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The effect of Salt fog testThe effect of Salt fog test
on insulator flashoveron insulator flashover
characteristicscharacteristics
Written byWritten by
Alexander AganyanAlexander Aganyan
March 2012March 2012
Factors involved in aging ofFactors involved in aging of
silicon rubbersilicon rubber
Real Pollution ProcessReal Pollution Process
 Dust, micro organism, bird secretions,Dust, micro organism, bird secretions,
fliesflies
 Desert pollutionDesert pollution
sand and dry windsand and dry wind
 Ice & Fog deposits at high altitudesIce & Fog deposits at high altitudes
 Coastal pollutionCoastal pollution
• corrosive and hygroscopic saltcorrosive and hygroscopic salt
layers are deposited on thelayers are deposited on the
insulator surfacesinsulator surfaces
 Industrial pollutionIndustrial pollution
• smoke, petroleum vapours, dustsmoke, petroleum vapours, dust
POPULAR CONTAMINATIONPOPULAR CONTAMINATION
TESTSTESTS
 (1) Salt fog(1) Salt fog
 (2) Wet-contaminant(2) Wet-contaminant
 (3) Clean fog test(3) Clean fog test
In the method, the insulator isIn the method, the insulator is
energized at the service voltageenergized at the service voltage
which is held constant through thewhich is held constant through the
test, and subjected to a salt fogtest, and subjected to a salt fog
whose salinity, ranged from 2.5 towhose salinity, ranged from 2.5 to
160 g/m3.160 g/m3.
The Salt fog testThe Salt fog test
The basic principleThe basic principle
of long-term Salt fog testof long-term Salt fog test
The generation of continuousThe generation of continuous
discharges by exposing the energizeddischarges by exposing the energized
insulator to a salt water spray.insulator to a salt water spray.
Salt fog reference to realSalt fog reference to real
contamination 1contamination 1
 Salt fog test is just particular and rare caseSalt fog test is just particular and rare case
of pollution which is really important and hasof pollution which is really important and has
more or less correlation with real pollutionmore or less correlation with real pollution
process only for Marine coast disposition.process only for Marine coast disposition.
 The conditions described in ……allow vitiateThe conditions described in ……allow vitiate
severity of conditions in rather wide range.severity of conditions in rather wide range.
As result the repeatability of test results isAs result the repeatability of test results is
unsolved problem.unsolved problem.
 The aim of this presentation to get analyticThe aim of this presentation to get analytic
and to obtain the answer to the questionsand to obtain the answer to the questions
“How increase the probability to pass the“How increase the probability to pass the
test?”test?”
Salt fog reference to realSalt fog reference to real
contamination 2contamination 2
Four stages of degradation ofFour stages of degradation of
silicone rubber compounds tosilicone rubber compounds to
flashover at Salt fog testflashover at Salt fog test
Leakage current surging with associated dry band formationLeakage current surging with associated dry band formation
and partial arc development along the insulator surfaceand partial arc development along the insulator surface
eventually spanning the whole insulatoreventually spanning the whole insulator
Silicone rubber may fail as an insulatorSilicone rubber may fail as an insulator
due to the formation of a thick silicadue to the formation of a thick silica
layer which could lead to trappedlayer which could lead to trapped
moisture and high leakage currents. Amoisture and high leakage currents. A
silicone rubber insulator may also failsilicone rubber insulator may also fail
due to material erosion exposing thedue to material erosion exposing the
fiberglass rod.fiberglass rod.
 1. loss of hydrophobicity1. loss of hydrophobicity
 2.2. dry band arcingdry band arcing
 3.3. formation of silica layerformation of silica layer
 4.4. erosionerosion
Some more details aboutSome more details about
degradation at Salt fog testdegradation at Salt fog test
Hydrophobicity is theHydrophobicity is the
property thatproperty that
prevents water fromprevents water from
forming a sheet onforming a sheet on
the surface of athe surface of a
polymerpolymer..
Hydrophobicity – the mainHydrophobicity – the main
advantage of SRadvantage of SR
Contact angle measurements showingContact angle measurements showing
hydrophilic surface (A), minimum hydrophobichydrophilic surface (A), minimum hydrophobic
surface (B), typical hydrophobicity for siliconesurface (B), typical hydrophobicity for silicone
rubber (C) and ideal superhydrophobic surfacerubber (C) and ideal superhydrophobic surface
(D).(D).
Main problem of SR degradationMain problem of SR degradation
during Salt fog testduring Salt fog test
 The tracking and erosion test is an acceleratedThe tracking and erosion test is an accelerated
test because the hydrophobicity is removed in thetest because the hydrophobicity is removed in the
first few cycles, and the test sample is not givenfirst few cycles, and the test sample is not given
an opportunity to recover the hydrophobicity.an opportunity to recover the hydrophobicity.
Recovery takes days to weeks, depending first onRecovery takes days to weeks, depending first on
the absence of electrical activity, and then on thethe absence of electrical activity, and then on the
silicone compound, environmental conditions,silicone compound, environmental conditions,
thickness of the silica layer, and the presence ofthickness of the silica layer, and the presence of
cracks in the silica layer.cracks in the silica layer.
 The lack of recovery time is the reasonThe lack of recovery time is the reason
silicone rubber compounds were notsilicone rubber compounds were not
originally expected to perform as well asoriginally expected to perform as well as
porcelain glaze on the tracking and erosionporcelain glaze on the tracking and erosion
test.test.
Typical test results for siliconTypical test results for silicon
rubberrubber
 A fast reduction of the hydrophobicity isA fast reduction of the hydrophobicity is
observed within 200-400 h of the test.observed within 200-400 h of the test.
 Later on, currents of typically more thanLater on, currents of typically more than
100 mA arise, corresponding to unstable,100 mA arise, corresponding to unstable,
rather long discharges.rather long discharges.
Salt fog test results on hydrophobic andSalt fog test results on hydrophobic and
The gap between hydrophobic and hydrophilic performance of silicone isThe gap between hydrophobic and hydrophilic performance of silicone is
in the range of 20 % to 30%in the range of 20 % to 30%
Three possible ways of Salt fogThree possible ways of Salt fog
Test performance improvementTest performance improvement
 Reducing stress at the test by theReducing stress at the test by the
right choice of laboratoryright choice of laboratory
 Shape optimizationShape optimization
 Material improvementMaterial improvement
Technology
Main condition to pass Salt fogMain condition to pass Salt fog
Test!Test!
Materials without an inherent
resistance to tracking and erosion do
not perform well in this test because
the formation of the silica layer
occurs very early in the test.
 In this test, the insulators areIn this test, the insulators are
contaminated by spraying thecontaminated by spraying the
contaminant mixture. Voltage iscontaminant mixture. Voltage is
applied 3 to 5 minutes after the endapplied 3 to 5 minutes after the end
of the contamination procedure whileof the contamination procedure while
the insulator still wet. The testthe insulator still wet. The test
voltage is raised until flashovervoltage is raised until flashover
occurs.occurs.
Wet-contaminant test methodWet-contaminant test method
 This test method can be separatedThis test method can be separated
into two types:into two types:
1) In some fog test, insulators are1) In some fog test, insulators are
contaminated, dried, and then wetted bycontaminated, dried, and then wetted by
clean-fog. Test voltage is applied to theclean-fog. Test voltage is applied to the
insulators when the leakage resistance hasinsulators when the leakage resistance has
reached its lowest value. This method hasreached its lowest value. This method has
been mainly developed in Germany, underbeen mainly developed in Germany, under
the name “pre-deposit method”.the name “pre-deposit method”.
Clean fog test methodClean fog test method
2) In the second type of test :2) In the second type of test :
voltage is applied to dry contaminatedvoltage is applied to dry contaminated
insulators and then a wetting condition isinsulators and then a wetting condition is
applied. This can be regarded as aapplied. This can be regarded as a
reasonable simulation of naturalreasonable simulation of natural
conditions; however, it is moreconditions; however, it is more
complicated than other methods.complicated than other methods.
Clean fog test methodClean fog test method
Process of pollution at SaltProcess of pollution at Salt
fog and start of flashoverfog and start of flashover
 1) Deposit of pollution on the1) Deposit of pollution on the
insulator surface as the surface layerinsulator surface as the surface layer
is moistened.is moistened.
 3) The surface layer is heated and3) The surface layer is heated and
causes an increase in thecauses an increase in the
conductivity and the leakage current.conductivity and the leakage current.
 4) The heating results in local drying4) The heating results in local drying
of the surface layer and so-called dryof the surface layer and so-called dry
bands occur.bands occur.
 5) Partial arcs occur across the dry5) Partial arcs occur across the dry
bands on such contaminatedbands on such contaminated
insulators.insulators.
 6) The partial discharges increase6) The partial discharges increase
 7) Finally the partial streamer7) Finally the partial streamer
discharges (partial flashovers) aredischarges (partial flashovers) are
“connected” in serious and a“connected” in serious and a
complete flashover occurs.complete flashover occurs.
These figures show insulatorThese figures show insulator
flashoverflashover 11
These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 22
These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 33
These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 44
Salt fog withstand characteristics of
different profiles and materials
 The results are shown in terms of withstand unified specific creepage distance
(USCD)
How improve the Salt FogHow improve the Salt Fog
test resultstest results ??
 (1) To reduce the stress of the test(1) To reduce the stress of the test
procedureprocedure
 (2) To improve the shape of the(2) To improve the shape of the
insulatorinsulator
 (3) To improve the material.(3) To improve the material.
Some words about siliconeSome words about silicone
Influence of Surface Material 1
ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE ( ATH )ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE ( ATH )
 Of the Common fillers used in Plastics,Of the Common fillers used in Plastics,
Rubber, FRP, SMC, DMC moulding andRubber, FRP, SMC, DMC moulding and
other polymers only Alumina Trihydrateother polymers only Alumina Trihydrate
has flame retarding and smokehas flame retarding and smoke
suppressing properties as well as beingsuppressing properties as well as being
an economical resin extender.an economical resin extender.
Alumina Trihydrate ATH - 800 gradeAlumina Trihydrate ATH - 800 grade:-:-
This is finely ground grades consistingThis is finely ground grades consisting
entirely of superfine pass through 800entirely of superfine pass through 800
mesh. Average particle size 1.5 - 5mesh. Average particle size 1.5 - 5
microns.microns.
 This grade use specially in XLPE,PVC CableThis grade use specially in XLPE,PVC Cable
& wire coatings, polymer industries,& wire coatings, polymer industries,
& Paints Industries& Paints Industries
 Alumina Trihydrate surface treatedAlumina Trihydrate surface treated
material available on request.material available on request.
http://www.aluminachem.com/products.htm#1
AI(OH)3
http://www.rjmarshall.com/sites/default/files/bayer%20tech%20sheet%2
Pure silicone rubber shows little tracking
and erosionbase
 ECE-3650 SYLGARD HVIC (SYLGARD HVIC). High
Voltage Insulator Coating?
Influence of Surface Material 2
Visual Observation Results
 Effect of Surface Treatment
of Fillers on Deterioration
of Silicone Rubber Housing
Materials andRod type
specimens made of HTV SiR
having
different amount of Alumina
Trihydrate (ATH)1
Visual Observation ResultsVisual Observation Results
a) HTV SiR ATH0
Severe Erosion Slight Erosion
b) HTV SiR ATH50
Surface discharge during Salt FogSurface discharge during Salt Fog
InjectionInjection
MICRO/NANO FILLER USE TO IMPROVESILICONEMICRO/NANO FILLER USE TO IMPROVESILICONE R
11
 There are two types of
fillers: reinforcing and extending.
 Common siliconerubber reinforcing fillers are fumed silica,
aerogelsilica, and carbon black
 Common extending fillers are ground quartz, titanium
dioxide, clay, whiting,alumina trihydrate (ATH), and zinc
oxide.
I. Surface hydrophobicity
enchancing I. anti-adhesion,
 low surface energy and super-
hydrophobicityThe adhesion of solid
contaminations could be reduced,
leading to self clearned surface
Thereby, surface leakage currents and
pollution flashovers due to
contaminationwould also be suppressed
efficiently.
Recently Gao et al[22,23]. employed
plasma treatment to modify the surface of silicone
rubber. In particular, they utilisedCF4 radio
frequency plasma to introduce fluorine groups onto
the polymer surface.
They achieved a super-hydrophobic
silicone rubber with contact angle of
150 º
[22] S.H. Gao, K.S. Zhou, M.K. Lei and L.S. Wen
// Plasma Chem. Plasma Process 28 (2008)
715.
[23] S.H. Gao, K.S. Zhou, M.K. Lei and L.S. Wen
// Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 (2009) 6017.
II. Electrical conductivity
 At a given amount of conductive
particles, called the percolation
threshold, a continuous network of
filler is formed
Shape improvementShape improvement
 Surface treatmentSurface treatment
Average leakage current vs. test timeAverage leakage current vs. test time
Protect bushing from Salt fog test and flashoverProtect bushing from Salt fog test and flashover
 To increase quantity of
 Prevent And Eliminate The Expense
Of Insulator Flashovers With Si-Coat
570
 Cleaning insulator
 Calculate & Choose Insulators UnderCalculate & Choose Insulators Under
Heavy ContaminatesHeavy Contaminates
 Improve Performance
Recovery of hydrophobicityRecovery of hydrophobicity
Silicone rubber may lose its hydrophobic property temporarily during
periods of constant wetting, arcing and darkness. The time for loss of
hydrophobicity during the extreme conditions of a 1000 h Salt fog
tracking and erosion test according to IEC 1109 is in the order of 200 -
500 h. The insulators recover within a few days if allowed to dry,
faster if exposed to UV light, heat and mechanical rubbing.
A silicone rubber insulator with lost hydrophobicity is equally good as
a porcelain insulator with the same design.
Analysis of leakage current usingAnalysis of leakage current using SSalt fog testalt fog test
for SRfor SR
 average leakage current
 the surface discharge currentas pulse magnitud
 FFT analysis of the leakage
Leakage current characteristicLeakage current characteristic
0 50 150100 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
leaking peak current, mA
test duration, min
EAP
TP
LAP
Influence of specific stressInfluence of specific stress
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
leaking peak current, mA
0.8 kV/cm
0.4 kV/cm25 50
0.6 kV/cm
test duration, min
RapidRapid flashoverflashover methodmethod forfor SSaltalt fogfog testingtesting
Experimental setup for tracking test
based on BS EN 60587: 2007
Visible discharge activities during
similar test (deep wheel test)
SuggestionSuggestion
 Creation improved material samplesCreation improved material samples
 Their Comparison at fast preliminaryTheir Comparison at fast preliminary
checkcheck
 Detailed Salt fog test with 2Detailed Salt fog test with 2
improved samples and 2 usualimproved samples and 2 usual
Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attention

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The effect of salt fog test _on_insulator

  • 1. The effect of Salt fog testThe effect of Salt fog test on insulator flashoveron insulator flashover characteristicscharacteristics Written byWritten by Alexander AganyanAlexander Aganyan March 2012March 2012
  • 2. Factors involved in aging ofFactors involved in aging of silicon rubbersilicon rubber
  • 3. Real Pollution ProcessReal Pollution Process  Dust, micro organism, bird secretions,Dust, micro organism, bird secretions, fliesflies  Desert pollutionDesert pollution sand and dry windsand and dry wind  Ice & Fog deposits at high altitudesIce & Fog deposits at high altitudes  Coastal pollutionCoastal pollution • corrosive and hygroscopic saltcorrosive and hygroscopic salt layers are deposited on thelayers are deposited on the insulator surfacesinsulator surfaces  Industrial pollutionIndustrial pollution • smoke, petroleum vapours, dustsmoke, petroleum vapours, dust
  • 4. POPULAR CONTAMINATIONPOPULAR CONTAMINATION TESTSTESTS  (1) Salt fog(1) Salt fog  (2) Wet-contaminant(2) Wet-contaminant  (3) Clean fog test(3) Clean fog test
  • 5. In the method, the insulator isIn the method, the insulator is energized at the service voltageenergized at the service voltage which is held constant through thewhich is held constant through the test, and subjected to a salt fogtest, and subjected to a salt fog whose salinity, ranged from 2.5 towhose salinity, ranged from 2.5 to 160 g/m3.160 g/m3. The Salt fog testThe Salt fog test
  • 6. The basic principleThe basic principle of long-term Salt fog testof long-term Salt fog test The generation of continuousThe generation of continuous discharges by exposing the energizeddischarges by exposing the energized insulator to a salt water spray.insulator to a salt water spray.
  • 7. Salt fog reference to realSalt fog reference to real contamination 1contamination 1  Salt fog test is just particular and rare caseSalt fog test is just particular and rare case of pollution which is really important and hasof pollution which is really important and has more or less correlation with real pollutionmore or less correlation with real pollution process only for Marine coast disposition.process only for Marine coast disposition.  The conditions described in ……allow vitiateThe conditions described in ……allow vitiate severity of conditions in rather wide range.severity of conditions in rather wide range. As result the repeatability of test results isAs result the repeatability of test results is unsolved problem.unsolved problem.  The aim of this presentation to get analyticThe aim of this presentation to get analytic and to obtain the answer to the questionsand to obtain the answer to the questions “How increase the probability to pass the“How increase the probability to pass the test?”test?”
  • 8. Salt fog reference to realSalt fog reference to real contamination 2contamination 2
  • 9. Four stages of degradation ofFour stages of degradation of silicone rubber compounds tosilicone rubber compounds to flashover at Salt fog testflashover at Salt fog test Leakage current surging with associated dry band formationLeakage current surging with associated dry band formation and partial arc development along the insulator surfaceand partial arc development along the insulator surface eventually spanning the whole insulatoreventually spanning the whole insulator Silicone rubber may fail as an insulatorSilicone rubber may fail as an insulator due to the formation of a thick silicadue to the formation of a thick silica layer which could lead to trappedlayer which could lead to trapped moisture and high leakage currents. Amoisture and high leakage currents. A silicone rubber insulator may also failsilicone rubber insulator may also fail due to material erosion exposing thedue to material erosion exposing the fiberglass rod.fiberglass rod.  1. loss of hydrophobicity1. loss of hydrophobicity  2.2. dry band arcingdry band arcing  3.3. formation of silica layerformation of silica layer  4.4. erosionerosion
  • 10. Some more details aboutSome more details about degradation at Salt fog testdegradation at Salt fog test
  • 11. Hydrophobicity is theHydrophobicity is the property thatproperty that prevents water fromprevents water from forming a sheet onforming a sheet on the surface of athe surface of a polymerpolymer.. Hydrophobicity – the mainHydrophobicity – the main advantage of SRadvantage of SR Contact angle measurements showingContact angle measurements showing hydrophilic surface (A), minimum hydrophobichydrophilic surface (A), minimum hydrophobic surface (B), typical hydrophobicity for siliconesurface (B), typical hydrophobicity for silicone rubber (C) and ideal superhydrophobic surfacerubber (C) and ideal superhydrophobic surface (D).(D).
  • 12. Main problem of SR degradationMain problem of SR degradation during Salt fog testduring Salt fog test  The tracking and erosion test is an acceleratedThe tracking and erosion test is an accelerated test because the hydrophobicity is removed in thetest because the hydrophobicity is removed in the first few cycles, and the test sample is not givenfirst few cycles, and the test sample is not given an opportunity to recover the hydrophobicity.an opportunity to recover the hydrophobicity. Recovery takes days to weeks, depending first onRecovery takes days to weeks, depending first on the absence of electrical activity, and then on thethe absence of electrical activity, and then on the silicone compound, environmental conditions,silicone compound, environmental conditions, thickness of the silica layer, and the presence ofthickness of the silica layer, and the presence of cracks in the silica layer.cracks in the silica layer.  The lack of recovery time is the reasonThe lack of recovery time is the reason silicone rubber compounds were notsilicone rubber compounds were not originally expected to perform as well asoriginally expected to perform as well as porcelain glaze on the tracking and erosionporcelain glaze on the tracking and erosion test.test.
  • 13. Typical test results for siliconTypical test results for silicon rubberrubber  A fast reduction of the hydrophobicity isA fast reduction of the hydrophobicity is observed within 200-400 h of the test.observed within 200-400 h of the test.  Later on, currents of typically more thanLater on, currents of typically more than 100 mA arise, corresponding to unstable,100 mA arise, corresponding to unstable, rather long discharges.rather long discharges.
  • 14. Salt fog test results on hydrophobic andSalt fog test results on hydrophobic and The gap between hydrophobic and hydrophilic performance of silicone isThe gap between hydrophobic and hydrophilic performance of silicone is in the range of 20 % to 30%in the range of 20 % to 30%
  • 15. Three possible ways of Salt fogThree possible ways of Salt fog Test performance improvementTest performance improvement  Reducing stress at the test by theReducing stress at the test by the right choice of laboratoryright choice of laboratory  Shape optimizationShape optimization  Material improvementMaterial improvement Technology
  • 16. Main condition to pass Salt fogMain condition to pass Salt fog Test!Test! Materials without an inherent resistance to tracking and erosion do not perform well in this test because the formation of the silica layer occurs very early in the test.
  • 17.  In this test, the insulators areIn this test, the insulators are contaminated by spraying thecontaminated by spraying the contaminant mixture. Voltage iscontaminant mixture. Voltage is applied 3 to 5 minutes after the endapplied 3 to 5 minutes after the end of the contamination procedure whileof the contamination procedure while the insulator still wet. The testthe insulator still wet. The test voltage is raised until flashovervoltage is raised until flashover occurs.occurs. Wet-contaminant test methodWet-contaminant test method
  • 18.  This test method can be separatedThis test method can be separated into two types:into two types: 1) In some fog test, insulators are1) In some fog test, insulators are contaminated, dried, and then wetted bycontaminated, dried, and then wetted by clean-fog. Test voltage is applied to theclean-fog. Test voltage is applied to the insulators when the leakage resistance hasinsulators when the leakage resistance has reached its lowest value. This method hasreached its lowest value. This method has been mainly developed in Germany, underbeen mainly developed in Germany, under the name “pre-deposit method”.the name “pre-deposit method”. Clean fog test methodClean fog test method
  • 19. 2) In the second type of test :2) In the second type of test : voltage is applied to dry contaminatedvoltage is applied to dry contaminated insulators and then a wetting condition isinsulators and then a wetting condition is applied. This can be regarded as aapplied. This can be regarded as a reasonable simulation of naturalreasonable simulation of natural conditions; however, it is moreconditions; however, it is more complicated than other methods.complicated than other methods. Clean fog test methodClean fog test method
  • 20. Process of pollution at SaltProcess of pollution at Salt fog and start of flashoverfog and start of flashover  1) Deposit of pollution on the1) Deposit of pollution on the insulator surface as the surface layerinsulator surface as the surface layer is moistened.is moistened.  3) The surface layer is heated and3) The surface layer is heated and causes an increase in thecauses an increase in the conductivity and the leakage current.conductivity and the leakage current.
  • 21.  4) The heating results in local drying4) The heating results in local drying of the surface layer and so-called dryof the surface layer and so-called dry bands occur.bands occur.  5) Partial arcs occur across the dry5) Partial arcs occur across the dry bands on such contaminatedbands on such contaminated insulators.insulators.  6) The partial discharges increase6) The partial discharges increase  7) Finally the partial streamer7) Finally the partial streamer discharges (partial flashovers) aredischarges (partial flashovers) are “connected” in serious and a“connected” in serious and a complete flashover occurs.complete flashover occurs.
  • 22. These figures show insulatorThese figures show insulator flashoverflashover 11
  • 23. These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 22
  • 24. These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 33
  • 25. These figures show insulator flashoverThese figures show insulator flashover 44
  • 26. Salt fog withstand characteristics of different profiles and materials  The results are shown in terms of withstand unified specific creepage distance (USCD)
  • 27. How improve the Salt FogHow improve the Salt Fog test resultstest results ??  (1) To reduce the stress of the test(1) To reduce the stress of the test procedureprocedure  (2) To improve the shape of the(2) To improve the shape of the insulatorinsulator  (3) To improve the material.(3) To improve the material.
  • 28. Some words about siliconeSome words about silicone
  • 29. Influence of Surface Material 1
  • 30. ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE ( ATH )ALUMINA TRIHYDRATE ( ATH )  Of the Common fillers used in Plastics,Of the Common fillers used in Plastics, Rubber, FRP, SMC, DMC moulding andRubber, FRP, SMC, DMC moulding and other polymers only Alumina Trihydrateother polymers only Alumina Trihydrate has flame retarding and smokehas flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties as well as beingsuppressing properties as well as being an economical resin extender.an economical resin extender. Alumina Trihydrate ATH - 800 gradeAlumina Trihydrate ATH - 800 grade:-:- This is finely ground grades consistingThis is finely ground grades consisting entirely of superfine pass through 800entirely of superfine pass through 800 mesh. Average particle size 1.5 - 5mesh. Average particle size 1.5 - 5 microns.microns.  This grade use specially in XLPE,PVC CableThis grade use specially in XLPE,PVC Cable & wire coatings, polymer industries,& wire coatings, polymer industries, & Paints Industries& Paints Industries  Alumina Trihydrate surface treatedAlumina Trihydrate surface treated material available on request.material available on request. http://www.aluminachem.com/products.htm#1 AI(OH)3 http://www.rjmarshall.com/sites/default/files/bayer%20tech%20sheet%2 Pure silicone rubber shows little tracking and erosionbase
  • 31.  ECE-3650 SYLGARD HVIC (SYLGARD HVIC). High Voltage Insulator Coating? Influence of Surface Material 2
  • 32. Visual Observation Results  Effect of Surface Treatment of Fillers on Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Materials andRod type specimens made of HTV SiR having different amount of Alumina Trihydrate (ATH)1
  • 33. Visual Observation ResultsVisual Observation Results a) HTV SiR ATH0 Severe Erosion Slight Erosion b) HTV SiR ATH50
  • 34. Surface discharge during Salt FogSurface discharge during Salt Fog InjectionInjection
  • 35. MICRO/NANO FILLER USE TO IMPROVESILICONEMICRO/NANO FILLER USE TO IMPROVESILICONE R 11  There are two types of fillers: reinforcing and extending.  Common siliconerubber reinforcing fillers are fumed silica, aerogelsilica, and carbon black  Common extending fillers are ground quartz, titanium dioxide, clay, whiting,alumina trihydrate (ATH), and zinc oxide.
  • 36. I. Surface hydrophobicity enchancing I. anti-adhesion,  low surface energy and super- hydrophobicityThe adhesion of solid contaminations could be reduced, leading to self clearned surface Thereby, surface leakage currents and pollution flashovers due to contaminationwould also be suppressed efficiently. Recently Gao et al[22,23]. employed plasma treatment to modify the surface of silicone rubber. In particular, they utilisedCF4 radio frequency plasma to introduce fluorine groups onto the polymer surface. They achieved a super-hydrophobic silicone rubber with contact angle of 150 º [22] S.H. Gao, K.S. Zhou, M.K. Lei and L.S. Wen // Plasma Chem. Plasma Process 28 (2008) 715. [23] S.H. Gao, K.S. Zhou, M.K. Lei and L.S. Wen // Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 (2009) 6017.
  • 37. II. Electrical conductivity  At a given amount of conductive particles, called the percolation threshold, a continuous network of filler is formed
  • 38. Shape improvementShape improvement  Surface treatmentSurface treatment
  • 39. Average leakage current vs. test timeAverage leakage current vs. test time
  • 40. Protect bushing from Salt fog test and flashoverProtect bushing from Salt fog test and flashover  To increase quantity of  Prevent And Eliminate The Expense Of Insulator Flashovers With Si-Coat 570  Cleaning insulator  Calculate & Choose Insulators UnderCalculate & Choose Insulators Under Heavy ContaminatesHeavy Contaminates  Improve Performance
  • 41. Recovery of hydrophobicityRecovery of hydrophobicity Silicone rubber may lose its hydrophobic property temporarily during periods of constant wetting, arcing and darkness. The time for loss of hydrophobicity during the extreme conditions of a 1000 h Salt fog tracking and erosion test according to IEC 1109 is in the order of 200 - 500 h. The insulators recover within a few days if allowed to dry, faster if exposed to UV light, heat and mechanical rubbing. A silicone rubber insulator with lost hydrophobicity is equally good as a porcelain insulator with the same design.
  • 42. Analysis of leakage current usingAnalysis of leakage current using SSalt fog testalt fog test for SRfor SR  average leakage current  the surface discharge currentas pulse magnitud  FFT analysis of the leakage
  • 43.
  • 44. Leakage current characteristicLeakage current characteristic 0 50 150100 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 leaking peak current, mA test duration, min EAP TP LAP
  • 45. Influence of specific stressInfluence of specific stress 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 leaking peak current, mA 0.8 kV/cm 0.4 kV/cm25 50 0.6 kV/cm test duration, min
  • 46. RapidRapid flashoverflashover methodmethod forfor SSaltalt fogfog testingtesting
  • 47. Experimental setup for tracking test based on BS EN 60587: 2007
  • 48. Visible discharge activities during similar test (deep wheel test)
  • 49. SuggestionSuggestion  Creation improved material samplesCreation improved material samples  Their Comparison at fast preliminaryTheir Comparison at fast preliminary checkcheck  Detailed Salt fog test with 2Detailed Salt fog test with 2 improved samples and 2 usualimproved samples and 2 usual
  • 50. Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attention

Editor's Notes

  1. The IEC 1109, 1000 h salt fog test: Experience and suggestions for improvement Swedish Transmission Research NGK Insulators, Ltd. Institute (STRI) Ludvika, Sweden Komaki, Japan Nordic Insulation Symposium, Bergen, Norway, June 10-12, 1996, p.p. 389-398. I. Gutman, R. Hartings R. Matsuoka, K. Kondo The heat, UV-radiation and gases generated from the discharge activities influence the insulator performance in two ways. Firstly, the dielectric strength of the insulator can be reduced due to the salt severity and a subsequent reduction of the hydrophobicity. This can lead to a flashover without any visible surface damages. In this case we should regard the test as a flashover test. Secondly, different kinds of damages, such as tracking, erosion, cracks (material test) can be created, as well as shed punctures or water penetration (design test). In this case the test can be regarded as an ageing test.
  2. Textier and Kouadri [1986] studied the formation of dry bands using infrared photographs of the temperature profi le of a uniform wetted salt layer, 230 mm long by 35 mm wide, stabilized by a high nonsoluble deposit density.Power and energy balances were performed, leading to the conclusion that most (60 – 87%) of the power supply energy went into evaporation of the water layer. The formation of at least one dry band on the polluted and wetted insulator surface is an important precursor to the appearance of electrical arcs that can develop into fl ashover.
  3. Основной структурный фрагмент органосилоксанов – группировка, содержащая цепочку кремний–кислород–кремний, при этом у атома кремния должна находиться по крайней мере одна органическая группа (если ее не будет, то соединение перейдет в разряд неорганических силикатов, свойства которых совсем иные):
  4. One advantage of some polymer materials, notably SiR, is that the surface resistance under contamination and fog conditions is considerably higher than porcelain. This can be a combination of the hydrophobicity of the material and also of the higher surface impedance
  5. The p eriod which the average leakage current is increasing is shown that the aging is being processed, and the hydrophobicity lost on the surface of insulator by aging is shown in the period of constant leakage current. So the water film is formed and then the leakage current flows through water film. Finally, the leakage current becomes the constant value.
  6. На диаграмме «Ток-время» можно выделить три участка: EAP (early aging period) . Поверхность гидрофобная, капли на поверхности значительно изолированы друг от друга. Ток утечки несколько микроампер. Сдвиг фазы между испытательным током и током утечки около 90°. Базовый ток перекрывается импульсами вызванными динамическими процессами в слое капель ( drop layer ) . Частичные разряды имеют случайную амплитуду и время появления и приводят к только небольшой электролитической эрозии поверхности. TP (transition period) . Увеличивается частот импульсов тока и ЧР. В некоторых точках поверхности начинается гидрофильное смачивание. Это в свою очередь приводит к увеличению активности и стабильности ЧР. Фазовый сдвиг уменьшается. LAP (late aging period). Поскольку ЧР имеет большую стабильность и ток достигает большой величины начинается деградация изоляционного материала. В данном примере вся поверхность подвергается эрозии, что приводит к полной потери поверхностной гидрофобности. Ток достигает некоторого предела. В таком состоянии фазовый сдвиг около 0° Таким образом ток утечки являет критерием местной утери гидрофобности, например, для определения конца early aging period .
  7. Как критерий окончания EAP использовался ток утечки (уровень 1мА) . Результаты усреднены для 4х опытов. Увеличение удельного напряжения и электролитической проводимости раствора приводит к уменьшению EAP и TP. В качестве причины этого можно предположить увеличение частоты и интенсивности ЧР в капельном слое ( drop layer ) /
  8. На диаграмме «Ток-время» можно выделить три участка: EAP (early aging period) . Поверхность гидрофобная, капли на поверхности значительно изолированы друг от друга. Ток утечки несколько микроампер. Сдвиг фазы между испытательным током и током утечки около 90°. Базовый ток перекрывается импульсами вызванными динамическими процессами в слое капель ( drop layer ) . Частичные разряды имеют случайную амплитуду и время появления и приводят к только небольшой электролитической эрозии поверхности. TP (transition period) . Увеличивается частот импульсов тока и ЧР. В некоторых точках поверхности начинается гидрофильное смачивание. Это в свою очередь приводит к увеличению активности и стабильности ЧР. Фазовый сдвиг уменьшается. LAP (late aging period). Поскольку ЧР имеет большую стабильность и ток достигает большой величины начинается деградация изоляционного материала. В данном примере вся поверхность подвергается эрозии, что приводит к полной потери поверхностной гидрофобности. Ток достигает некоторого предела. В таком состоянии фазовый сдвиг около 0° Таким образом ток утечки являет критерием местной утери гидрофобности, например, для определения конца early aging period .