhood the children were given a battery of tests of willpower, including the
psychologist Walter Mischel’s legendary “marshmallow test”—a choice between eating one
marshmallow right away and getting two by waiting 15 minutes. In Mischel’s experiments,
roughly a third of children grab the marshmallow on the spot, another third hold out for a while
longer, and a third manage to make it through the entire quarter hour.
Executives who can effectively focus on others emerge as natural leaders regardless of
organizational or social rank.
Years later, when the children in the Dunedin study were in their 30s and all but 4% of them had
been tracked down again, the researchers found that those who’d had the cognitive control to
resist the marshmallow longest were significantly healthier, more successful financially, and
more law-abiding than the ones who’d been unable to hold out at all. In fact, statistical analysis
showed that a child’s level of self-control was a more powerful predictor of financial success
than IQ, social class, or family circumstance.
How we focus holds the key to exercising willpower, Mischel says. Three subvarieties of
cognitive control are at play when you pit self-restraint against self-gratification: the ability to
voluntarily disengage your focus from an object of desire; the ability to resist distraction so that
you don’t gravitate back to that object; and the ability to concentrate on the future goal and
imagine how good you will feel when you achieve it. As adults the children of Dunedin may
have been held hostage to their younger selves, but they need not have been, because the power
to focus can be developed.
Focusing on Others
The word “attention” comes from the Latin attendere, meaning “to reach toward.” This is a
perfect definition of focus on others, which is the foundation of empathy and of an ability to
build social relationships—the second and third pillars of emotional intelligence.
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Executives who can effectively focus on others are easy to recognize. They are the ones who find
common ground, whose opinions carry the most weight, and with whom other people want to
work. They emerge as natural leaders regardless of organizational or social rank.
The empathy triad.
We talk about empathy most commonly as a single attribute. But a close look at where leaders
are focusing when they exhibit it reveals three distinct kinds, each important for leadership
effectiveness:
 cognitive empathy—the ability to understand another person’s perspective;
 emotional empathy—the ability to feel what someone else feels;
 empathic concern—the ability to sense what another person needs from you.
Cognitive empathy enables leaders to explain themselves in meaningful ways—a skill essential
to getting the best performance from their direct reports. Contrary to what you might expect,
exercising cognitive empathy requires leaders to think about feelings rather than to feel them
directly.
An inquisitive nature feeds cognitive empathy. As one successful executive with this trait puts it,
“I’ve always just wanted to learn everything, to understand anybody that I was around—why
they thought what they did, why they did what they did, what worked for them, and what didn’t
work.” But cognitive empathy is also an outgrowth of self-awareness. The executive circuits that
allow us to think about our own thoughts and to monitor the feelings that flow from them let us
apply the same reasoning to other people’s minds when we choose to direct our attention that
way.
Emotional empathy is important for effective mentoring, managing clients, and reading group
dynamics. It springs from ancient parts of the brain beneath the cortex—the amygdala, the
hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex—that allow us to feel fast without
thinking deeply. They tune us in by arousing in our bodies the emotional states of others: I
literally feel your pain. My brain patterns match up with yours when I listen to you tell a
gripping story. As Tania Singer, the director of the social neuroscience department at the Max
Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, in Leipzig, says, “You need to
understand your own feelings to understand the feelings of others.” Accessing your capacity for
emotional empathy depends on combining two kinds of attention: a deliberate focus on your own
echoes of someone else’s feelings and an open awareness of that person’s face, voice, and other
external signs of emotion.
Empathic concern, which is closely related to emotional empathy, enables you to sense not just
how people feel but what they need from you. It’s what you want in your doctor, your spouse—
and your boss. Empathic concern has its roots in the circuitry that compels parents’ attention to
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their children. Watch where people’s eyes go when someone brings an adorable baby into a
room, and you’ll see this mammalian brain center leaping into action.
Research suggests that as people rise through the ranks, their ability to maintain personal
connections suffers.
One neural theory holds that the response is triggered in the amygdala by the brain’s radar for
sensing danger and in the prefrontal cortex by the release of oxytocin, the chemical for caring.
This implies that empathic concern is a double-edged feeling. We intuitively experience the
distress of another as our own. But in deciding whether we will meet that person’s needs, we
deliberately weigh how much we value his or her well-being.
Getting this intuition-deliberation mix right has great implications. Those whose sympathetic
feelings become too strong may themselves suffer. In the helping professions, this can lead to
compassion fatigue; in executives, it can create distracting feelings of anxiety about people and
circumstances that are beyond anyone’s control. But those who protect themselves by deadening
their feelings may lose touch with empathy. Empathic concern requires us to manage our
personal distress without numbing ourselves to the pain of others.
What’s more, some lab research suggests that the appropriate application of empathic concern is
critical to making moral judgments. Brain scans have revealed that when volunteers listened to
tales of people subjected to physical pain, their own brain centers for experiencing such pain lit
up instantly. But if the story was about psychological suffering, the higher brain centers involved
in empathic concern and compassion took longer to activate. Some time is needed to grasp the
psychological and moral dimensions of a situation. The more distracted we are, the less we can
cultivate the subtler forms of empathy and compassion.
Building relationships.
People who lack social sensitivity are easy to spot—at least for other people. They are the
clueless among us. The CFO who is technically competent but bullies some people, freezes out
others, and plays favorites—but when you point out what he has just done, shifts the blame, gets
angry, or thinks that you’re the problem—is not trying to be a jerk; he’s utterly unaware of his
shortcomings.
Social sensitivity appears to be related to cognitive empathy. Cognitively empathic executives do
better at overseas assignments, for instance, presumably because they quickly pick up implicit
norms and learn the unique mental models of a new culture. Attention to social context lets us act
with skill no matter what the situation, instinctively follow the universal algorithm for etiquette,
and behave in ways that put others at ease. (In another age this might have been called good
manners.)
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Circuitry that converges on the anterior hippocampus reads social context and leads us intuitively
to act differently with, say, our college buddies than with our families or our colleagues. In
concert with the deliberative prefrontal cortex, it squelches the impulse to do something
inappropriate. Accordingly, one brain test for sensitivity to context assesses the function of the
hippocampus. The University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Richard Davidson hypothesizes that
people who are most alert to social situations exhibit stronger activity and more connections
between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex than those who just can’t seem to get it right.
The same circuits may be at play when we map social networks in a group—a skill that lets us
navigate the relationships in those networks well. People who excel at organizational influence
can not only sense the flow of personal connections but also name the people whose opinions
hold most sway, and so focus on persuading those who will persuade others.
Alarmingly, research suggests that as people rise through the ranks and gain power, their ability
to perceive and maintain personal connections tends to suffer a sort of psychic attrition. In
studying encounters between people of varying status, Dacher Keltner, a psychologist at
Berkeley, has found that higher-ranking individuals consistently focus their gaze less on lower-
ranking people and are more likely to interrupt or to monopolize the conversation.
In fact, mapping attention to power in an organization gives a clear indication of hierarchy: The
longer it takes Person A to respond to Person B, the more relative power Person A has. Map
response times across an entire organization, and you’ll get a remarkably accurate chart of social
standing. The boss leaves e-mails unanswered for hours; those lower down respond within
minutes. This is so predictable that an algorithm for it—called automated social hierarchy
detection—has been developed at Columbia University. Intelligence agencies reportedly are
applying the algorithm to suspected terrorist gangs to piece together chains of influence and
identify central figures.
But the real point is this: Where we see ourselves on the social ladder sets the default for how
much attention we pay. This should be a warning to top executives, who need to respond to fast-
moving competitive situations by tapping the full range of ideas and talents within an
organization. Without a deliberate shift in attention, their natural inclination may be to ignore
smart ideas from the lower ranks.
Focusing on the Wider World
Leaders with a strong outward focus are not only good listeners but also good questioners. They
are visionaries who can sense the far-flung consequences of local decisions and imagine how the
choices they make today will play out in the future. They are open to the surprising ways in
which seemingly unrelated data can inform their central interests. Melinda Gates offered up a
cogent example when she remarked on 60 Minutes that her husband was the kind of person who
would read an entire book about fertilizer. Charlie Rose asked, Why fertilizer? The connection
was obvious to Bill Gates, who is constantly looking for technological advances that can save
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lives on a massive scale. “A few billion people would have to die if we hadn’t come up with
fertilizer,” he replied.
Focusing on strategy.
Any business school course on strategy will give you the two main elements: exploitation of
your current advantage and exploration for new ones. Brain scans that were performed on 63
seasoned business decision makers as they pursued or switched between exploitative and
exploratory strategies revealed the specific circuits involved. Not surprisingly, exploitation
requires concentration on the job at hand, whereas exploration demands open awareness to
recognize new possibilities. But exploitation is accompanied by activity in the brain’s circuitry
for anticipation and reward. In other words, it feels good to coast along in a familiar routine.
When we switch to exploration, we have to make a deliberate cognitive effort to disengage from
that routine in order to roam widely and pursue fresh paths.
“A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention,” wrote the economist Herbert Simon in
1971.
What keeps us from making that effort? Sleep deprivation, drinking, stress, and mental overload
all interfere with the executive circuitry used to make the cognitive switch. To sustain the
outward focus that leads to innovation, we need some uninterrupted time in which to reflect and
refresh our focus.
The wellsprings of innovation.
In an era when almost everyone has access to the same information, new value arises from
putting ideas together in novel ways and asking smart questions that open up untapped potential.
Moments before we have a creative insight, the brain shows a third-of-a-second spike in gamma
waves, indicating the synchrony of far-flung brain cells. The more neurons firing in sync, the
bigger the spike. Its timing suggests that what’s happening is the formation of a new neural
network—presumably creating a fresh association.
But it would be making too much of this to see gamma waves as a secret to creativity. A classic
model of creativity suggests how the various modes of attention play key roles. First we prepare
our minds by gathering a wide variety of pertinent information, and then we alternate between
concentrating intently on the problem and letting our minds wander freely. Those activities
translate roughly into vigilance, when while immersing ourselves in all kinds of input, we remain
alert for anything relevant to the problem at hand; selective attention to the specific creative
challenge; and open awareness, in which we allow our minds to associate freely and the solution
to emerge spontaneously. (That’s why so many fresh ideas come to people in the shower or out
for a walk or a run.)
The dubious gift of systems awareness.
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If people are given a quick view of a photo of lots of dots and asked to guess how many there
are, the strong systems thinkers in the group tend to make the best estimates. This skill shows up
in those who are good at designing software, assembly lines, matrix organizations, or
interventions to save failing ecosystems—it’s a very powerful gift indeed. After all, we live
within extremely complex systems. But, suggests the Cambridge University psychologist Simon
Baron-Cohen (a cousin of Sacha’s), in a small but significant number of people, a strong systems
awareness is coupled with an empathy deficit—a blind spot for what other people are thinking
and feeling and for reading social situations. For that reason, although people with a superior
systems understanding are organizational assets, they are not necessarily effective leaders.
An executive at one bank explained to me that it has created a separate career ladder for systems
analysts so that they can progress in status and salary on the basis of their systems smarts alone.
That way, the bank can consult them as needed while recruiting leaders from a different pool—
one containing people with emotional intelligence.
Putting It All Together
For those who don’t want to end up similarly compartmentalized, the message is clear. A
focused leader is not the person concentrating on the three most important priorities of the year,
or the most brilliant systems thinker, or the one most in tune with the corporate culture. Focused
leaders can command the full range of their own attention: They are in touch with their inner
feelings, they can control their impulses, they are aware of how others see them, they understand
what others need from them, they can weed out distractions and also allow their minds to roam
widely, free of preconceptions.
This is challenging. But if great leadership were a paint-by-numbers exercise, great leaders
would be more common. Practically every form of focus can be strengthened. What it takes is
not talent so much as diligence—a willingness to exercise the attention circuits of the brain just
as we exercise our analytic skills and other systems of the body.
The link between attention and excellence remains hidden most of the time. Yet attention is the
basis of the most essential of leadership skills—emotional, organizational, and strategic
intelligence. And never has it been under greater assault. The constant onslaught of incoming
data leads to sloppy shortcuts—triaging our e-mail by reading only the subject lines, skipping
many of our voice mails, skimming memos and reports. Not only do our habits of attention make
us less effective, but the sheer volume of all those messages leaves us too little time to reflect on
what they really mean. This was foreseen more than 40 years ago by the Nobel Prize–winning
economist Herbert Simon. Information “consumes the attention of its recipients,” he wrote in
1971. “Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.”
My goal here is to place attention center stage so that you can direct it where you need it when
you need it. Learn to master your attention, and you will be in command of where you, and your
organization, focus.
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Review
Goleman argues the primary task of leadership is to direct attention. “To do so, leaders must
learn to focus their own attention. When we speak about being focused, we commonly mean
thinking about one thing while filtering out distractions. But a wealth of recent research in
neuroscience shows that we focus in many ways, for different purposes, drawing on different
neural pathways – some of which work in concert, while others tend to stand in opposition.”
Learn to master your attention, and you will be in command of where you, and your
organization, focus.
Bottom-line Effective leaders see big picture and impact of their actions across dimensions yet
focus and hit the aim. They can’t get carried away with big picture and lose sight of their goals
and customers. In Steve Jobs’ words – “That’s been one of my mantras — focus and simplicity.
Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it
simple. But it’s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains. It
comes from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don’t get on the wrong track or try to do
too much. We’re always thinking about new markets we could enter, but it’s only by saying no
that you can concentrate on the things that are really important”.
Leaders have to be constantly learning and relearning, self aware, they can’t afford lacking
control. To quote Indira Nooyi, Chairperson PEPSICO, “I am a learning CEO, I go to school all
the times. We look for people who are able to understand and work around geo political
environment quickly and surround themselves with great talent. Who are agile, can work with
scarcity of commodities and make something out of nothing.”
A leader should have self awareness and self control
Daniel Goleman’s blog “ The Focused Leader” suggests the essence of great leadership is self-
awareness, staying authentic to one’s values, focusing on the strategy and learning to control
emotions for the common goals. Effective communicators possess the ability to empower others
and inspire productivity. John Maxwell, a renowned author, implies in a leadership blog “People
buy into the leader before they buy into the vision”.
Effective communicators have the knack for understanding their audience, and capability to lead
the company in the desired direction. The gift of understanding the audience stems from self-
awareness. A self-aware communicator can build on strengths/weaknesses from past
experiences, reflect in the moment, and deliver the intended message with conviction. A self-
aware communicator speaks from the heart by observing the audience, practicing acceptance of
others ideas, developing skill sets, and changing inner perceptions: a process of progress not
perfection. Effective communication is an ART from the heart.
It is important for a leader to first focus on themselves. Inward focus allows you to think more
clearly – come up with your own logical opinions without any interruptions or outside influence.
Being able to trust your own decisions will give a confidence that shows through with others,
giving them a reason to trust in your leadership. Being able to focus on yourself, and within
yourself, will give you a peace in every other area of life as well.
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True Leaders Believe Dissent Is an Obligation
By Bill Taylor
These are head-spinning times for those of us who think about the best ways to lead and the most
effective ways to compete. What defines acceptable personal behavior (let alone behavior worth
emulating) among public officials? Why would executives at so many iconic organizations —
Volkswagen, Wells Fargo, FIFA — tolerate behavior so egregious that it threatens the very
future of their organizations? How should innovators with a fierce sense of ambition handle the
criticisms and objections that inevitably come their way and make sure that confidence does not
turn into bombast?
In a world hungry for great leadership, these are just a few of the questions that too many leaders
seem incapable of answering. I don’t pretend to have easy answers myself. But I do know that
the best leaders I’ve studied — executives and entrepreneurs who have created enduring
economic value based on sound human values — recognize and embrace the “obligation to
dissent.” Put simply, you can’t be an effective leader in business, politics, or society unless you
encourage those around you to speak their minds, to bring attention to hypocrisy and
misbehavior, and to be as direct and strong-willed in their evaluations of you as you are in your
strategies and plans for them.
I first encountered the term last year, in an intriguing interview with a CEO named Victor Ho,
cofounder of a customer loyalty company that has raised more than $100 million in venture
funding. Ho talked about his childhood, his college years, and the experiences that shaped his
entrepreneurial instincts. He also talked about his stint at McKinsey & Company, the blue-chip
consulting firm, and one subversive takeaway. “The strongest lesson I learned at McKinsey that I
now share with every new hire is what they call the ‘obligation to dissent,’” he told the New
York Times. “It means that the youngest, most junior person in any given meeting is the most
capable to disagree with the most senior person in the room.”
What a powerful image. What a contrast to what usually happens in the corridors of power. The
obligation to dissent is in fact a hallmark of McKinsey culture, established and enshrined
decades ago by Marvin Bower, the legendary head of the world’s most celebrated consulting
firm. A biography of Bower describes the first encounter between the larger-than-life leader and
Fred Gluck, a former managing director of the firm. Gluck bumped into Bower, who asked how
things were going with his maiden assignment at the firm. Gluck answered honestly and told
Bower he thought the partners were approaching the engagement all wrong.
The next morning, Gluck found a note asking him to report to Bower’s office. He assumed he
would be fired. Instead, he found Bower on the phone with the project leader, discussing Gluck’s
critique and agreeing that the newcomer was right. They scrapped the approach, refused to
charge the client for the work, and started over. “This obligation to dissent, this was Marvin’s
principle,” one senior consultant told the biographer. “It came directly from him….And very few
people have the guts to dissent.”
Another McKinsey alum, Robin Richards, chair and CEO of the CareerArc Group, makes it clear
how he wants his colleagues to behave. “Don’t have a meeting with your boss where you agree
with him on everything he says,” Richards explained. “If you have an obligation to dissent, then
we get the best minds and we get the best outcomes. People like living in that environment. They
feel valuable. People become fearless.”
Truth be told, very few people have the guts to dissent, very few people become fearless,
because very few leaders emphasize and celebrate their obligation to do so. Edgar Schein,
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professor emeritus at MIT Sloan School of Management and an expert on leadership and culture,
has spent decades studying the attributes that define great executives. One of the attributes he
highlights time and again is humility — the sort that invites dissent. Sadly, that kind of humility
is all too rare.
Schein once asked a group of students what it means to be promoted to the rank of manager.
“They said without hesitation, ‘It means I can now tell others what to do.’” That’s precisely the
know-it-all style of leadership that has led to so much crisis and disappointment. “Deep down,
many of us believe that if you are not winning, you are losing,” Schein warns. The “tacit
assumption” among executives “is that life is fundamentally and always a competition.” But
humility and ambition, he argues, need not be at odds. Instead, humility in the service of
ambition is the most effective and sustainable mindset for leaders who aspire to do big things in
a world filled with huge unknowns.
So here’s to humility. Here’s to dissent. And here’s to a more fruitful style of leadership than
we’ve seen of late.
17
Review
Although I wholeheartedly agree with the concept of Servant Leadership and humility in a
leader, the unfortunate truth is that there are quite a lot of examples of leaders who show neither,
and yet, are quite successful, and in fact, have led their organizations to success. So we don't
have a lot of data to support the conclusion that it's a good thing. Yet, I believe in it for the
simple reason that it's the right thing to do.
I'd like to highlight something else. There's a focus on 'obligation to dissent,' but without the
foundation behind that. The foundation in any organization or team where dissent is welcomed is
whether the team members trust one another sufficiently. This can mean different things to
different people. For some, it may mean that dissenting will be rewarded; for others, it may mean
there's no penalty; and yet for others, it will be a feeling of contributing to the team without fear
of getting chewed out or even hurting someone's feelings because everyone on the team is on the
same page. Without this foundation of trust, nothing else really matters. McKinsey seems to have
found a way to make that happen by focusing on the 'obligation to dissent.' I wonder how easy it
is to dissent with someone if you find that person is the cause of the problem, he controls your
salary and your career, and he has an inconsistent history of dealing with dissenters. If you worry
about that, it probably means you don't trust him, and he doesn't trust you. When that happens,
the 'obligation to dissent' will break down, and will occur only in areas where dissension is
allowed. And believe me, there are many organizations that have the core value of 'open and
honest communication' that fall in that category, resulting in communication that is neither open
nor honest.
And in some cultures "leaders" are deemed as weak "managers". For example, while a true
leader and good manager should actively find out dissent, in reality one could be deemed weak
for getting dissent - your subordinate openly confronted/questioned you on any issues = you
have no control on your subordinates and your subordinates have zero respect towards you. No
control. Zero respect. Many ways to lead, coach and manage. One should decide what culture the
organization has, what the organization values, and the characters of one's subordinates. You
subordinate could be the one thinking that you are afraid of him/her or he/she is indispensable
simply because you value feedbacks and encourage open and honest communication.
Seeking dissent is critical to high performing teams and organizations. Some likely feel that
dissent is a threat to their power, that somehow power is finite - and this is unfortunate. In
reality, dissent only empowers and increases the aggregate power of the organization. Giving the
"other point of view" the floor will likely result in better decisions, higher engagement, and
improved business results.
18
The Best Strategic Leaders Balance Agility and Consistency
By John Coleman
As a former consultant, I have a deep and abiding love for the use of 2×2 matrices in business
strategy. My favorites are those that highlight two factors that seem, at first glance, in conflict. I
find these particularly relevant to personal development, as individuals often must resolve the
tensions between competing values and traits and must carefully monitor their own strengths so
those strengths don’t lapse into weaknesses.
I’ve recently been thinking about this with regard to how leaders can be more strategic, able to
effectively execute the core of their business while remaining open to trends in the market and
adapting to meet them. I’ve begun to view this as the ability to hold two specific traits in
balance: consistency and agility. You can picture it like this:
19
The best performers are, of course, consistent. Consistent leaders work hard and show up on
time. They set goals for themselves and their employees and they achieve them. They plan
diligently and produce excellent products and experiences for clients time and time again. They
are diligent and possess resilience and grit. Consumers expect consistent products; people
appreciate consistent management.
But if organizational leaders are merely consistent, they risk rigidity. In changing environments,
they can struggle to adapt and may cling to old habits and practices until those practices become
counterproductive, distracting them from the more important new work that needs to be done.
On the other side of the spectrum, great leaders are agile. Markets demand that companies and
people adapt and change constantly. By one analysis, 88% of companies appearing on the
Fortune 500 list in 1955 were not on it in 2014 (having merged, gone bankrupt, or fallen off the
list). As we know, buggy whip makers and telegraph companies must evolve or die. And the
most-successful managers must change similarly as they assume additional or different
responsibilities through their careers, moving from head of sales to COO or from CFO to CEO.
These leaders must pivot when needed, and agility requires that they be intellectually curious,
ready to learn from others, communicative, collaborative, and willing to change.
But just as consistency can become rigidity, agility can become a lack of focus when it isn’t
tempered by consistency. Purely agile leaders may be visionaries and change agents but lack the
single-mindedness and dedication to execute their visions. They often turn to new projects before
they’ve finished prior projects, and, in extreme cases, force their teams or organizations into
chaos and instability.
It’s in the combination of consistency and agility that leaders can become strategic, performing
an organization’s purpose with excellence but changing course when the situation demands.
These leaders have high quality standards, achieve goals, and expect consistency, but they are
also open to change, keep an eye on the external environment, and understand when old ways of
working no longer pass the test of the market in which they compete. They stay the course until
it no longer makes sense and combine continuous improvement with ideation and strategy.
Of course, few individuals are equally consistent and agile, just as few people are ambidextrous.
So how can leaders hold these traits in balance?
First, to paraphrase Socrates, “know thyself.” Are you more prone to consistency or agility? Are
you more naturally capable of deep focus or ideation? Do you thrive in situations of chaos and
rapid change or in periods that require relentless pursuit of a clearly defined goal? If in doubt,
ask a spouse, best friend, or close work colleague — they almost always know. Understanding
and accepting our tendencies is the foundation for growth.
With that understanding in hand, surround yourself with others who complement your traits. For
managers, it’s wise to find a strong “number two” who can check your worst impulses and
enhance your strengths. Are you an agile visionary? Find a structured, methodical, and
disciplined deputy or peer. If you are a consistent operator, find a strong voice for agility on your
immediate team or a mentor to push your creativity, no matter how frustrating that might be. And
empower those people to speak up and challenge you.
Complement this organization model with operational process. To ensure consistency, develop
strong dashboards and balanced scorecards to assure outcomes are consistently reached and
continually improving. To assure agility, develop a fluid planning model that allows the
organization to change outside of the formal annual planning process and create an annual
strategic planning process that looks outward to the external environment and forces the
20
organization to contemplate big ideas. As an individual, do this for yourself, perhaps as an end-
of-year exercise, to make sure you’re pointed at the right goals and aspirations for where you are
as a leader.
Finally, with these people and processes in place, seek to learn and grow. If you’re naturally an
agile thinker, you may never be the most consistent operational manager (and
some research would argue against attempting it), but you can get better. And you can often do
so simply by consciously observing what’s working around you and then forcing yourself to
learn and grow. Make note of those traits you admire in others — those that complement your
own — and find ways to practice them.
As leaders, all of us will be forced to balance consistency and agility in our careers and in the
organizations we serve. Are you doing so today? If not, do you understand yourself and have you
thought about the people and processes around you that can help move you into greater balance?
21
Review
This makes a lot of sense when talking about consistency in what types of problems or
challenges your organization is addressing. You want to be agile in how you refine your
understanding and how you find solutions to those challenges.
True running fast in the wrong direction might represent excellent execution of a bad strategy
consistency and agility are no substitute for the fundamentals of good strategy. In fact, I would
suggest consistency and agility are more tactical that strategic.
The way I look to it, "ambidextrous" leaders could make the organization adopt the agility and
consistency environment, which most of organization cannot afford.
Organizations with a good leader can have the consistency to their strategic goals, and use the
tactics as a sort of agility through the way to achieve vision and strategic goals.
In the modern management paradigm, leaders need to embrace agility yet remain consistent. A
balance towards one of them while ignoring the other may have undesirable effects. A high on
agility but low on consistency, will lead to innovative practices being adopted but a lack of focus
and thus the corporate strategy will not be met. The opposite on the other hand will lead to
excess rigidity, harmful for imbibing business innovations. This approach is one of the reasons
why so few companies that were part of the Fortune 500 list in 1955 did not find themselves
there in 2014. Thus strategic leadership will need to blend the best of the two. Of course, a lot of
leaders will lack some of these qualities so having an able deputy is pertinent.
Leaders have to perform the organization's purpose, while still being able to shift course when
the situation demands. Escape your comfort zone.
22
How to Think About Building Your Legacy
By Kimberly Wade-Benzoni
As a leader, leaving a great legacy is arguably the most powerful thing you can do in your career
and life because it enables you to have influence well into the future – even after you are out of
the picture yourself. It’s key to optimizing your impact on your organization and its people.
Legacy building in business contexts can take the form of working to ensure the long-term
viability of the organization and leaving it stronger, more productive, and more valuable than it
was before. Or, in more dramatic scenarios led by entrepreneurs, creating an entirely new
organization. Thinking about your legacy is also a great way to ensure that you are taking into
account the long-term perspective of your organization and resisting the temptation to make
myopic decisions that are overly focused on short-term gain.
So then, how can you keep your legacy in mind as you go about your everyday decisions?
Fortunately, more than a decade of research on how people make decisions that involve future
generations provides some specific strategies for helping you to keep legacy building in mind
and leverage those thoughts to maximize your impact on the world.
Think about what the previous generation did for you
Recall your predecessors and how their actions affected you. What resources did they leave
behind for you and your contemporaries? How did they change the organization to provide you
with opportunities? How did they shape your organization’s culture?
While you can’t always reciprocate the deeds of prior generations because they are no longer
part of the organization, you can pay it forward by behaving similarly to the next generation of
organizational actors. When you take the long-term perspective and think about your
organization in terms of multiple generations, reciprocity is not direct, but rather it takes on a
more generalized form. Research shows that when we know we have benefited from the legacy
of the prior generation, that gets us thinking about the positive legacy we want to leave for future
generations and we tend to make better long-term oriented decisions.
Focus on the burdens rather than the benefits
When making decisions about the future, leaders may be allocating desirable benefits such as
profit or natural resources or they may be distributing burdens that they and others wish to avoid
such as debt or hazardous waste. Research shows that whether a resource is a benefit or a burden
matters when it comes to allocation decisions and legacies. People are more concerned with
avoiding leaving a negative legacy than with creating a positive one. Compared to leaving
benefits to future others, leaving burdens leads individuals to feel a greater sense of
responsibility toward and affinity with those in the future as well as more moral emotions, such
as shame and guilt.
Highlighting the burdensome aspects of long-range decisions can help leaders to recognize the
negative legacies that such decisions can create. Further, it is strategic for organizations to
intentionally connect decisions about benefits and burdens so that managers must make them
simultaneously. The increased focus on ethical considerations that accompanies the allocation of
burdens can help attenuate the short-sighted and self-interested behavior that often guides the
allocation of benefits.
Consider the responsibility that comes with your power
Most research on power suggests that the experience of power tends to make people more self-
focused and self-interested. This research primarily considers the effect of power in limited
timeframes. However, recent research on intergenerational decisions involving longer
23
timeframes reveals that power can lead decision makers to be more concerned with the interests
of others in the future. When intergenerational decisions are combined with an enhanced
experience of power, people feel more social responsibility and are more focused on their legacy,
compared to when their power is not prominent. The result is that they are more generous to
future generations, which naturally helps them to build a positive legacy. When it is clear that we
are in a position to determine outcomes to powerless and voiceless others, our decisions are
ethically charged and we consider the moral implications of our actions more seriously.
Remember that you will die some day
One day in 1888, a wealthy and successful man was reading what was supposed to be his
brother’s obituary in a French newspaper. As he read, he realized that the editor had confused the
two brothers and had written an obituary for him instead. The headline proclaimed, “The
merchant of death is dead,” and then described a man who had gained his wealth by helping
people to kill one another. Not surprisingly, he was deeply troubled by this glimpse of what his
legacy might have been had he actually died on that day. It is believed that this incident was
pivotal in motivating him to leave nearly his entire fortune following his actual death eight years
later to fund awards each year to give to those whose work most benefitted humanity. This is, of
course, the true story of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite and the founder of the Nobel
Prize.
Yes, we all die. When we are reminded of our deaths, we remember that we don’t want to die –
we want to live! But we understand death’s inevitability and that fact creates an existential
dilemma in light of our deeply rooted survival instinct. One of the most effective things we can
do to buffer our anxiety about death is to attempt to transcend death by finding meaning in our
lives. Central to this meaning is that we have impact that persists beyond our physical existence.
Research shows that reminding people of death motivates them to consider their legacy and
causes them to act in ways that benefit future generations, thus improving the overall quality of
their long-term decisions. People feel better in the face of death if they are a part of something
that will live on after them. Having a positive impact on future generations can help fulfill that
need. Nobel lives on through his legacy, and receiving a shocking reminder of the inevitability of
his death helped him to get there. His story also illustrates how avoiding a negative legacy can be
more motivating than simply wanting to build a positive one.
In sum, the epitome of power is to leave a great legacy that lives on after you are gone. This is
the way you can maximize your influence and ensure you are keeping the long-term success of
the organization in mind. And as a bonus you get a little bit of (symbolic) immortality.
Ultimately, your legacy is all you’ve got. Think about how you want to be remembered by other
people and act on those thoughts. Give the Grim Reaper a run for his money by creating
something meaningful that will outlive yourself.
24
Review
'Research shows that when we know we have benefited from the legacy of the prior generation,
that gets us thinking about the positive legacy we want to leave for future generations and we
tend to make better long-term oriented decisions.'
The research highlights something interesting in saying 'when we know......' for it poses the issue
of what would have been the case when don't know? Thus what is implicit is the legacy was
obvious or was at objective intention, it has been done in shaping, in giving it cultural dimension
that's why it has been positively integrated and adopted.
A leader with a legacy , is born from his passion to drive world and his circumstances. In today's
era , we have forgotten to relate necessity with leader , as it is what urges the mind to think and
stress that last neuron which
may give him something new/special to think or act.
Legacy Leaders never live foe themselves , instead they clear those rough paths from hindrances
so we may run through them.
Your legacy. It's something you create during your life solely to benefit future generations,
something you may never see come to fruition. Just like a farmer who plants a tree knowing he'll
never live to taste its fruits, a legacy is a gift you leave behind without expecting anything in
return. Think of John F. Kennedy and the space program or Martin Luther King Jr. and civil
rights. They died before their legacies were fulfilled, but they will be forever revered for their
efforts.
Legacies come in different shapes and forms, requiring varying levels of effort and commitment.
Some choose to leave financial legacies, supporting causes such as funding breast cancer
research or a new building at one's alma mater. Other legacies are institutional, like when
somebody founds a nonprofit or builds a business that's a positive force in the community. All of
these examples have their value and place in society.
25
Why Leaders Fail
By Mark Sanborn
Donald Trump, paragon of the real estate world, files for bankruptcy. Richard Nixon, 37th U.S.
President, resigns the presidency over the Watergate scandal. Jennifer Capriati, rising tennis star,
enters a rehabilitation center for drug addicts. Jim Bakker, renowned televangelist, is convicted
of fraud.
In the recent past, we've witnessed the public downfall of leaders from almost every area of
endeavor—business, politics, religion, and sports. One day they're on top of the heap, the next,
the heap's on top of them.
Of course, we think that such catastrophic failure could never happen to us. We've worked hard
to achieve our well-deserved positions of leadership—and we won't give them up for anything!
The bad news is: the distance between beloved leader and despised failure is shorter than we
think.
Ken Maupin, a practicing psychotherapist and colleague, has built his practice on working with
high-performance personalities, including leaders in business, religion, and sports. Ken and I
have often discussed why leaders fail. Our discussions have led to the following "warning signs"
of impending failure.
WARNING SIGN #1: A Shift in Focus
This shift can occur in several ways. Often, leaders simply lose sight of what's important. The
laser-like focus that catapulted them to the top disappears, and they become distracted by the
trappings of leadership, such as wealth and notoriety.
Leaders are usually distinguished by their ability to "think big." But when their focus shifts, they
suddenly start thinking small. They micro manage, they get caught up in details better left to
others, they become consumed with the trivial and unimportant. And to make matters worse, this
tendency can be exacerbated by an inclination toward perfectionism.
A more subtle leadership derailer is an obsession with "doing" rather than "becoming." The good
work of leadership is usually a result of who the leader is. What the leader does then flows
naturally from inner vision and character. It is possible for a leader to become too action oriented
and, in the process, lose touch with the more important development of self.
What is your primary focus right now? If you can't write it on the back of your business card,
then it's a sure bet that your leadership is suffering from a lack of clarity. Take the time necessary
to get your focus back on what's important.
Further, would you describe your thinking as expansive or contractive? Of course, you always
should be willing to do whatever it takes to get the job done, but try never to take on what others
can do as well as you. In short, make sure that your focus is on leading rather than doing.
WARNING SIGN #2: Poor Communication
26
A lack of focus and its resulting disorientation typically lead to poor communication. Followers
can't possibly understand a leader's intent when the leader him- or herself isn't sure what it is!
And when leaders are unclear about their own purpose, they often hide their confusion and
uncertainty in ambiguous communication.
Sometimes, leaders fall into the clairvoyance trap. In other words, they begin to believe that truly
committed followers automatically sense their goals and know what they want without being
told. Misunderstanding is seen by such managers as a lack of effort (or commitment) on the
listener's part, rather than their own communication negligence.
"Say what you mean, and mean what you say" is timeless advice, but it must be preceded by
knowing what you mean! An underlying clarity of purpose is the starting point for all effective
communication. It's only when you're absolutely clear about what you want to convey that the
hard work of communicating pays dividends.
WARNING SIGN #3: Risk Aversion
Third, leaders at risk often begin to be driven by a fear of failure rather than the desire to
succeed. Past successes create pressure for leaders: "Will I be able to sustain outstanding
performance?" "What will I do for an encore?" In fact, the longer a leader is successful, the
higher his or her perceived cost of failure.
When driven by the fear of failure, leaders are unable to take reasonable risks. They want to do
only the tried and proven; attempts at innovation—typically a key to their initial success—
diminish and eventually disappear.
Which is more important to you: the attempt or the outcome? Are you still taking reasonable
risks? Prudent leadership never takes reckless chances that risk the destruction of what has been
achieved, but neither is it paralyzed by fear. Often the dance of leadership is two steps forward,
one step back.
WARNING SIGN #4: Ethics Slip
A leader's credibility is the result of two aspects: what he or she does (competency) and who he
or she is (character). A discrepancy between these two aspects creates an integrity problem.
The highest principle of leadership is integrity. When integrity ceases to be a leader's top
priority, when a compromise of ethics is rationalized away as necessary for the "greater good,"
when achieving results becomes more important than the means to their achievement—that is the
moment when a leader steps onto the slippery slop of failure.
Often such leaders see their followers as pawns, a mere means to an end, thus confusing
manipulation with leadership. These leaders lose empathy. They cease to be people "perceivers"
and become people "pleasers," using popularity to ease the guilt of lapsed integrity.
27
It is imperative to your leadership that you constantly subject your life and work to the highest
scrutiny. Are there areas of conflict between what you believe and how you behave? Has
compromise crept into your operational tool kit? One way to find out is to ask the people you
depend on if they ever feel used or taken for granted.
WARNING SIGN #5: Poor Self Management
Tragically, if a leader doesn't take care of him- or herself, no one else will. Unless a leader is
blessed to be surrounded by more-sensitive-than-normal followers, nobody will pick up on the
signs of fatigue and stress. Leaders are often perceived to be superhuman, running on unlimited
energy.
While leadership is invigorating, it is also tiring. Leaders who fail to take care of their physical,
psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs are headed for disaster. Think of having a gauge
for each of these four areas of your life—and check them often! When a gauge reaches the
"empty" point, make time for refreshment and replenishment. Clear your schedule and take care
of yourself—it's absolutely vital to your leadership that you continue to grow and develop, a task
that can be accomplished only when your tanks are full.
WARNING SIGN #6: Lost Love
The last warning sign of impending disaster that leaders need to heed is a move away from their
first love and dream. Paradoxically, the hard work of leadership should be fulfilling and even
fun. But when leaders lose sight of the dream that compelled them to accept the responsibility of
leadership, they can find themselves working for causes that mean little to them. They must stick
to what they love, what motivated them at the first, to maintain the fulfillment of leadership.
To make sure that you stay on the track of following your first love, frequently ask yourself these
three questions: Why did I initially assume leadership? Have those reasons changed? Do I still
want to lead?
28
Review
Not everyone is meant to be a leader, but for those of you who are already leaders or aspiring to
be leaders, there are a lot of lessons you can learn. Today, I’ve written ten reasons why leaders
fail. It’s a collection of issues that leaders tend to have, especially in their first few years in those
roles. It’s easy to get caught up in the act of leadership because you gain power, confidence and
control, all of which can be your undoing.
The best leaders know that their success or failure depends on their ability to inspire and guide
their teams. Meanwhile, official corporate culture statements often highlight traits like "integrity"
and "collaboration" as core values from the top down.
Most workers, whether they're in a leadership position or not, know what they'd like to see in a
boss. They often feel confident that they could rise to the challenge and become that boss if they
had to. When it comes time to act, though, this can be a little more difficult than expected.
"Knowing is the easy part — doing is the hard part," Hewertson told Business News Daily. "We
all know what good and bad leadership looks like and feels like. Once in the role, however,
people often forget what they know and get a bit full of themselves, or are so unsure of
themselves [they become] ineffective."
It's one thing to be a team member; it's another to lead those team members. Leaders are
frequently unprepared to deal with the realities of managing a group, so they either ignore
problems that arise or react poorly to them.
"Rarely do new leaders have a clue about what they are really getting into," Hewertson said. "For
many of them, it's not what they expected, or had the desire or competencies to do well."
You need many different competencies to master the discipline of leadership. People must learn
how to lead well, and the skills and motivations needed to lead are the opposite of those needed
to be an individual contributor. It's no longer about just you: You only succeed when your people
succeed, and many new leaders don't make this shift gracefully. Instead of focusing on tasks,
leaders need to support the other people doing the tasks, so those people are successful.
Leading is all about relationships — growing trust, building teams and utilizing excellent
interpersonal skills. Leaders pay a high price for ignoring the important process of building
healthy relationships. To create these relationships, leaders need to pay attention to their teams,
keep learning and never assume anything.
Leaders tend think they have or need to act like they have all the answers — they don't have the
answers, and they shouldn't act like it, Hewertson said. Listening is not a strong suit for many
new leaders, and too often they jump in quickly rather than listening, learning and building on
what they see.
Of course, the purpose of gatherings such as ours is to explore what goes wrong in leadership,
the root causes and what we can do about it.
Luckily, as with the news, we tend to hear much more about failure than success. But we should
not forget that so much goes right in business and society, because of good men and women
stepping up and taking responsibility for making sure that the world works and delivers not just
value, but values for our benefit.

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The focused leader

  • 1. 1 Ajeenkya DY Patil University, Pune February 2017 Article Collection and Review ON Leadership and Change Management Compiled, Reviewed and Submitted For Continuous Evaluation – 1 By KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL Course/Semester:- MBA IN MAC Enrollment No.: Academic Year 2016-17
  • 2. 2 Evaluation Sheet for Article Collection and Review Name of the Student: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL Course/Semester : MBA IN MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION- 2ND SEM Enrolment No : Faculty In Charge : Dr. Makarand Joshi Sl No Description Max. Marks Marks Awarded 1. Clarity of Thought: Clear understanding of the underlying concepts and their applications, Precise narration, Objectivity. 15 2. Quality of Reviews: Structure, formatting, presentation, use of correct spellings & grammar, quality of language, flow of thoughts, logical sequence 5 3. Originality: Independent thought processes, original contribution, identifying and presenting learning outcomes. 15 4. Planning & Implementation: Efficient planning and implementation, effective time management 10 5. Quality of Articles Chosen for Review 5 Total 50 Signature of Faculty Member Signature of the Student Name: Dr. Makarand Joshi Name: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL Date: 15-02-2017
  • 3. 3 Evaluation Sheet for Article Review Presentation Name of the Student: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL Course/Semester : MBA IN MEDIA & COMMUNICATION Enrolment No :____________________________________________________ Faculty In Charge : Dr. Makarand Joshi Sl No Description Max. Marks Marks Awarded 1. Quality of Presentation: Objectives, scope & structure of presentation, color schemes, fonts, pictures, animation, use of supporting material for presentation, etc. 15 2. Research Focus: Interpretation of Articles Reviewed, Conceptual Clarity, Reference to other published material 5 3. Properly chronicled analysis and Understanding 15 4. Communication ability: Clarity of thought & expression, correct usage of language, transforming concepts into proper presentation, delivery style, eye-contact, body-language and confidence 10 5. Handling Question Answers: Preparedness for unexpected and tricky questions, convincing ability and precise response to questions. 5 Total 50 Signature of Faculty Member Signature of the Student Name: Dr. Makarand Joshi Name: Khushbu Mohan Patel Date: 15-02-2017
  • 4. 4 Declaration I, hereby declare that the article reviews written on the articles compiled in this collection of articles on Leadership and Change Management are the original pieces of work done by me. I take full responsibility if the reviews are found to be copied from any source, at any given point of time. I also understand, that if found guilty of plagiarism, the Ajeenkya DY Patil University is free to initiate any action against me. Signature of Student Name: KHUSHBU MOHAN PATEL Course/Semester: MBA IN MEDIA & COMMUNICATION Enrollment No.: Date: 15-02-2017
  • 5. 5 Contents S.No. Title of the Article Author Page No. 1 THE FOCUSED LEADER DANIEL GOLEMAN 6 TO 14 2 TRUE LEADERS BELIEVE DISSENT IS AN OBLIGATION BILL TAYLOR 15 TO 17 3 THE BEST STRATEGIC LEADERS BALANCE AGILITY AND CONSISTENCY JOHN COLEMAN 18 TO 21 4 HOW TO THINK ABOUT BUILDING YOUR LEGACY KIMBERLY WADE- BENZONI 22 TO 24 5 WHY LEADERS FAIL MARK SANBORN 25 TO 28
  • 6. 6 The Focused Leader By Daniel Goleman A primary task of leadership is to direct attention.To do so, leaders must learn to focus their own attention. When we speak about being focused, we commonly mean thinking about one thing while filtering out distractions. But a wealth of recent research in neuroscience shows that we focus in many ways, for different purposes, drawing on different neural pathways—some of which work in concert, while others tend to stand in opposition. Grouping these modes of attention into three broad buckets—focusing on yourself, focusing on others, and focusing on the wider world—sheds new light on the practice of many essential leadership skills. Focusing inward and focusing constructively on others helps leaders cultivate the primary elements of emotional intelligence. A fuller understanding of how they focus on the wider world can improve their ability to devise strategy, innovate, and manage organizations. Every leader needs to cultivate this triad of awareness, in abundance and in the proper balance, because a failure to focus inward leaves you rudderless, a failure to focus on others renders you clueless, and a failure to focus outward may leave you blindsided. Focusing on Yourself Emotional intelligence begins with self-awareness—getting in touch with your inner voice. Leaders who heed their inner voices can draw on more resources to make better decisions and connect with their authentic selves. But what does that entail? A look at how people focus inward can make this abstract concept more concrete. Self-awareness. Hearing your inner voice is a matter of paying careful attention to internal physiological signals. These subtle cues are monitored by the insula, which is tucked behind the frontal lobes of the brain. Attention given to any part of the body amps up the insula’s sensitivity to that part. Tune in to your heartbeat, and the insula activates more neurons in that circuitry. How well people can sense their heartbeats has, in fact, become a standard way to measure their self-awareness. Gut feelings are messages from the insula and the amygdala, which the neuroscientist Antonio Damasio, of the University of Southern California, calls somatic markers. Those messages are sensations that something “feels” right or wrong. Somatic markers simplify decision making by guiding our attention toward better options. They’re hardly foolproof (how often was that feeling that you left the stove on correct?), so the more comprehensively we read them, the better we use our intuition. Consider, for example, the implications of an analysis of interviews conducted by a group of British researchers with 118 professional traders and 10 senior managers at four City of London
  • 7. 7 investment banks. The most successful traders (whose annual income averaged £500,000) were neither the ones who relied entirely on analytics nor the ones who just went with their guts. They focused on a full range of emotions, which they used to judge the value of their intuition. When they suffered losses, they acknowledged their anxiety, became more cautious, and took fewer risks. The least successful traders (whose income averaged only £100,000) tended to ignore their anxiety and keep going with their guts. Because they failed to heed a wider array of internal signals, they were misled. Zeroing in on sensory impressions of ourselves in the moment is one major element of self- awareness. But another is critical to leadership: combining our experiences across time into a coherent view of our authentic selves. To be authentic is to be the same person to others as you are to yourself. In part that entails paying attention to what others think of you, particularly people whose opinions you esteem and who will be candid in their feedback. A variety of focus that is useful here is open awareness, in which we broadly notice what’s going on around us without getting caught up in or swept away by any particular thing. In this mode we don’t judge, censor, or tune out; we simply perceive. Leaders who are more accustomed to giving input than to receiving it may find this tricky. Someone who has trouble sustaining open awareness typically gets snagged by irritating details, such as fellow travelers in the airport security line who take forever getting their carry-ons into the scanner. Someone who can keep her attention in open mode will notice the travelers but not worry about them, and will take in more of her surroundings. Of course, being open to input doesn’t guarantee that someone will provide it. Sadly, life affords us few chances to learn how others really see us, and even fewer for executives as they rise through the ranks. That may be why one of the most popular and overenrolled courses at Harvard Business School is Bill George’s Authentic Leadership Development, in which George has created what he calls True North groups to heighten this aspect of self-awareness. These groups (which anyone can form) are based on the precept that self-knowledge begins with self-revelation. Accordingly, they are open and intimate, “a safe place,” George explains, “where members can discuss personal issues they do not feel they can raise elsewhere—often not even with their closest family members.” What good does that do? “We don’t know who we are until we hear ourselves speaking the story of our lives to those we trust,” George says. It’s a structured way to match our view of our true selves with the views our most trusted colleagues have—an external check on our authenticity. Self-control. “Cognitive control” is the scientific term for putting one’s attention where one wants it and keeping it there in the face of temptation to wander. This focus is one aspect of the brain’s
  • 8. 8 executive function, which is located in the prefrontal cortex. A colloquial term for it is “willpower.” Cognitive control enables executives to pursue a goal despite distractions and setbacks. The same neural circuitry that allows such a single-minded pursuit of goals also manages unruly emotions. Good cognitive control can be seen in people who stay calm in a crisis, tame their own agitation, and recover from a debacle or defeat. Decades’ worth of research demonstrates the singular importance of willpower to leadership success. Particularly compelling is a longitudinal study tracking the fates of all 1,037 children born during a single year in the 1970s in the New Zealand city of Dunedin. For several years during childhood the children were given a battery of tests of willpower, including the psychologist Walter Mischel’s legendary “marshmallow test”—a choice between eating one marshmallow right away and getting two by waiting 15 minutes. In Mischel’s experiments, roughly a third of children grab the marshmallow on the spot, another third hold out for a while longer, and a third manage to make it through the entire quarter hour. Executives who can effectively focus on others emerge as natural leaders regardless of organizational or social rank. Years later, when the children in the Dunedin study were in their 30s and all but 4% of them had been tracked down again, the researchers found that those who’d had the cognitive control to resist the marshmallow longest were significantly healthier, more successful financially, and more law-abiding than the ones who’d been unable to hold out at all. In fact, statistical analysis showed that a child’s level of self-control was a more powerful predictor of financial success than IQ, social class, or family circumstance. How we focus holds the key to exercising willpower, Mischel says. Three subvarieties of cognitive control are at play when you pit self-restraint against self-gratification: the ability to voluntarily disengage your focus from an object of desire; the ability to resist distraction so that you don’t gravitate back to that object; and the ability to concentrate on the future goal and imagine how good you will feel when you achieve it. As adults the children of Dunedin may have been held hostage to their younger selves, but they need not have been, because the power to focus can be developed. Focusing on Others The word “attention” comes from the Latin attendere, meaning “to reach toward.” This is a perfect definition of focus on others, which is the foundation of empathy and of an ability to build social relationships—the second and third pillars of emotional intelligence.
  • 9. 9 Executives who can effectively focus on others are easy to recognize. They are the ones who find common ground, whose opinions carry the most weight, and with whom other people want to work. They emerge as natural leaders regardless of organizational or social rank. The empathy triad. We talk about empathy most commonly as a single attribute. But a close look at where leaders are focusing when they exhibit it reveals three distinct kinds, each important for leadership effectiveness:  cognitive empathy—the ability to understand another person’s perspective;  emotional empathy—the ability to feel what someone else feels;  empathic concern—the ability to sense what another person needs from you. Cognitive empathy enables leaders to explain themselves in meaningful ways—a skill essential to getting the best performance from their direct reports. Contrary to what you might expect, exercising cognitive empathy requires leaders to think about feelings rather than to feel them directly. An inquisitive nature feeds cognitive empathy. As one successful executive with this trait puts it, “I’ve always just wanted to learn everything, to understand anybody that I was around—why they thought what they did, why they did what they did, what worked for them, and what didn’t work.” But cognitive empathy is also an outgrowth of self-awareness. The executive circuits that allow us to think about our own thoughts and to monitor the feelings that flow from them let us apply the same reasoning to other people’s minds when we choose to direct our attention that way. Emotional empathy is important for effective mentoring, managing clients, and reading group dynamics. It springs from ancient parts of the brain beneath the cortex—the amygdala, the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex—that allow us to feel fast without thinking deeply. They tune us in by arousing in our bodies the emotional states of others: I literally feel your pain. My brain patterns match up with yours when I listen to you tell a gripping story. As Tania Singer, the director of the social neuroscience department at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, in Leipzig, says, “You need to understand your own feelings to understand the feelings of others.” Accessing your capacity for emotional empathy depends on combining two kinds of attention: a deliberate focus on your own echoes of someone else’s feelings and an open awareness of that person’s face, voice, and other external signs of emotion. Empathic concern, which is closely related to emotional empathy, enables you to sense not just how people feel but what they need from you. It’s what you want in your doctor, your spouse— and your boss. Empathic concern has its roots in the circuitry that compels parents’ attention to
  • 10. 10 their children. Watch where people’s eyes go when someone brings an adorable baby into a room, and you’ll see this mammalian brain center leaping into action. Research suggests that as people rise through the ranks, their ability to maintain personal connections suffers. One neural theory holds that the response is triggered in the amygdala by the brain’s radar for sensing danger and in the prefrontal cortex by the release of oxytocin, the chemical for caring. This implies that empathic concern is a double-edged feeling. We intuitively experience the distress of another as our own. But in deciding whether we will meet that person’s needs, we deliberately weigh how much we value his or her well-being. Getting this intuition-deliberation mix right has great implications. Those whose sympathetic feelings become too strong may themselves suffer. In the helping professions, this can lead to compassion fatigue; in executives, it can create distracting feelings of anxiety about people and circumstances that are beyond anyone’s control. But those who protect themselves by deadening their feelings may lose touch with empathy. Empathic concern requires us to manage our personal distress without numbing ourselves to the pain of others. What’s more, some lab research suggests that the appropriate application of empathic concern is critical to making moral judgments. Brain scans have revealed that when volunteers listened to tales of people subjected to physical pain, their own brain centers for experiencing such pain lit up instantly. But if the story was about psychological suffering, the higher brain centers involved in empathic concern and compassion took longer to activate. Some time is needed to grasp the psychological and moral dimensions of a situation. The more distracted we are, the less we can cultivate the subtler forms of empathy and compassion. Building relationships. People who lack social sensitivity are easy to spot—at least for other people. They are the clueless among us. The CFO who is technically competent but bullies some people, freezes out others, and plays favorites—but when you point out what he has just done, shifts the blame, gets angry, or thinks that you’re the problem—is not trying to be a jerk; he’s utterly unaware of his shortcomings. Social sensitivity appears to be related to cognitive empathy. Cognitively empathic executives do better at overseas assignments, for instance, presumably because they quickly pick up implicit norms and learn the unique mental models of a new culture. Attention to social context lets us act with skill no matter what the situation, instinctively follow the universal algorithm for etiquette, and behave in ways that put others at ease. (In another age this might have been called good manners.)
  • 11. 11 Circuitry that converges on the anterior hippocampus reads social context and leads us intuitively to act differently with, say, our college buddies than with our families or our colleagues. In concert with the deliberative prefrontal cortex, it squelches the impulse to do something inappropriate. Accordingly, one brain test for sensitivity to context assesses the function of the hippocampus. The University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Richard Davidson hypothesizes that people who are most alert to social situations exhibit stronger activity and more connections between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex than those who just can’t seem to get it right. The same circuits may be at play when we map social networks in a group—a skill that lets us navigate the relationships in those networks well. People who excel at organizational influence can not only sense the flow of personal connections but also name the people whose opinions hold most sway, and so focus on persuading those who will persuade others. Alarmingly, research suggests that as people rise through the ranks and gain power, their ability to perceive and maintain personal connections tends to suffer a sort of psychic attrition. In studying encounters between people of varying status, Dacher Keltner, a psychologist at Berkeley, has found that higher-ranking individuals consistently focus their gaze less on lower- ranking people and are more likely to interrupt or to monopolize the conversation. In fact, mapping attention to power in an organization gives a clear indication of hierarchy: The longer it takes Person A to respond to Person B, the more relative power Person A has. Map response times across an entire organization, and you’ll get a remarkably accurate chart of social standing. The boss leaves e-mails unanswered for hours; those lower down respond within minutes. This is so predictable that an algorithm for it—called automated social hierarchy detection—has been developed at Columbia University. Intelligence agencies reportedly are applying the algorithm to suspected terrorist gangs to piece together chains of influence and identify central figures. But the real point is this: Where we see ourselves on the social ladder sets the default for how much attention we pay. This should be a warning to top executives, who need to respond to fast- moving competitive situations by tapping the full range of ideas and talents within an organization. Without a deliberate shift in attention, their natural inclination may be to ignore smart ideas from the lower ranks. Focusing on the Wider World Leaders with a strong outward focus are not only good listeners but also good questioners. They are visionaries who can sense the far-flung consequences of local decisions and imagine how the choices they make today will play out in the future. They are open to the surprising ways in which seemingly unrelated data can inform their central interests. Melinda Gates offered up a cogent example when she remarked on 60 Minutes that her husband was the kind of person who would read an entire book about fertilizer. Charlie Rose asked, Why fertilizer? The connection was obvious to Bill Gates, who is constantly looking for technological advances that can save
  • 12. 12 lives on a massive scale. “A few billion people would have to die if we hadn’t come up with fertilizer,” he replied. Focusing on strategy. Any business school course on strategy will give you the two main elements: exploitation of your current advantage and exploration for new ones. Brain scans that were performed on 63 seasoned business decision makers as they pursued or switched between exploitative and exploratory strategies revealed the specific circuits involved. Not surprisingly, exploitation requires concentration on the job at hand, whereas exploration demands open awareness to recognize new possibilities. But exploitation is accompanied by activity in the brain’s circuitry for anticipation and reward. In other words, it feels good to coast along in a familiar routine. When we switch to exploration, we have to make a deliberate cognitive effort to disengage from that routine in order to roam widely and pursue fresh paths. “A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention,” wrote the economist Herbert Simon in 1971. What keeps us from making that effort? Sleep deprivation, drinking, stress, and mental overload all interfere with the executive circuitry used to make the cognitive switch. To sustain the outward focus that leads to innovation, we need some uninterrupted time in which to reflect and refresh our focus. The wellsprings of innovation. In an era when almost everyone has access to the same information, new value arises from putting ideas together in novel ways and asking smart questions that open up untapped potential. Moments before we have a creative insight, the brain shows a third-of-a-second spike in gamma waves, indicating the synchrony of far-flung brain cells. The more neurons firing in sync, the bigger the spike. Its timing suggests that what’s happening is the formation of a new neural network—presumably creating a fresh association. But it would be making too much of this to see gamma waves as a secret to creativity. A classic model of creativity suggests how the various modes of attention play key roles. First we prepare our minds by gathering a wide variety of pertinent information, and then we alternate between concentrating intently on the problem and letting our minds wander freely. Those activities translate roughly into vigilance, when while immersing ourselves in all kinds of input, we remain alert for anything relevant to the problem at hand; selective attention to the specific creative challenge; and open awareness, in which we allow our minds to associate freely and the solution to emerge spontaneously. (That’s why so many fresh ideas come to people in the shower or out for a walk or a run.) The dubious gift of systems awareness.
  • 13. 13 If people are given a quick view of a photo of lots of dots and asked to guess how many there are, the strong systems thinkers in the group tend to make the best estimates. This skill shows up in those who are good at designing software, assembly lines, matrix organizations, or interventions to save failing ecosystems—it’s a very powerful gift indeed. After all, we live within extremely complex systems. But, suggests the Cambridge University psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen (a cousin of Sacha’s), in a small but significant number of people, a strong systems awareness is coupled with an empathy deficit—a blind spot for what other people are thinking and feeling and for reading social situations. For that reason, although people with a superior systems understanding are organizational assets, they are not necessarily effective leaders. An executive at one bank explained to me that it has created a separate career ladder for systems analysts so that they can progress in status and salary on the basis of their systems smarts alone. That way, the bank can consult them as needed while recruiting leaders from a different pool— one containing people with emotional intelligence. Putting It All Together For those who don’t want to end up similarly compartmentalized, the message is clear. A focused leader is not the person concentrating on the three most important priorities of the year, or the most brilliant systems thinker, or the one most in tune with the corporate culture. Focused leaders can command the full range of their own attention: They are in touch with their inner feelings, they can control their impulses, they are aware of how others see them, they understand what others need from them, they can weed out distractions and also allow their minds to roam widely, free of preconceptions. This is challenging. But if great leadership were a paint-by-numbers exercise, great leaders would be more common. Practically every form of focus can be strengthened. What it takes is not talent so much as diligence—a willingness to exercise the attention circuits of the brain just as we exercise our analytic skills and other systems of the body. The link between attention and excellence remains hidden most of the time. Yet attention is the basis of the most essential of leadership skills—emotional, organizational, and strategic intelligence. And never has it been under greater assault. The constant onslaught of incoming data leads to sloppy shortcuts—triaging our e-mail by reading only the subject lines, skipping many of our voice mails, skimming memos and reports. Not only do our habits of attention make us less effective, but the sheer volume of all those messages leaves us too little time to reflect on what they really mean. This was foreseen more than 40 years ago by the Nobel Prize–winning economist Herbert Simon. Information “consumes the attention of its recipients,” he wrote in 1971. “Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.” My goal here is to place attention center stage so that you can direct it where you need it when you need it. Learn to master your attention, and you will be in command of where you, and your organization, focus.
  • 14. 14 Review Goleman argues the primary task of leadership is to direct attention. “To do so, leaders must learn to focus their own attention. When we speak about being focused, we commonly mean thinking about one thing while filtering out distractions. But a wealth of recent research in neuroscience shows that we focus in many ways, for different purposes, drawing on different neural pathways – some of which work in concert, while others tend to stand in opposition.” Learn to master your attention, and you will be in command of where you, and your organization, focus. Bottom-line Effective leaders see big picture and impact of their actions across dimensions yet focus and hit the aim. They can’t get carried away with big picture and lose sight of their goals and customers. In Steve Jobs’ words – “That’s been one of my mantras — focus and simplicity. Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. But it’s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains. It comes from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don’t get on the wrong track or try to do too much. We’re always thinking about new markets we could enter, but it’s only by saying no that you can concentrate on the things that are really important”. Leaders have to be constantly learning and relearning, self aware, they can’t afford lacking control. To quote Indira Nooyi, Chairperson PEPSICO, “I am a learning CEO, I go to school all the times. We look for people who are able to understand and work around geo political environment quickly and surround themselves with great talent. Who are agile, can work with scarcity of commodities and make something out of nothing.” A leader should have self awareness and self control Daniel Goleman’s blog “ The Focused Leader” suggests the essence of great leadership is self- awareness, staying authentic to one’s values, focusing on the strategy and learning to control emotions for the common goals. Effective communicators possess the ability to empower others and inspire productivity. John Maxwell, a renowned author, implies in a leadership blog “People buy into the leader before they buy into the vision”. Effective communicators have the knack for understanding their audience, and capability to lead the company in the desired direction. The gift of understanding the audience stems from self- awareness. A self-aware communicator can build on strengths/weaknesses from past experiences, reflect in the moment, and deliver the intended message with conviction. A self- aware communicator speaks from the heart by observing the audience, practicing acceptance of others ideas, developing skill sets, and changing inner perceptions: a process of progress not perfection. Effective communication is an ART from the heart. It is important for a leader to first focus on themselves. Inward focus allows you to think more clearly – come up with your own logical opinions without any interruptions or outside influence. Being able to trust your own decisions will give a confidence that shows through with others, giving them a reason to trust in your leadership. Being able to focus on yourself, and within yourself, will give you a peace in every other area of life as well.
  • 15. 15 True Leaders Believe Dissent Is an Obligation By Bill Taylor These are head-spinning times for those of us who think about the best ways to lead and the most effective ways to compete. What defines acceptable personal behavior (let alone behavior worth emulating) among public officials? Why would executives at so many iconic organizations — Volkswagen, Wells Fargo, FIFA — tolerate behavior so egregious that it threatens the very future of their organizations? How should innovators with a fierce sense of ambition handle the criticisms and objections that inevitably come their way and make sure that confidence does not turn into bombast? In a world hungry for great leadership, these are just a few of the questions that too many leaders seem incapable of answering. I don’t pretend to have easy answers myself. But I do know that the best leaders I’ve studied — executives and entrepreneurs who have created enduring economic value based on sound human values — recognize and embrace the “obligation to dissent.” Put simply, you can’t be an effective leader in business, politics, or society unless you encourage those around you to speak their minds, to bring attention to hypocrisy and misbehavior, and to be as direct and strong-willed in their evaluations of you as you are in your strategies and plans for them. I first encountered the term last year, in an intriguing interview with a CEO named Victor Ho, cofounder of a customer loyalty company that has raised more than $100 million in venture funding. Ho talked about his childhood, his college years, and the experiences that shaped his entrepreneurial instincts. He also talked about his stint at McKinsey & Company, the blue-chip consulting firm, and one subversive takeaway. “The strongest lesson I learned at McKinsey that I now share with every new hire is what they call the ‘obligation to dissent,’” he told the New York Times. “It means that the youngest, most junior person in any given meeting is the most capable to disagree with the most senior person in the room.” What a powerful image. What a contrast to what usually happens in the corridors of power. The obligation to dissent is in fact a hallmark of McKinsey culture, established and enshrined decades ago by Marvin Bower, the legendary head of the world’s most celebrated consulting firm. A biography of Bower describes the first encounter between the larger-than-life leader and Fred Gluck, a former managing director of the firm. Gluck bumped into Bower, who asked how things were going with his maiden assignment at the firm. Gluck answered honestly and told Bower he thought the partners were approaching the engagement all wrong. The next morning, Gluck found a note asking him to report to Bower’s office. He assumed he would be fired. Instead, he found Bower on the phone with the project leader, discussing Gluck’s critique and agreeing that the newcomer was right. They scrapped the approach, refused to charge the client for the work, and started over. “This obligation to dissent, this was Marvin’s principle,” one senior consultant told the biographer. “It came directly from him….And very few people have the guts to dissent.” Another McKinsey alum, Robin Richards, chair and CEO of the CareerArc Group, makes it clear how he wants his colleagues to behave. “Don’t have a meeting with your boss where you agree with him on everything he says,” Richards explained. “If you have an obligation to dissent, then we get the best minds and we get the best outcomes. People like living in that environment. They feel valuable. People become fearless.” Truth be told, very few people have the guts to dissent, very few people become fearless, because very few leaders emphasize and celebrate their obligation to do so. Edgar Schein,
  • 16. 16 professor emeritus at MIT Sloan School of Management and an expert on leadership and culture, has spent decades studying the attributes that define great executives. One of the attributes he highlights time and again is humility — the sort that invites dissent. Sadly, that kind of humility is all too rare. Schein once asked a group of students what it means to be promoted to the rank of manager. “They said without hesitation, ‘It means I can now tell others what to do.’” That’s precisely the know-it-all style of leadership that has led to so much crisis and disappointment. “Deep down, many of us believe that if you are not winning, you are losing,” Schein warns. The “tacit assumption” among executives “is that life is fundamentally and always a competition.” But humility and ambition, he argues, need not be at odds. Instead, humility in the service of ambition is the most effective and sustainable mindset for leaders who aspire to do big things in a world filled with huge unknowns. So here’s to humility. Here’s to dissent. And here’s to a more fruitful style of leadership than we’ve seen of late.
  • 17. 17 Review Although I wholeheartedly agree with the concept of Servant Leadership and humility in a leader, the unfortunate truth is that there are quite a lot of examples of leaders who show neither, and yet, are quite successful, and in fact, have led their organizations to success. So we don't have a lot of data to support the conclusion that it's a good thing. Yet, I believe in it for the simple reason that it's the right thing to do. I'd like to highlight something else. There's a focus on 'obligation to dissent,' but without the foundation behind that. The foundation in any organization or team where dissent is welcomed is whether the team members trust one another sufficiently. This can mean different things to different people. For some, it may mean that dissenting will be rewarded; for others, it may mean there's no penalty; and yet for others, it will be a feeling of contributing to the team without fear of getting chewed out or even hurting someone's feelings because everyone on the team is on the same page. Without this foundation of trust, nothing else really matters. McKinsey seems to have found a way to make that happen by focusing on the 'obligation to dissent.' I wonder how easy it is to dissent with someone if you find that person is the cause of the problem, he controls your salary and your career, and he has an inconsistent history of dealing with dissenters. If you worry about that, it probably means you don't trust him, and he doesn't trust you. When that happens, the 'obligation to dissent' will break down, and will occur only in areas where dissension is allowed. And believe me, there are many organizations that have the core value of 'open and honest communication' that fall in that category, resulting in communication that is neither open nor honest. And in some cultures "leaders" are deemed as weak "managers". For example, while a true leader and good manager should actively find out dissent, in reality one could be deemed weak for getting dissent - your subordinate openly confronted/questioned you on any issues = you have no control on your subordinates and your subordinates have zero respect towards you. No control. Zero respect. Many ways to lead, coach and manage. One should decide what culture the organization has, what the organization values, and the characters of one's subordinates. You subordinate could be the one thinking that you are afraid of him/her or he/she is indispensable simply because you value feedbacks and encourage open and honest communication. Seeking dissent is critical to high performing teams and organizations. Some likely feel that dissent is a threat to their power, that somehow power is finite - and this is unfortunate. In reality, dissent only empowers and increases the aggregate power of the organization. Giving the "other point of view" the floor will likely result in better decisions, higher engagement, and improved business results.
  • 18. 18 The Best Strategic Leaders Balance Agility and Consistency By John Coleman As a former consultant, I have a deep and abiding love for the use of 2×2 matrices in business strategy. My favorites are those that highlight two factors that seem, at first glance, in conflict. I find these particularly relevant to personal development, as individuals often must resolve the tensions between competing values and traits and must carefully monitor their own strengths so those strengths don’t lapse into weaknesses. I’ve recently been thinking about this with regard to how leaders can be more strategic, able to effectively execute the core of their business while remaining open to trends in the market and adapting to meet them. I’ve begun to view this as the ability to hold two specific traits in balance: consistency and agility. You can picture it like this:
  • 19. 19 The best performers are, of course, consistent. Consistent leaders work hard and show up on time. They set goals for themselves and their employees and they achieve them. They plan diligently and produce excellent products and experiences for clients time and time again. They are diligent and possess resilience and grit. Consumers expect consistent products; people appreciate consistent management. But if organizational leaders are merely consistent, they risk rigidity. In changing environments, they can struggle to adapt and may cling to old habits and practices until those practices become counterproductive, distracting them from the more important new work that needs to be done. On the other side of the spectrum, great leaders are agile. Markets demand that companies and people adapt and change constantly. By one analysis, 88% of companies appearing on the Fortune 500 list in 1955 were not on it in 2014 (having merged, gone bankrupt, or fallen off the list). As we know, buggy whip makers and telegraph companies must evolve or die. And the most-successful managers must change similarly as they assume additional or different responsibilities through their careers, moving from head of sales to COO or from CFO to CEO. These leaders must pivot when needed, and agility requires that they be intellectually curious, ready to learn from others, communicative, collaborative, and willing to change. But just as consistency can become rigidity, agility can become a lack of focus when it isn’t tempered by consistency. Purely agile leaders may be visionaries and change agents but lack the single-mindedness and dedication to execute their visions. They often turn to new projects before they’ve finished prior projects, and, in extreme cases, force their teams or organizations into chaos and instability. It’s in the combination of consistency and agility that leaders can become strategic, performing an organization’s purpose with excellence but changing course when the situation demands. These leaders have high quality standards, achieve goals, and expect consistency, but they are also open to change, keep an eye on the external environment, and understand when old ways of working no longer pass the test of the market in which they compete. They stay the course until it no longer makes sense and combine continuous improvement with ideation and strategy. Of course, few individuals are equally consistent and agile, just as few people are ambidextrous. So how can leaders hold these traits in balance? First, to paraphrase Socrates, “know thyself.” Are you more prone to consistency or agility? Are you more naturally capable of deep focus or ideation? Do you thrive in situations of chaos and rapid change or in periods that require relentless pursuit of a clearly defined goal? If in doubt, ask a spouse, best friend, or close work colleague — they almost always know. Understanding and accepting our tendencies is the foundation for growth. With that understanding in hand, surround yourself with others who complement your traits. For managers, it’s wise to find a strong “number two” who can check your worst impulses and enhance your strengths. Are you an agile visionary? Find a structured, methodical, and disciplined deputy or peer. If you are a consistent operator, find a strong voice for agility on your immediate team or a mentor to push your creativity, no matter how frustrating that might be. And empower those people to speak up and challenge you. Complement this organization model with operational process. To ensure consistency, develop strong dashboards and balanced scorecards to assure outcomes are consistently reached and continually improving. To assure agility, develop a fluid planning model that allows the organization to change outside of the formal annual planning process and create an annual strategic planning process that looks outward to the external environment and forces the
  • 20. 20 organization to contemplate big ideas. As an individual, do this for yourself, perhaps as an end- of-year exercise, to make sure you’re pointed at the right goals and aspirations for where you are as a leader. Finally, with these people and processes in place, seek to learn and grow. If you’re naturally an agile thinker, you may never be the most consistent operational manager (and some research would argue against attempting it), but you can get better. And you can often do so simply by consciously observing what’s working around you and then forcing yourself to learn and grow. Make note of those traits you admire in others — those that complement your own — and find ways to practice them. As leaders, all of us will be forced to balance consistency and agility in our careers and in the organizations we serve. Are you doing so today? If not, do you understand yourself and have you thought about the people and processes around you that can help move you into greater balance?
  • 21. 21 Review This makes a lot of sense when talking about consistency in what types of problems or challenges your organization is addressing. You want to be agile in how you refine your understanding and how you find solutions to those challenges. True running fast in the wrong direction might represent excellent execution of a bad strategy consistency and agility are no substitute for the fundamentals of good strategy. In fact, I would suggest consistency and agility are more tactical that strategic. The way I look to it, "ambidextrous" leaders could make the organization adopt the agility and consistency environment, which most of organization cannot afford. Organizations with a good leader can have the consistency to their strategic goals, and use the tactics as a sort of agility through the way to achieve vision and strategic goals. In the modern management paradigm, leaders need to embrace agility yet remain consistent. A balance towards one of them while ignoring the other may have undesirable effects. A high on agility but low on consistency, will lead to innovative practices being adopted but a lack of focus and thus the corporate strategy will not be met. The opposite on the other hand will lead to excess rigidity, harmful for imbibing business innovations. This approach is one of the reasons why so few companies that were part of the Fortune 500 list in 1955 did not find themselves there in 2014. Thus strategic leadership will need to blend the best of the two. Of course, a lot of leaders will lack some of these qualities so having an able deputy is pertinent. Leaders have to perform the organization's purpose, while still being able to shift course when the situation demands. Escape your comfort zone.
  • 22. 22 How to Think About Building Your Legacy By Kimberly Wade-Benzoni As a leader, leaving a great legacy is arguably the most powerful thing you can do in your career and life because it enables you to have influence well into the future – even after you are out of the picture yourself. It’s key to optimizing your impact on your organization and its people. Legacy building in business contexts can take the form of working to ensure the long-term viability of the organization and leaving it stronger, more productive, and more valuable than it was before. Or, in more dramatic scenarios led by entrepreneurs, creating an entirely new organization. Thinking about your legacy is also a great way to ensure that you are taking into account the long-term perspective of your organization and resisting the temptation to make myopic decisions that are overly focused on short-term gain. So then, how can you keep your legacy in mind as you go about your everyday decisions? Fortunately, more than a decade of research on how people make decisions that involve future generations provides some specific strategies for helping you to keep legacy building in mind and leverage those thoughts to maximize your impact on the world. Think about what the previous generation did for you Recall your predecessors and how their actions affected you. What resources did they leave behind for you and your contemporaries? How did they change the organization to provide you with opportunities? How did they shape your organization’s culture? While you can’t always reciprocate the deeds of prior generations because they are no longer part of the organization, you can pay it forward by behaving similarly to the next generation of organizational actors. When you take the long-term perspective and think about your organization in terms of multiple generations, reciprocity is not direct, but rather it takes on a more generalized form. Research shows that when we know we have benefited from the legacy of the prior generation, that gets us thinking about the positive legacy we want to leave for future generations and we tend to make better long-term oriented decisions. Focus on the burdens rather than the benefits When making decisions about the future, leaders may be allocating desirable benefits such as profit or natural resources or they may be distributing burdens that they and others wish to avoid such as debt or hazardous waste. Research shows that whether a resource is a benefit or a burden matters when it comes to allocation decisions and legacies. People are more concerned with avoiding leaving a negative legacy than with creating a positive one. Compared to leaving benefits to future others, leaving burdens leads individuals to feel a greater sense of responsibility toward and affinity with those in the future as well as more moral emotions, such as shame and guilt. Highlighting the burdensome aspects of long-range decisions can help leaders to recognize the negative legacies that such decisions can create. Further, it is strategic for organizations to intentionally connect decisions about benefits and burdens so that managers must make them simultaneously. The increased focus on ethical considerations that accompanies the allocation of burdens can help attenuate the short-sighted and self-interested behavior that often guides the allocation of benefits. Consider the responsibility that comes with your power Most research on power suggests that the experience of power tends to make people more self- focused and self-interested. This research primarily considers the effect of power in limited timeframes. However, recent research on intergenerational decisions involving longer
  • 23. 23 timeframes reveals that power can lead decision makers to be more concerned with the interests of others in the future. When intergenerational decisions are combined with an enhanced experience of power, people feel more social responsibility and are more focused on their legacy, compared to when their power is not prominent. The result is that they are more generous to future generations, which naturally helps them to build a positive legacy. When it is clear that we are in a position to determine outcomes to powerless and voiceless others, our decisions are ethically charged and we consider the moral implications of our actions more seriously. Remember that you will die some day One day in 1888, a wealthy and successful man was reading what was supposed to be his brother’s obituary in a French newspaper. As he read, he realized that the editor had confused the two brothers and had written an obituary for him instead. The headline proclaimed, “The merchant of death is dead,” and then described a man who had gained his wealth by helping people to kill one another. Not surprisingly, he was deeply troubled by this glimpse of what his legacy might have been had he actually died on that day. It is believed that this incident was pivotal in motivating him to leave nearly his entire fortune following his actual death eight years later to fund awards each year to give to those whose work most benefitted humanity. This is, of course, the true story of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite and the founder of the Nobel Prize. Yes, we all die. When we are reminded of our deaths, we remember that we don’t want to die – we want to live! But we understand death’s inevitability and that fact creates an existential dilemma in light of our deeply rooted survival instinct. One of the most effective things we can do to buffer our anxiety about death is to attempt to transcend death by finding meaning in our lives. Central to this meaning is that we have impact that persists beyond our physical existence. Research shows that reminding people of death motivates them to consider their legacy and causes them to act in ways that benefit future generations, thus improving the overall quality of their long-term decisions. People feel better in the face of death if they are a part of something that will live on after them. Having a positive impact on future generations can help fulfill that need. Nobel lives on through his legacy, and receiving a shocking reminder of the inevitability of his death helped him to get there. His story also illustrates how avoiding a negative legacy can be more motivating than simply wanting to build a positive one. In sum, the epitome of power is to leave a great legacy that lives on after you are gone. This is the way you can maximize your influence and ensure you are keeping the long-term success of the organization in mind. And as a bonus you get a little bit of (symbolic) immortality. Ultimately, your legacy is all you’ve got. Think about how you want to be remembered by other people and act on those thoughts. Give the Grim Reaper a run for his money by creating something meaningful that will outlive yourself.
  • 24. 24 Review 'Research shows that when we know we have benefited from the legacy of the prior generation, that gets us thinking about the positive legacy we want to leave for future generations and we tend to make better long-term oriented decisions.' The research highlights something interesting in saying 'when we know......' for it poses the issue of what would have been the case when don't know? Thus what is implicit is the legacy was obvious or was at objective intention, it has been done in shaping, in giving it cultural dimension that's why it has been positively integrated and adopted. A leader with a legacy , is born from his passion to drive world and his circumstances. In today's era , we have forgotten to relate necessity with leader , as it is what urges the mind to think and stress that last neuron which may give him something new/special to think or act. Legacy Leaders never live foe themselves , instead they clear those rough paths from hindrances so we may run through them. Your legacy. It's something you create during your life solely to benefit future generations, something you may never see come to fruition. Just like a farmer who plants a tree knowing he'll never live to taste its fruits, a legacy is a gift you leave behind without expecting anything in return. Think of John F. Kennedy and the space program or Martin Luther King Jr. and civil rights. They died before their legacies were fulfilled, but they will be forever revered for their efforts. Legacies come in different shapes and forms, requiring varying levels of effort and commitment. Some choose to leave financial legacies, supporting causes such as funding breast cancer research or a new building at one's alma mater. Other legacies are institutional, like when somebody founds a nonprofit or builds a business that's a positive force in the community. All of these examples have their value and place in society.
  • 25. 25 Why Leaders Fail By Mark Sanborn Donald Trump, paragon of the real estate world, files for bankruptcy. Richard Nixon, 37th U.S. President, resigns the presidency over the Watergate scandal. Jennifer Capriati, rising tennis star, enters a rehabilitation center for drug addicts. Jim Bakker, renowned televangelist, is convicted of fraud. In the recent past, we've witnessed the public downfall of leaders from almost every area of endeavor—business, politics, religion, and sports. One day they're on top of the heap, the next, the heap's on top of them. Of course, we think that such catastrophic failure could never happen to us. We've worked hard to achieve our well-deserved positions of leadership—and we won't give them up for anything! The bad news is: the distance between beloved leader and despised failure is shorter than we think. Ken Maupin, a practicing psychotherapist and colleague, has built his practice on working with high-performance personalities, including leaders in business, religion, and sports. Ken and I have often discussed why leaders fail. Our discussions have led to the following "warning signs" of impending failure. WARNING SIGN #1: A Shift in Focus This shift can occur in several ways. Often, leaders simply lose sight of what's important. The laser-like focus that catapulted them to the top disappears, and they become distracted by the trappings of leadership, such as wealth and notoriety. Leaders are usually distinguished by their ability to "think big." But when their focus shifts, they suddenly start thinking small. They micro manage, they get caught up in details better left to others, they become consumed with the trivial and unimportant. And to make matters worse, this tendency can be exacerbated by an inclination toward perfectionism. A more subtle leadership derailer is an obsession with "doing" rather than "becoming." The good work of leadership is usually a result of who the leader is. What the leader does then flows naturally from inner vision and character. It is possible for a leader to become too action oriented and, in the process, lose touch with the more important development of self. What is your primary focus right now? If you can't write it on the back of your business card, then it's a sure bet that your leadership is suffering from a lack of clarity. Take the time necessary to get your focus back on what's important. Further, would you describe your thinking as expansive or contractive? Of course, you always should be willing to do whatever it takes to get the job done, but try never to take on what others can do as well as you. In short, make sure that your focus is on leading rather than doing. WARNING SIGN #2: Poor Communication
  • 26. 26 A lack of focus and its resulting disorientation typically lead to poor communication. Followers can't possibly understand a leader's intent when the leader him- or herself isn't sure what it is! And when leaders are unclear about their own purpose, they often hide their confusion and uncertainty in ambiguous communication. Sometimes, leaders fall into the clairvoyance trap. In other words, they begin to believe that truly committed followers automatically sense their goals and know what they want without being told. Misunderstanding is seen by such managers as a lack of effort (or commitment) on the listener's part, rather than their own communication negligence. "Say what you mean, and mean what you say" is timeless advice, but it must be preceded by knowing what you mean! An underlying clarity of purpose is the starting point for all effective communication. It's only when you're absolutely clear about what you want to convey that the hard work of communicating pays dividends. WARNING SIGN #3: Risk Aversion Third, leaders at risk often begin to be driven by a fear of failure rather than the desire to succeed. Past successes create pressure for leaders: "Will I be able to sustain outstanding performance?" "What will I do for an encore?" In fact, the longer a leader is successful, the higher his or her perceived cost of failure. When driven by the fear of failure, leaders are unable to take reasonable risks. They want to do only the tried and proven; attempts at innovation—typically a key to their initial success— diminish and eventually disappear. Which is more important to you: the attempt or the outcome? Are you still taking reasonable risks? Prudent leadership never takes reckless chances that risk the destruction of what has been achieved, but neither is it paralyzed by fear. Often the dance of leadership is two steps forward, one step back. WARNING SIGN #4: Ethics Slip A leader's credibility is the result of two aspects: what he or she does (competency) and who he or she is (character). A discrepancy between these two aspects creates an integrity problem. The highest principle of leadership is integrity. When integrity ceases to be a leader's top priority, when a compromise of ethics is rationalized away as necessary for the "greater good," when achieving results becomes more important than the means to their achievement—that is the moment when a leader steps onto the slippery slop of failure. Often such leaders see their followers as pawns, a mere means to an end, thus confusing manipulation with leadership. These leaders lose empathy. They cease to be people "perceivers" and become people "pleasers," using popularity to ease the guilt of lapsed integrity.
  • 27. 27 It is imperative to your leadership that you constantly subject your life and work to the highest scrutiny. Are there areas of conflict between what you believe and how you behave? Has compromise crept into your operational tool kit? One way to find out is to ask the people you depend on if they ever feel used or taken for granted. WARNING SIGN #5: Poor Self Management Tragically, if a leader doesn't take care of him- or herself, no one else will. Unless a leader is blessed to be surrounded by more-sensitive-than-normal followers, nobody will pick up on the signs of fatigue and stress. Leaders are often perceived to be superhuman, running on unlimited energy. While leadership is invigorating, it is also tiring. Leaders who fail to take care of their physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs are headed for disaster. Think of having a gauge for each of these four areas of your life—and check them often! When a gauge reaches the "empty" point, make time for refreshment and replenishment. Clear your schedule and take care of yourself—it's absolutely vital to your leadership that you continue to grow and develop, a task that can be accomplished only when your tanks are full. WARNING SIGN #6: Lost Love The last warning sign of impending disaster that leaders need to heed is a move away from their first love and dream. Paradoxically, the hard work of leadership should be fulfilling and even fun. But when leaders lose sight of the dream that compelled them to accept the responsibility of leadership, they can find themselves working for causes that mean little to them. They must stick to what they love, what motivated them at the first, to maintain the fulfillment of leadership. To make sure that you stay on the track of following your first love, frequently ask yourself these three questions: Why did I initially assume leadership? Have those reasons changed? Do I still want to lead?
  • 28. 28 Review Not everyone is meant to be a leader, but for those of you who are already leaders or aspiring to be leaders, there are a lot of lessons you can learn. Today, I’ve written ten reasons why leaders fail. It’s a collection of issues that leaders tend to have, especially in their first few years in those roles. It’s easy to get caught up in the act of leadership because you gain power, confidence and control, all of which can be your undoing. The best leaders know that their success or failure depends on their ability to inspire and guide their teams. Meanwhile, official corporate culture statements often highlight traits like "integrity" and "collaboration" as core values from the top down. Most workers, whether they're in a leadership position or not, know what they'd like to see in a boss. They often feel confident that they could rise to the challenge and become that boss if they had to. When it comes time to act, though, this can be a little more difficult than expected. "Knowing is the easy part — doing is the hard part," Hewertson told Business News Daily. "We all know what good and bad leadership looks like and feels like. Once in the role, however, people often forget what they know and get a bit full of themselves, or are so unsure of themselves [they become] ineffective." It's one thing to be a team member; it's another to lead those team members. Leaders are frequently unprepared to deal with the realities of managing a group, so they either ignore problems that arise or react poorly to them. "Rarely do new leaders have a clue about what they are really getting into," Hewertson said. "For many of them, it's not what they expected, or had the desire or competencies to do well." You need many different competencies to master the discipline of leadership. People must learn how to lead well, and the skills and motivations needed to lead are the opposite of those needed to be an individual contributor. It's no longer about just you: You only succeed when your people succeed, and many new leaders don't make this shift gracefully. Instead of focusing on tasks, leaders need to support the other people doing the tasks, so those people are successful. Leading is all about relationships — growing trust, building teams and utilizing excellent interpersonal skills. Leaders pay a high price for ignoring the important process of building healthy relationships. To create these relationships, leaders need to pay attention to their teams, keep learning and never assume anything. Leaders tend think they have or need to act like they have all the answers — they don't have the answers, and they shouldn't act like it, Hewertson said. Listening is not a strong suit for many new leaders, and too often they jump in quickly rather than listening, learning and building on what they see. Of course, the purpose of gatherings such as ours is to explore what goes wrong in leadership, the root causes and what we can do about it. Luckily, as with the news, we tend to hear much more about failure than success. But we should not forget that so much goes right in business and society, because of good men and women stepping up and taking responsibility for making sure that the world works and delivers not just value, but values for our benefit.