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January 2016
The definition of R&D following the Frascati Manual
The Frascati Manual is used as a reference book
for defining R&D (Research and Development).
We propose to make a dissection of the last
revision of the Frascati Manual published on
October 8, 2015.
This presentation will focus on chapter 2
concerning the definition of R&D by giving
extracts of the Manual.
THE TERM R&D COVERS
3 TYPES OF ACTIVITY
Basic research
Basic research:
Experimental or theoretical work
undertaken primarily to acquire new
knowledge of the underlying
foundation of phenomena and
observable facts, without any
particular application or use in view.
Applied research
Applied research:
Original investigation undertaken in
order to acquire new knowledge. It
is, however, directed primarily
towards a specific, practical aim or
objective.
Experimental development
Experimental development:
Systematic work, drawing on knowledge
gained from research and practical
experience and producing additional
knowledge, which is directed to
producing new products* or processes*
or to improving existing products or
processes.
*Product refers to a good or a service.
*Process refers to the transformation of inputs to outputs and to their delivery or to organizational structures or practices.
SOME EXAMPLES GIVEN IN
THE FRASCATI MANUAL
Chemistry
Basic Research
Study of a given class of
polymerization reactions
under various conditions.
Applied Research
Optimization of a reaction with respect to
the production of polymers with given
physical or mechanical properties.
Experimental Development
Scaling up of the process that has
been optimized at the laboratory
level and investigating and
evaluating possible methods of
producing the polymer as well as
products to be made from it.
Physics
Basic Research
Modelling of a crystal’s
absorption of
electromagnetic radiation.
Applied Research
Study of the absorption of
electromagnetic radiation by this
material under varying conditions of
temperatures, impurities,
concentration,... to obtain given
properties (sensitivity, rapidity, etc.)
of radiation detection.
Experimental Development
Testing a new device using this
material in order to obtain a better
detector of radiation than those
already existing.
The new version provides
guidance on what is and
what is not R&D activity by
defining 5 cumulative
criteria requiring the
activity to be :
Creative
To be based on original,
not obvious, concepts and
hypotheses
Novel
To be aimed at new findings
Uncertain about its final
outcome (or at least about the
quantity of time and resources
needed to achieve it)
Transferable and/or reproducible
To lead to results that could be
possibly reproduced
Systematic
To be planned and budgeted
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