SlideShare a Scribd company logo
THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK
THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK

           A TOOL TO BUILD
         COMMUNITY CAPACITY




                      Written by
              Flo Frank and Anne Smith
       for Human Resources Development Canada
This project was sponsored by the Labor Market Learning and Development Unit,
                     Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC).

Copies of this handbook, as well as the related Community Development Facilitator's Guide,
        in both French and English, are available from the HRDC Internet website at
                          http://www.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/community

                 Copies or further information may also be obtained from:
                   Labour Market Learning and Development Canada
                               5th Floor, Place du Portage IV
                                140 Promenade du Portage
                                   Hull, Quebec K1A OJ9

                                Telephone: (819) 953-7370
                                    Fax: (819) 997-5163
                e-mail: learning-apprentissage.lmld-apmt@hrdc-drhc.gc.ca

                                    Author: Flo Frank
                          c/o Common Ground Consulting Inc.
                        Box 39, Meacham, Saskatchewan S0K 2V0
                               Telephone: (306) 376-2220
                            e-mail: flofrank@sk.sympatico.ca

                                  Author: Anne Smith
                            c/o J. A. Smith Consulting Ltd.
                    10934 — 66 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 1Y2
                             Telephone: (780) 437-6749
                          e-mail: jasmith@compusmart.ab.ca

            © Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 1999
                                 Cat. No. MP 33-13/1999E
                                   ISBN: 0-662-28233-7
A
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                           Marc Rivard, a co-op student with the Labor Market
                                                           Learning and Development Unit, as someone without
The development of this handbook was greatly assisted      any knowledge of community development, agreed to




                                                                                                                      C
by a number of committed people who helped to make         read early drafts and provided insight into how it would
it what it is. Our appreciation is expressed to:           be viewed by people like himself.




                                                                                                                      K
Those who developed the Community Future Training




                                                                                                                      N
                                                           Dal Brodhead, François Lamontagne and Jon Pierce of
package, Community Economic Development and                the New Economy Development Group who coordinated
Strategic Planning, produced by Human Resources            the external validation process and provided many




                                                                                                                      O
Development Canada (HRDC) in 1992, that provided the       valuable comments about this document.
basis for the development of this Handbook.




                                                                                                                      W
This initiative was led by David Douglas at the            The external content experts, from across Canada,
School of Rural Planning at the University of Guelph in    who actively assisted with the validation process:




                                                                                                                      L
conjunction with a team of national content experts.       Stephen Ameyaw, Robert Annis, Paul Born,
                                                           Dal Brodhead, David Bruce, Lucie Chagnon,




                                                                                                                      E
The team, led by Mary Glen and Cheryl O’Toole, who         David Douglas, Wendy Featherstone, Harold Flaming,
developed HRDC’s Community Capacity Building Toolkit       Diana Jedig, Rankin McSween, Roy Mussell, David Pell,




                                                                                                                      D
of which this forms an integral part. Larry Kennedy and    Carol Rock, Ron Ryan and Laurie Thompson. All of these
Lois Williams of that team provided valuable input to      people, recognized as experts in the community




                                                                                                                      G
this document.                                             development field of this country, took time from their
                                                           busy schedules to review the various drafts of this




                                                                                                                      E
HRDC staff—working at National Headquarters, in            document and provide much valuable input.
Regional Offices and in the field—who actively assisted




                                                                                                                      M
with the validation process: Elizabeth Bastien, Chuck      Caroline Sparks of C. Sparks Consulting Ltd., Watson
Bowie, Ken Donnelly, Radmila Duncan, Carol Evoy,           Lake, Yukon, who provided input into the initial concept




                                                                                                                      E
André Fauvel, Neil Floyd, Anne Gillis, Roy Hanna, Tom      and first draft.
Hawco, Henry Holik, Brian House, Tannis Hughes, Susan




                                                                                                                      N
Kennedy, John Lutes, Shirley McCluskey, Sheila Phillips,   Dr. David Redekopp of the Life Role Development
Fianca Piccin, Daniele-Marie Rouleau, Gilbert Roy,         Group, Edmonton, Alberta, who provided suggestions




                                                                                                                      T
Eileen Sobey, Brenda Varney, Mike Wedge, Valerie           that helped shape the section on skills, knowledge
Wilson and William Worona.                                 and attitude.




                                                                                                                      S
Support was given throughout the project by Luna
Bengio, Chief of HRDC’s Labor Market Learning and
Development Unit.
                                                                                                                      i
A    Ross Mayer of the Council for the Advancement of          And a special thank you to Ken King, Consultant
     Native Development Officers, Edmonton, Alberta, who       with HRDC’s Labor Market Learning and Development
     assisted with the overall structure and format.           Unit in Ottawa, Ontario. Ken is a real champion of
C

                                                               effective community development. He initiated,
     Ley Ward of Common Ground Research and Consulting         managed and coordinated the process that has resulted
K



     Inc., Meacham Saskatchewan, who did the initial lay-out   in this handbook.
N




     and graphics.
                                                               Finally, people who work everyday in community
     Gwen Chappell and Margie Johnson for their                development are the ones who are making it an exciting
O




     editing assistance.                                       field of study and practice. Without you, there would be
                                                               no lessons or experience from which to acquire learning
W




     Mike Souliere from Communications with HRDC in            or explore new concepts. This handbook is dedicated to
     Ottawa, Ontario, who provided the graphic design for      you with thanks and respect for all the good community
L




     this book.                                                development work that is taking place across this country.
E
D
G
E
M
E
N
T
S




ii
T
TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      B
                   A Word About Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      L
SECTION I — UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
                   Principles and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      E
                   What is Community Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
                   Community Development Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
                   What is Community Capacity Building? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
                   The Impact of Building Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      O
SECTION II — WHEN DOES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HAPPEN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      F
                   Responding to a Challenge or Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
                   Community Awareness — The Power to Act . . . . . . . . . . . .                           . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
                   The Desire to Build on Diversity and Find Common Ground                                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C
                   Understanding Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
                   Checking the Readiness of Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . .                         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      O
                   The Need for a Catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
                   Who are Likely Catalysts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
                   Can You Take on the Role of Community Catalyst? . . . . . . .                            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N
SECTION III — DEVELOPING A PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      T
                   1 Building Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .26
                        Who Should Be Involved? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .28




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      E
                        Creating a Valued Local Process . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .30
                        Developing Buy-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .31




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N
                   2 Making a Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .33
                        The Benefits of a Community Plan . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .34




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      T
                        The Seven Steps in a Community Planning Process                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .35
                        Factors That Contribute to Successful Planning . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .37




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      iii
T                      3 Implementing and Adjusting the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
                           Possible Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
A
                           Sharing the Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
                       4 Maintaining Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                           .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
                           Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
B


                           Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
                           Building Community Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
L




                           Funding Community Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                    .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
E




                           Reviewing and Adapting the Community Development Plan                                                                  .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
                           Motivation and Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
                           Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                          .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
                           Using Technical Support and Expertise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                  .   .   .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
O




     SECTION IV — ATTITUDE, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
F




                       Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .61
                       Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .62
                       Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .62
                             Communication, Facilitation and Team-Building Skills                                                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63
C




                             Research, Planning and Evaluation Skills . . . . . . . . . .                                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63
                             Problem-Solving and Conflict-Resolution Skills . . . . . .                                           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .64
O




                             Management Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .64
                             Organizational Design and Development Skills . . . . .                                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .64
N




                       Building on Skills and Responding to Skill Gaps . . . . . . . . .                                          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .65
T




     SECTION V — COMMON PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
                       Not Understanding Your Community . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .69
E




                       Getting From Planning to Action . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .70
                       Failing to Evaluate Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .71
N




                       Lack of Financial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .73
                       Role Confusion and Power Struggles . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .74
T




                       Unresolved Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .75
                       Not Applying Tools and Techniques Effectives                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . .76
S




     SECTION VI — CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
                       Evaluation Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
iv
I
INTRODUCTION                                                  Why this handbook was developed

                                                              This handbook has been created by the Labor Market




                                                                                                                         N
In order to understand community development is it            Learning and Development Unit at Human Resources
important to understand that it means different things to     Development Canada to support the understanding and
                                                              effective application of community development.




                                                                                                                         T
different people in different places — and that our
understanding about what constitutes effective or             Community development is one of several vital tools
appropriate community development has expanded                used in the building of the capacity in communities




                                                                                                                         R
considerably in the past few years. What we do                across Canada.
know is that it is founded on voluntary and healthy
interdependence, mutual benefit and shared responsibility.    Community capacity is an important consideration in




                                                                                                                         O
In recent years, more often than not, community               community development as the process of community
development has involved local people seeking and             development itself often results in increased capacity.
taking advantage of opportunities or working together to      Therefore, the two are interrelated but distinct.




                                                                                                                         D
solve problems.                                               Combined or separate, they both have a great deal to
                                                              do with developing potential and enhancing community
                                                              living. This handbook was designed to look at communi-




                                                                                                                         U
Our interest in community development is not new but
something to which we are returning. And returning to it      ty development, realizing that capacity building and
we are, with interest being generated in all sectors and      other processes often get confused with it.




                                                                                                                         C
by a wide variety of people in each sector. Along with
this increased interest comes some confusion about what       Who this handbook is for
community development is and what it is not.




                                                                                                                         T
While different approaches and a variety of ideas exist       This introductory handbook is not designed to be a
about community development, there remains an                 textbook for practitioners, but as an introductory guide
underlying assumption that it is familiar to us and that we   to community development and capacity building. It is




                                                                                                                         I
have a part to play in it.                                    designed primarily for those who have an interest in
                                                              community development but who may not have an in-




                                                                                                                         O
The fact is that, just as individual people vary, communi-    depth understanding of the concept, the process or the
ties differ and no one approach will work in all situa-       resources available across Canada.
tions. Therefore, a flexible process and general informa-




                                                                                                                         N
tion are being offered in this handbook to be adapted to      For those already possessing knowledge about the topic
your own situation.                                           and/or experience in the field, this handbook provides
                                                              a resource for exploring and initiating community
                                                              development and reviewing the basics of the community
                                                              development process.                                       1
I   What this handbook will do                                  Contents of the handbook

    This handbook is designed to spark, rekindle and reaffirm   This handbook is designed to provide information,
N

    your interest in community development. To do this,         tips and questions about the basics of community
    information and tools are offered to assist in building     development, which can then be applied to your own
    common understanding and appropriate approaches.            circumstances. Throughout, there are sections labeled
T




                                                                quot;Lessons from Experiencequot; and quot;Points to Ponderquot;.
    By reading this book, you should be able to:
R




                                                                quot;Lessons from Experiencequot; provides quick points about
    s define the terms quot;community developmentquot; and              various aspects of each section. The comments are from
      quot;community capacity buildingquot; and explain the link        consultants, community service workers and others with
O




      between the two,                                          extensive experience in community development.
    s explain the community development process,
    s explain the skills and knowledge needed to                quot;Points to Ponderquot; offers questions based on the
D




      be effective,                                             information that has been provided in each section.
    s identify the most common problems experienced in          The questions are designed to help generate thoughts
      community development and                                 about what has been read and how it might apply to
U




    s explain how experience tells us these problems may        your own situation. These can also be used to
      be overcome.                                              initiate discussion.
C




                                                                In addition, throughout this handbook, you will find
    What this handbook will not do                              stories that are based upon community development
                                                                experiences across Canada. They are snapshots of
T




    This handbook cannot and does not provide you with all
                                                                different situations and are intended to be brief and to
    that you need to know to pursue community development
                                                                the point. In order to keep them short and simple, there
    in your own community. Reading it, and answering all
I




                                                                is very little contextual background or detail provided.
    of the questions posed, will not turn you into a fully-
                                                                These types of situations happen every day in most
    qualified community developer. Neither will it answer
                                                                communities and provide concrete examples of the many
O




    all of your questions. It is simply one resource that is
                                                                ways the community development process can be
    available to you. If you are interested in learning more
                                                                applied — as well as creating real-life stories upon which
    about these subject areas you will need to undertake
                                                                we can draw.
N




    further exploration by seeking out other resources and
    talking to individuals who have been active in the
    community development process.
2
I
The content of the handbook is as follows:                  A Word About Words
s Section I focuses on defining community                   We have defined the term quot;community developmentquot;




                                                                                                                      N
  development and capacity building;                        to mean the planned evolution of all aspects of
                                                            community well-being (economic, social, environmental
s Section II identifies the conditions that support         and cultural). It is a process whereby community




                                                                                                                      T
  community development;                                    members come together to take collective action and
                                                            generate solutions to common problems (see Section I




                                                                                                                      R
s Section III outlines the community development            for further elaboration).
  process and how to apply it;
                                                            Other similar terms, such as community economic




                                                                                                                      O
s Section IV explores the attitudes, knowledge and skills   development and community-based economic
  required to develop the capacity needed to effectively    development, are being used within communities and,
  undertake a community development initiative; and         often, they are used without a clear understanding of




                                                                                                                      D
                                                            their meaning. There is a great deal of confusion about
s Section V examines common issues and concerns             these terms because they may mean something slightly
  as well as providing some possible solutions.             different to each person using them.




                                                                                                                      U
The handbook has been reviewed and validated                There are no absolute definitions and rarely does
by respected community development practitioners.           everyone agree on the precise wording of terms that are




                                                                                                                      C
A listing of their names can be found on the                commonly used. There may be different and even better
Acknowledgements page.                                      definitions than the ones provided, and they too may
                                                            change over time. That’s the nature of working in the




                                                                                                                      T
A Facilitator’s Guide has also been developed and is        community with people and learning better ways of
available through Human Resources Development               expressing ourselves.




                                                                                                                      I
Canada. It is designed to help facilitate learning and
discussions about community development based on the




                                                                                                                      O
contents of this handbook. A copy may be obtained as
per the inside cover of this book.




                                                                                                                      N
                                                                                                                      3
4
S E C T I O N
                                                                The result is that the community’s overall capacity is not
SECTION I -                                                     built, although the community appears to be developing.
UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS
                                                                Another example where capacity is built but community
Although very closely related, community development            development may not occur (or at least not right away) is
and community capacity building are not the same thing.         in marginalized communities. Some are in social and
Some might argue that you can’t have one without the            economic paralysis and are dependent on outside
other or that one is a result of, or leads to the other —       expertise and assistance. Sometimes communities remain
and they would probably be correct. It’s much like the          damaged and unhealthy for a very long time. They need




                                                                                                                              I
chicken and the egg. There is an obvious relationship           to heal, become safe and build personal and community
between the two, but there is also confusion about which        wellness. Opportunities may be present, but the




                                                                                                                              -
is which and what is involved in each one.                      community is unable to identify or take advantage of
                                                                them. Leadership is required, long-range thinking and




                                                                                                                              u n d e r s t a n d i n g
The primary focus of this handbook is on community              strategic plans are needed, skills must be developed,
development. The handbook will outline a community              attitudes often have to change and resources must be
development process that builds upon and results in             acquired. It is important that capacity be built before
increased community capacity. Both community                    community development can take place.
development and community capacity building are being
viewed and discussed as community-based and                     Most communities, however, experience a healthy
participatory. In actual fact, community development            relationship between community development and
does not have to be driven by community members and,            capacity building and, as a result, it is useful and
in many instances, it isn’t — but when it is not, very little   practical to consider them together as complimentary
community capacity building occurs.                             processes.

An example of this could happen when government and             Principles and Values




                                                                                                                              t h e
industry are in control of the economic and social
development of a community. Jobs are created, programs          Principles and values are a key part of both
and services are provided and yet the local residents           community development and capacity building,




                                                                                                                              t e r m s
often have little input. In this situation, the community’s     particularly when they are being considered as
economic wealth may be improved (and some might                 participatory or inclusive processes.
consider its capacity increased) but sacrifices are made in
the community’s ability to manage itself, make decisions,       They should be based on respecting people, improving
sustain long-term well-being or prepare for a future that       the quality of living, appreciating and supporting cultural
might not include that particular industry.                     differences and being good stewards of the land, water
                                                                and wildlife.                                                    5
S E C T I O N               What we do now in communities has an impact on                      The primary outcome of community development is
                            future generations. In order to honor one of the                    improved quality of life. Effective community
                            overriding values in community development, which is                development results in mutual benefit and shared
                            to leave a positive legacy, care must be taken to add               responsibility among community members
                            value to everything that is done. The desire is to build            and recognizes:
                            capacity and develop communities in a way that
                            enhances all aspects of the community (the total ecology)           s the connection between social, cultural,
                            and is appropriate for today as well as for tomorrow.                 environmental and economic matters;
                                                                                                s the diversity of interests within a community; and
I




                            What is Community Development?                                      s its relationship to building capacity.
-




                            Community development is the planned                                               Community development requires and
                                                                          What Is Community
u n d e r s t a n d i n g




                            evolution of all aspects of community                                              helps to build community capacity to
                                                                          Development?
                            well-being (economic, social,                                                      address issues and to take advantage of
                            environmental and cultural). It is a          It is a quot;grassrootsquot; process by      opportunities, to find common ground
                            process whereby community members             which communities:                   and to balance competing interests.
                            come together to take collective action                                            It does not just happen — it requires both
                            and generate solutions to common              Ì become more responsible;           a conscious and a conscientious effort to
                            problems. The scope of community              Ì organize and plan together;        do something (or many things) to improve
                            development can vary from small                                                    the community.
                                                                          Ì develop healthy options;
                            initiatives within a small group, to large
                            initiatives that involve the whole            Ì empower themselves;                Let’s consider some of the assumptions
                            community. Regardless of the scope of the     Ì reduce ignorance, poverty          about the words quot;communityquot;
                            activity, effective community development       and suffering;                     and quot;developmentquot;.
t h e




                            should be:                                    Ì create employment and
                                                                            economic opportunities; and      Community
                            s a long-term endeavor,                      Ì achieve social, economic,
                            s well planned,                                                                  Often when we think of the term
t e r m s




                                                                            cultural and
                            s inclusive and equitable,                      environment goals.               community, we think in geographic terms.
                            s holistic and integrated into the                                               Our community is the location (i.e. city,
                              bigger picture,                                                                town or village) where we live.
                            s initiated and supported by community members,                  When community is defined through physical location,
                            s of benefit to the community, and                               it can be defined by precise boundaries that are readily
                                                                                             understood and accepted by others.
                            s grounded in experience that leads to best practice.
    6
S E C T I O N
Defining communities in terms of geography, however, is      The community development process takes charge of the
only one way of looking at them. Communities can also        conditions and factors that influence a community and
be defined by common cultural heritage, language, and        changes the quality of life of its members. Community
beliefs or shared interests. These are sometimes called      development is a tool for managing change and,
communities of interest.                                     therefore, is not:

Even when community does refer to a geographic               s a quick fix or a short-term response to a specific issue
location, it does not always include everyone within the       within a community,
area. For example, many Aboriginal communities are           s a process that seeks to exclude community members




                                                                                                                           I
part of a larger non-Aboriginal geography. In larger urban     from participating, or
centres, communities are often defined in terms of           s an initiative that occurs in isolation from other related




                                                                                                                           -
particular neighbourhoods.                                     community activity.




                                                                                                                           u n d e r s t a n d i n g
Most of us belong to more than one community, whether        Community development is about community building as
we are aware of it or not. For example, an individual can    such, with the process as important as the results. One of
be part of a neighbourhood community, a religious            the primary challenges of community development is to
community and a community of shared interests all at the     balance the need for long-term solutions with the day-to-
same time. Relationships, whether with people or the         day realities that require immediate decision and short-
land, define a community for each individual.                term action.

Development

The term development often carries with it an assump-
tion of growth and expansion. During the industrial era,
development was strongly connected to increased speed,




                                                                                                                           t h e
volume and size. Many are currently questioning the
concept of growth for numerous reasons. There is a
realization that more is not always better. Increasingly,




                                                                                                                           t e r m s
there is respect for reducing outside dependencies and
lowering levels of consumerism. The term development,
therefore, may not always mean growth; it does,
however, always imply change.


                                                                                                                              7
S E C T I O N               Community Development Resources                               as often we are not sure who should be doing what, what
                                                                                          the required skills are, or where to get the necessary
                            The term resources is used in many contexts. It is often      skills if they are missing. Placing people into the right
                            understood to mean money; however, in the context of          roles and building skills or developing human capacity is
                            community development it can mean far more than that.         called human resource development. Occasionally it is
                            Community development includes natural, human,                referred to as building or increasing social capital.
                            financial and infrastructure resources.                       Either way, it acknowledges the value of people and their
                                                                                          talents and recognizes that this type of development is as
                            Natural resources are all the things that nature provides.    important as natural resource development. Unlike many
I




                            Oftentimes, community development focuses on the              of the natural resources on the planet, people are
                            natural resource industry that extracts the natural           renewable and should be treated as the most valuable
-




                            resource, creating jobs and wealth but, if not managed        resource in a community.
u n d e r s t a n d i n g




                            properly, may not be sustainable over time. Part of
                            effective community development is to be good stewards        Human resources include things such as:
                            of the land and maintain a healthy balance between the
                            environmental, economic and social undertakings in            s   healthy families and lifestyles;
                            the community.                                                s   skills building, education and training;
                                                                                          s   career planning and employment;
                            Natural resources include things such as:                     s   effective and legal hiring practices;
                                                                                          s   workers compensation and pensions; and
                            s   land, air and water;                                      s   human rights and labour laws.
                            s   minerals and surface/subsurface metals and ores;
                            s   oil, gas and petroleum;                                   The term financial resources is well understood. We know
                            s   trees and other plants;                                   that it means money and it often implies having the ability
t h e




                            s   wildlife; and                                             to acquire it. What gets complicated is how to locate and
                            s   the standards, legislation and policies relating to       successfully attract the type and amount of financial
                                                                                          resources to community development initiatives.
                                the above.
t e r m s




                                                                                          Just like having the right people doing the right jobs,
                                                                                          it is important to have the right money at the right time.
                            Human resources are about people. People are at the
                                                                                          Traditionally, community development is funded (in part
                            heart of all community matters and, as such, they are
                                                                                          or in total) through economic development channels,
                            critical to success. But just having people involved is not
                                                                                          taxes or government grants. This leaves little power or
                            enough. In community development, it is important to
                                                                                          control in the hands of the people who want or need
                            have the right people in the right jobs with the right
                                                                                          to do things that are not on the government or private
    8                       skills, knowledge and abilities. This is not an easy matter
S E C T I O N
sector agenda. Fundraising and the seeking of grants           A community development undertaking often has its own
have become full-time jobs for many organizations and          infrastructure, such as leadership or a physical building,
groups involved in community service and development.          but it should exist within a healthy relationship to that
Financial resources include things such as:                    which exists.

s   fundraising and grant-seeking;                             Lessons from Experience
s   banks and other financial institutions;
s   community loan funds and lending circles;                  Experience tells us the following:
s   access to capital and investment funding;




                                                                                                                            I
s   government loans and program funds;                        Ì There are many ways to define community.
s   cooperatives and other forms of investment; and




                                                                                                                            -
s   policies and guidelines related to finance lending         Ì We may belong to more than one community.




                                                                                                                            u n d e r s t a n d i n g
    and reporting.
                                                               Ì Community development follows a planned process
Infrastructure is part of the resources needed to be             that is long-term and integrated.
effective in community development and includes such
obvious things as:
                                                               Ì Community development is not a quick fix for the
s   physical buildings and structures;                           day-to-day operations of the community.
s   transportation and access;
s   communication systems; and                                 Ì Planning the resources for community development
s   electrical, hydro, sewage, garbage and heating.              includes considering all the resources — people,
                                                                 money, infrastructure and the environment —
However, infrastructure also refers to the political systems     in which it will operate.




                                                                                                                            t h e
and leadership needed to support a community, as well
as the policies, standards and laws established in the         Ì Community development is a way to enhance the
community. Without infrastructure there would be no              resources of a community and often has sustainability




                                                                                                                            t e r m s
physical community. When considering resourcing a                and increased quality of life as its primary focus.
community development initiative it is important to
consider what infrastructure is required, what the             Ì Developing an understanding of and acquiring access
relationship is to what currently exists and whether or not      to resources is often difficult and requires specific
there are policies or existing support systems to which          skills. Community development helps to build them.
contact or adherence are required.
                                                                                                                               9
S E C T I O N               Points to Ponder                                 What Is Community Capacity Building?
                            Ì How do I define my community?                  All people and communities have a certain amount of
                                                                             capacity. No one is without capacity but often we need
                            Ì Do I belong to more that one community and,    to develop it. What is important to realize is that the
                              if so, what is the relationship between my     heart of capacity building is people. Healthy communities
                              different communities?                         are made up of healthy people and families. The creation
                                                                             of healthy environments will encourage healthy
                            Ì What sort of development is going on in
                                                                             economies and sustainable development. It takes
I




                                                                             capacity to do this as well as good leadership, a viable
                              my community?
                                                                             plan, motivation and the support of the community.
-




                                                                             Basically, it takes capacity to build capacity, and it takes
                            Ì What sort of development would I like to see
u n d e r s t a n d i n g




                                                                             a well-thought-out process to start both capacity building
                              in my community?                               and effective community development.

                            Ì How does or might this development improve     Capacity is simply the ways and means needed to do
                              quality of life?                               what has to be done. It is much broader than simply
                                                                             skills, people and plans. It includes commitment,
                                                                             resources and all that is brought to bear on a process to
                                                                             make it successful. Most often, capacity is referred to as
                                                                             including the following components:

                                                                             s   people who are willing to be involved;
                                                                             s   skills, knowledge and abilities;
t h e




                                                                             s   wellness and community health;
                                                                             s   ability to identify and access opportunities;
                                                                             s   motivation and the wherewithal to carry
t e r m s




                                                                                 out initiatives;
                                                                             s   infrastructure, supportive institutions and physical
                                                                                 resources;
                                                                             s   leadership and the structures needed for participation;
                                                                             s   economic and financial resources; and
                                                                             s   enabling policies and systems.
10
S E C T I O N
Community capacity building is based on the premise              More and more people will be getting involved,
that community sustainability can be improved over               identifying key issues and taking action. Results are
time. Capacity, or the lack of it, is reflected in the people,   becoming obvious and the abilities, esteem and
economy, environment, culture, attitude and appearance           resources of many communities are improving as
of the community.                                                capacity grows.

Community Assets and Capacity Assessment                         It takes leadership, time and effort to build capacity. It may
                                                                 also require the support of individuals with expertise
The following are assets in a community and should               and/or money for training. Increased capacity is a direct




                                                                                                                                  I
be assessed when considering a community’s assets                result of effective community development and, as such,
and capacity:                                                    is critical to everyone, whether they are aware that a




                                                                                                                                  -
                                                                 community development process is underway or not.
s human assets and liabilities;




                                                                                                                                  u n d e r s t a n d i n g
s environmental resources;                                       Lessons from Experience
s economic opportunities and limitations;
s cultural and recreational facilities, programs                 Experience tells us that the results of building or
  and services;                                                  increasing capacity can be measured. The following are
s financial, political and security systems;                     some examples of the outcomes of capacity building:
s infrastructure in existence and needed; and
                                                                 Ì stronger community relationships: healthier people,
s communication processes.
                                                                   caring families and safer, welcoming communities;
The Impact of Building Capacity
                                                                 Ì an increased number of community-based
When communities are building capacity, there is a                 opportunities identified;




                                                                                                                                  t h e
significant impact on many aspects of community life.
Capacity building places the emphasis on existing                Ì the enhanced ability of community members to share
strengths and abilities, rather than being overwhelmed by          their ideas on a course of action;




                                                                                                                                  t e r m s
problems or feelings of powerlessness. An indication that
capacity is developing within a community is that people         Ì increased competency in setting and realizing
are active, interested and participating in what is going          common goals;
on. They may also be questioning, challenging and
debating — but they will be debating what should be
                                                                 Ì expanded intuition in sensing what to do, when to do
done, not complaining that nothing will ever change.
                                                                   it and when to quit;
                                                                                                                                  11
S E C T I O N               Ì an enhanced respect for limited resources, including     Points to Ponder
                              people, so that shortages, duplication or waste are
                              minimized;                                               Ì Do you think that community development may be a
                                                                                         useful approach for your community to tap into and
                            Ì an increased awareness of the importance of                build upon its capacity?
                              protecting, advocating for and improving the
                              conditions for vulnerable people, distinct cultures,     Ì What is the capacity in your community that you can
                              floundering economies and environments;                    build upon?
I




                            Ì skilled leadership;                                      Ì What areas of community capacity need to be
-




                                                                                         developed or strengthened in your community?
                            Ì an increased interest from young people to become
u n d e r s t a n d i n g




                              future leaders; and

                            Ì an increased ability to handle disappointment, threats
                              and hazards to community pride and well-being.
t h e
t e r m s




12
The community Development Handbook
S E C T I O N
SECTION II -                                                  Responding to a Challenge or Opportunity
WHEN DOES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT                               A crisis which threatens the viability of the community
HAPPEN?                                                       or an opportunity to enhance the quality of life in the
                                                              community is often the driving force for community-
Community development is a planned process that               based action. Community members perceive that action
requires certain prerequisites. Effective community           must be taken. A multitude of circumstances could
development most often happens when:                          occur that cause a community to respond.

s a challenge or opportunity presents itself, and the         Examples of negative circumstances that can motivate




                                                                                                                                  I I
  community responds;                                         communities to consider a community development
s community members are aware of their power to act           approach are:
  together to benefit their community;




                                                                                                                                   -
s there is a desire to build on diversity and to find         s closure of a primary industry upon which many of




                                                                                                                         d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
                                                                                                                         w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y
  common ground; and/or                                         the community members are dependent,
s change is taking place and community development            s a community facing significant social problems
  is understood to be a positive approach to manage             but with little that can be achieved until issues of
  this change.                                                  community health and well-being are addressed,
                                                              s too many young people leaving the community,
Each of these situations is described below. At the end of    s withdrawal of government funding for an initiative
this section is a set of questions that will help determine     upon which the community is highly dependent, or
whether or not your community has the resources in            s frustration about the results of previous efforts and
place that will support community development.                  the desire to use a different approach.

                                                              Community development is not solely pursued as a
                                                              response to negative circumstances or a crisis.
                                                              Increasingly, community development is viewed as a
                                                              way to build upon strengths (capacity) and take
                                                              advantage of opportunities. Some communities view
                                                              the community development process as a way to tap
                                                              into the multitude of strengths, skills and abilities of
                                                              community members.


                                                                                                                              13
S E C T I O N                   Examples of positive circumstances that can result in             Lessons from Experience
                                      community development are:
                                                                                                        Ì A community is a group of individuals wanting to
                                      s the desire to build stronger connections between                   achieve something collectively rather than separately.
                                        community members;
                                      s an interest in creating grassroots         Responding to an Opportunity       Ì Regardless of how big or small the
                                        initiatives to respond to interests or                                            action, the feature that distinguishes
                                        talents within the community (i.e.         A group of friends on welfare          community development from
                                        bartering, co-operatives, arts festivals); talked about the idea of creating
                                                                                                                          anything else is the collective
                                      s the potential to diversify economic        a community business. They
                                                                                   knew that they had to become
                                                                                                                          approach to decision-making.
      I I




                                        activity within the community;             more self-reliant and their social
                                      s the need to help community members         workers had provided               Ì Any number of things can trigger an
                                        help themselves (community gardens,        information about community            interest in community development,
       -




                                        collective kitchens, cooperative           loan funds for new businesses.         so it is important to understand the
d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y




                                        housing); or                               They asked others to join them in
                                                                                                                          need or problem as well as the
                                      s the opportunity to create programs or      the creation of a community-
                                                                                   based economic development
                                                                                                                          possible solutions.
                                        facilities for children, seniors or others
                                                                                   project. Because they had
                                        in the community.
                                                                                   experience in both cooking and     Points to Ponder
                                                                                    customer service, the group
                                      Regardless of whether the community is        decided to open a restaurant.       Ì Is there a threat or opportunity facing
                                      responding to a perceived threat or an        Their goal was to create jobs for
                                                                                                                           your community?
                                      opportunity, the motivation to pursue a       themselves and others. It took
                                      community development approach stems          effort, planning and the
                                      from a belief that the community itself not   development of community trust      Ì Do you think community development
                                      only has the solutions but the ability to     to start the business, but there       could be a useful approach to
                                      translate their ideas into action.            was an opportunity to do               responding to this threat
                                                                                    something and they took it.            or opportunity?
                                                                                    Today a successful restaurant is
                                                                                    in place. The restaurant remains
                                                                                    committed to hiring
                                                                                    disadvantaged people.




      14
S E C T I O N
Community Awareness — The Power to Act                              Without the awareness and belief that community
                                                                    members have the power to act and to bring about
Community development stems from the belief that the                positive change there will be little motivation for
community itself has or is able to develop solutions to             community development. Motivation is not the only
the issues and opportunities within the community.                  requirement for successful community development but
Rather than waiting for someone else, community                     it is a foundation.
members believe in their own ability to
take action.                                                                        Lessons from Experience
                                               The Power to Act

Some people may need to be convinced                                                Ì Creating awareness and motivating
                                               Community members in a small




                                                                                                                                           I I
that they do in fact have the power to act     rural community were disturbed          community members to take responsi-
and that the contribution they could make      by the fact that many of their          bility for the future of their community
is of value. Too often we see outside          young people were going to              can be a challenge. The best approach




                                                                                                                                            -
experts or professionals as the ones with      larger centres to find work. As a       may be to use real examples of inclu-
the answers and defer to them.                 result of this concern and, after       sive community development




                                                                                                                                  d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
                                                                                                                                  w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y
Community development requires                 much work, a number of                  approaches as a powerful tool for
awareness by members that they too have        business people sponsored a             creating awareness of the potential of
                                               small local sawmill. The mill is a      this approach.
expertise about their community.
                                               success and other business
Although outside assistance may be             opportunities are being
needed, it should only be as a tool to         considered to help create            Ì Practical and small projects can be a
develop community-driven responses in a        additional jobs in the                  great experience that demonstrates
way which responds to the community.           community. Having seen one              the power of collective community
                                               venture succeed, it is easier to        development. Starting small and
Discussion in the community may be             plan others.                            building on strengths is a good
needed to create the awareness that:                                                   strategy for building awareness
                                                                                       and motivation.
s community members are the experts with respect to
  the needs, hopes and dreams of their community;
s it can be beneficial to act together to achieve results;
  and
s all community members have skills, knowledge and
  abilities to contribute.


                                                                                                                                       15
S E C T I O N                   Ì Community development does not work well if              The Desire to Build on Diversity and Find
                                        members see the answer to the threat or opportunity      Common Ground
                                        as being outside of themselves (believing, for
                                        example, that government should act on their behalf      Communities are made up of individuals with a variety of
                                        or that one large private-sector investor can turn the   cultural backgrounds, beliefs, interests and concerns.
                                        economy around and make the                              One of greatest challenges is to find the common ground
                                        community a better place to live).                       out of the diversity. Success requires that a good cross-
                                                                                                 section of community members participate.
                                      Points to Ponder
                                                                                                 Inclusive processes are those that:
      I I




                                      Ì Do individuals in your community believe they have
                                        the power to bring about change?                         s are open and participatory in nature;
                                                                                                 s respect differences and value all contributions;
       -




                                      Ì If community members do not believe they have the        s ask questions rather than impose answers;
d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y




                                        power to act, how can you create this awareness?         s look for solutions and areas of agreement;
                                                                                                 s break down barriers to communication such as the
                                      Ì If they do have this awareness, how can you build          use of jargon and stereotypes; and
                                        upon it and sustain it?                                  s provide a variety of opportunities for participation.

                                                                                                 Examples of the way communities include a variety of
                                                                                                 people in community development processes are:

                                                                                                 s   town-hall meetings,
                                                                                                 s   focus groups,
                                                                                                 s   coffee gatherings and potluck suppers,
                                                                                                 s   discussion papers that provide an
                                                                                                     opportunity for response,
                                                                                                 s   questionnaires about community matters,
                                                                                                 s   surveys that identify the skills and abilities of
                                                                                                     community members,
                                                                                                 s   local media reports,
                                                                                                 s   e-mail and chat rooms,
                                                                                                 s   planning workshops, and
      16
s interviewing individuals in leadership roles.




                                                                                                                                            S E C T I O N
                                                                       Acknowledge this and get some experienced help if it
                                                                       becomes a problem.
Failure to involve a cross-section of community members
and interests will weaken your communi-                                             Ì The process is as important as the
ty development effort. To be effective, all   Finding Common Ground                    results. A process that fails to be
sectors must be involved. Invite                                                       inclusive is not good community
community leaders to participate, and         Two non-profit agencies were             development, regardless of the results.
design strategies to bring together           frustrated by the fact that very
individuals who do not normally               few job opportunities existed in
                                              their community for mental            Ì If certain people or stakeholders in
participate in community processes.
                                              health survivors. There were             your community are skeptical or don’t




                                                                                                                                            I I
Make sure that it is the right time and that
                                              mixed feelings and much                  wish to participate, keep them
there is enough interest to proceed.          ignorance about the abilities of         informed and continue to invite their
                                                the survivors and many doubts          participation. An inclusive process




                                                                                                                                             -
Community development is not one set of         about supporting anything that         keeps the door open.
interests within a community imposing a




                                                                                                                                   d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
                                                                                                                                   w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y
                                                could create a financial
solution or action on others. Community         dependency. These two agencies
development is a democratic process             acted as the catalyst to bringing   Ì To be inclusive, keep asking the
and involves the active participation of        together community people to           questions quot;who else needs to be
a variety of people.                            increase awareness, consider           involved?quot; and quot;are we unintentionally
                                                options and develop innovative         excluding someone from the process
                                                and community-based solutions          because they are not connected to
The strength of community development           to the problems. They discovered
is that it is an approach that brings                                                  a group or organization in
                                                that everyone was interested in
individuals of diverse interests together       sustainable and meaningful
                                                                                       our community?quot;
to achieve a common purpose.                    employment, regardless of other
                                                differences, so they proceeded to   Ì Don’t just include the official or
Lessons from Experience                         create a cooperative that was run      regular leaders. There is a lot of talent
                                                by and for the mental health           and energy in those less recognized in
Ì Inclusion must be intentional.                survivors. This helped improve
                                                                                       community activities.
                                                understanding and enhanced
  Identify the variety of interests in your
                                                community relations.
  community and develop strategies
  for involvement.

Ì Inclusion of a wide spectrum of
  interests can push people out of their comfort zones.
                                                                                                                                        17
S E C T I O N                   Points to Ponder                                                Understanding Change
                                      Ì Which individuals or organizations should be involved         Community development involves change. The community
                                        in a community development process?                           must understand that community development will bring
                                                                                                                    about changes as well as address issues
                                      Ì Think of other community processes                                          that have already taken place. Some of
                                                                                  Sometimes It Doesn't Work
                                        with which you are familiar. Who was                                        the changes will be anticipated,
                                        left out of these processes? How could                                      but others will occur as part of the
                                                                                  A rural town was trying to
                                        they have been included?                  organize a formal community       process and may not be foreseen.
                                                                                  development initiative with other
      I I




                                      Ì What challenges can you identify          groups and agencies in the          Community development can bring
                                                                                  community. Some felt there was      about significant transformations in the
                                        in designing an inclusive community
                                                                                  an urgency related to funding       community. These can involve re-
                                        development process in
       -




                                                                                  cuts while others seemed content    structuring, shifting of power, new
                                        your community?                           to share information about
d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y




                                                                                                                      relationships, and new economic or
                                                                                  current and future events.          community activities.
                                                                                  They held several meetings that
                                                                                  were well-attended, but didn't
                                                                                  seem to be getting anywhere.        Even positive change can be stressful and
                                                                                  For the fourth meeting, they        needs to be managed. How we respond
                                                                                  hired an outside facilitator who    to, cope with, or handle change is known
                                                                                  tried to find a place from which    as managing transition and is a part of the
                                                                                  to begin. As it turned out, there   community development process.
                                                                                  was no common need or issue
                                                                                  beyond the sharing of               Community development is usually
                                                                                  information and networking.         initiated by individuals who have passion
                                                                                  They decided that, for the time
                                                                                                                      and vision. If, however, community-based
                                                                                  being, that was a good enough
                                                                                  goal and that a community plan      structures are not put into place to
                                                                                  or shared initiative was not that   support this, even the best efforts can fail.
                                                                                  important at that time.




      18
S E C T I O N
Structures to support change can vary depending on the            Lessons from Experience
size and complexity of the endeavor. The following
structures are examples:                                          Ì Make community members aware that change will
                                                                     occur and may be stressful. Do not minimize the stress
s a community development plan,                                      that can be caused by change. Develop strategies for
s a communication strategy, and                                                   managing change and transition.
s a hub of individuals or organizations       Understanding Change
  established as a focal point for                                                 Ì Community development requires a
  community development.                      A Community Development                 balance between process and action.
                                              Corporation (CDC) had been
                                                                                      This can often be difficult to achieve.
                                              receiving base funding to create




                                                                                                                                           I I
Community development is often                                                        Take time to develop an effective plan,
                                              jobs in an isolated area. The jobs
supported by more formal organizational       were part of the fishing industry       communication approach and focal
structures such as community                  economy that was slowly                 point for your activity. These structures




                                                                                                                                            -
development offices, community                collapsing. Over a three-year           will be beneficial in the long run.




                                                                                                                                  d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n
                                                                                                                                  w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y
development corporations or not-for-profit    period, new economic activities
organizations. A formal structure may not     began to be created in eco-          Points to Ponder
be needed every time. It is best to wait to   tourism and the CDC had to re-
determine what is most appropriate for the    think its services. They shifted
                                              from being employment-focused        Ì What changes may result from
situation. The key thing to keep in mind is                                           community development activity?
                                              to facilitating business start-ups
that support structures are necessary to
                                              and seeking community
manage the community development              financing for joint ventures and
process as well as the change it creates.                                          Ì How will community members react
                                              partnerships. As the financial
As this is an ongoing process, the                                                    to this change?
                                              agencies had not moved as
structures will not be static.                quickly to cope with the
                                              changes, the CDC also became         Ì What actions can you and your
They will change and adapt as the             an advocate for policy and              community take to offset the impact
community moves forward. Make sure            program changes that reflected          of change?
that you see the structures you create as     the new priorities and
                                              opportunities.
mechanisms to support your action, not as
ends in themselves.




                                                                                                                                       19
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook
The community Development Handbook

More Related Content

What's hot

Research process
Research process Research process
Research process
esraalafy
 
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPointWriting Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
Charita Alston
 
Research notes
 Research notes Research notes
Research notes
Prof.Ravindra Borse
 
LEAD 901 Chapter 4
LEAD 901 Chapter 4LEAD 901 Chapter 4
LEAD 901 Chapter 4
BHUOnlineDepartment
 
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative researchResearch-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Arsi University, Asella, Ethiopia
 
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revisedRMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
Anil Kanjee
 
Research proposal
Research proposal Research proposal
Research proposal
Vishal Sathawane
 
Historical research
Historical researchHistorical research
Historical research
Noor Hasmida
 
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
Hazem Azmy
 
Oral proposaldefense
Oral proposaldefenseOral proposaldefense
Oral proposaldefense
mfinkenberg
 
APA powerpoint
APA powerpointAPA powerpoint
Quantitative Research Article Critique
Quantitative Research Article CritiqueQuantitative Research Article Critique
Quantitative Research Article Critique
Chelsea Zabala
 
Unit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
Unit IV Publication Ethics.pptUnit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
Unit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
naleeni1
 
What is research
What is researchWhat is research
What is research
Harve Abella
 
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style GuideAPA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
Hermenio Jr. Cabusog
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
Irfan Yaqoob
 
Preparing to Defend Your Research
Preparing to Defend Your Research Preparing to Defend Your Research
Preparing to Defend Your Research
Statistics Solutions
 
Introduction to educational research
Introduction to educational researchIntroduction to educational research
Introduction to educational research
Muntajab Abbas
 
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Almaszabeen Badekhan
 

What's hot (20)

Research process
Research process Research process
Research process
 
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPointWriting Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
Writing Qualitative Research Reports PowerPoint
 
Research notes
 Research notes Research notes
Research notes
 
LEAD 901 Chapter 4
LEAD 901 Chapter 4LEAD 901 Chapter 4
LEAD 901 Chapter 4
 
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative researchResearch-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Research-Qualitative vs Quantitative research
 
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revisedRMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
RMD 100Q Chapter1 cohen ak revised
 
Research proposal
Research proposal Research proposal
Research proposal
 
Historical research
Historical researchHistorical research
Historical research
 
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
24880150 chapter11-qualitative-research-methodology
 
Oral proposaldefense
Oral proposaldefenseOral proposaldefense
Oral proposaldefense
 
APA powerpoint
APA powerpointAPA powerpoint
APA powerpoint
 
Quantitative Research Article Critique
Quantitative Research Article CritiqueQuantitative Research Article Critique
Quantitative Research Article Critique
 
Unit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
Unit IV Publication Ethics.pptUnit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
Unit IV Publication Ethics.ppt
 
What is research
What is researchWhat is research
What is research
 
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style GuideAPA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
APA (7th Edition) Formatting and Style Guide
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
 
Preparing to Defend Your Research
Preparing to Defend Your Research Preparing to Defend Your Research
Preparing to Defend Your Research
 
Introduction to educational research
Introduction to educational researchIntroduction to educational research
Introduction to educational research
 
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
 

Viewers also liked

Forest, Carbon and REDD
Forest, Carbon and REDDForest, Carbon and REDD
Forest, Carbon and REDD
SIANI
 
Building a development community within your workplace
Building a development community within your workplaceBuilding a development community within your workplace
Building a development community within your workplace
Patrick Viafore
 
Community development
Community developmentCommunity development
Community development
Joseph Berry
 
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student LeadershipBuilding Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
Bonner Foundation
 
Community development - a different way to think about local economies
Community development - a different way to think about local economiesCommunity development - a different way to think about local economies
Community development - a different way to think about local economies
Julian Dobson
 
Primary models of community development
Primary models of community developmentPrimary models of community development
Primary models of community development
Christian-Paul Stenta
 
Social Awareness Presentation
Social Awareness PresentationSocial Awareness Presentation
Social Awareness Presentation
TransformingEducation
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Forest, Carbon and REDD
Forest, Carbon and REDDForest, Carbon and REDD
Forest, Carbon and REDD
 
Building a development community within your workplace
Building a development community within your workplaceBuilding a development community within your workplace
Building a development community within your workplace
 
Community development
Community developmentCommunity development
Community development
 
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student LeadershipBuilding Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
Building Developmental Capacity through Bonner Student Leadership
 
Community development - a different way to think about local economies
Community development - a different way to think about local economiesCommunity development - a different way to think about local economies
Community development - a different way to think about local economies
 
Primary models of community development
Primary models of community developmentPrimary models of community development
Primary models of community development
 
Social Awareness Presentation
Social Awareness PresentationSocial Awareness Presentation
Social Awareness Presentation
 

Similar to The community Development Handbook

Ci creative index
Ci creative indexCi creative index
Ci creative index
Santiago Guillen
 
2 primary research report
2 primary research report2 primary research report
2 primary research report
KhanhHoa Tran
 
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagementBook+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
Dhafer Hasan
 
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
pasesetter230
 
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
Brian Moore
 
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public EngagementNCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
Sandy Heierbacher
 
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
jeremylockett77
 
The Blended Value Map
The Blended Value MapThe Blended Value Map
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
National Aboriginal Health Organization
 
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research ...
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research ...Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research ...
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research ...
Wayne Dunn
 
Brochure cedars lv
Brochure cedars lvBrochure cedars lv
Brochure cedars lv
Universidad de Lima
 
Resilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
Resilient Design and Construction in EmergenciesResilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
Resilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
UNICEF Education
 
FINAL Annual Report 2014
FINAL Annual Report 2014FINAL Annual Report 2014
FINAL Annual Report 2014
Senka Omerčić
 
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
Merryck_Mentors
 
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
Phil Jones
 
Building community toolkit
Building community toolkitBuilding community toolkit
Building community toolkit
Little Daisy
 
Wesolve keynote presentation62011
Wesolve keynote presentation62011Wesolve keynote presentation62011
Wesolve keynote presentation62011
Carolyn Harris
 
ARE WE THERE YET?
ARE WE THERE YET?ARE WE THERE YET?
ARE WE THERE YET?
Mặt Trời
 
Adolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
Adolescence - Beyond the StereotypesAdolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
Adolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
Mohammed Almashhadani
 
Collective leadership-all-links
Collective leadership-all-linksCollective leadership-all-links
Collective leadership-all-links
Somos Tejanos
 

Similar to The community Development Handbook (20)

Ci creative index
Ci creative indexCi creative index
Ci creative index
 
2 primary research report
2 primary research report2 primary research report
2 primary research report
 
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagementBook+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
Book+1+ +an+introduction+to+engagement
 
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
Using Youth Development Approach to Foster Global Learning through Media & Te...
 
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
Chi conflict pamphlet 6 2012 a4 v4
 
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public EngagementNCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
NCDD2010 Resource Guide on Public Engagement
 
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
1. Situational Analysis oral presentation - This assignment in.docx
 
The Blended Value Map
The Blended Value MapThe Blended Value Map
The Blended Value Map
 
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit Wellness: Preliminary Evaluation Findings and L...
 
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research ...
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research ...Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research ...
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research ...
 
Brochure cedars lv
Brochure cedars lvBrochure cedars lv
Brochure cedars lv
 
Resilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
Resilient Design and Construction in EmergenciesResilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
Resilient Design and Construction in Emergencies
 
FINAL Annual Report 2014
FINAL Annual Report 2014FINAL Annual Report 2014
FINAL Annual Report 2014
 
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
Creating a 2-Way Street: Generational Transfer among Retiring Boomers, Entrep...
 
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
2012 october pj cultural intermediation project and progress
 
Building community toolkit
Building community toolkitBuilding community toolkit
Building community toolkit
 
Wesolve keynote presentation62011
Wesolve keynote presentation62011Wesolve keynote presentation62011
Wesolve keynote presentation62011
 
ARE WE THERE YET?
ARE WE THERE YET?ARE WE THERE YET?
ARE WE THERE YET?
 
Adolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
Adolescence - Beyond the StereotypesAdolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
Adolescence - Beyond the Stereotypes
 
Collective leadership-all-links
Collective leadership-all-linksCollective leadership-all-links
Collective leadership-all-links
 

More from foreman

Chuyenxecuocdoi
ChuyenxecuocdoiChuyenxecuocdoi
Chuyenxecuocdoi
foreman
 
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
foreman
 
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
foreman
 
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
foreman
 
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sachHuong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
foreman
 
Bai ca ve cuoc song
Bai ca ve cuoc songBai ca ve cuoc song
Bai ca ve cuoc song
foreman
 
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thongNhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
foreman
 
Hoc theo tinh than Unesco
Hoc theo tinh than UnescoHoc theo tinh than Unesco
Hoc theo tinh than Unesco
foreman
 
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc StressCau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
foreman
 
Learn to live
Learn to liveLearn to live
Learn to live
foreman
 
Games used in workshop and in community
Games used in workshop and in communityGames used in workshop and in community
Games used in workshop and in community
foreman
 
Development Communication Sourcebook
Development Communication SourcebookDevelopment Communication Sourcebook
Development Communication Sourcebook
foreman
 
Participatory Communication Strategy Design
Participatory Communication Strategy DesignParticipatory Communication Strategy Design
Participatory Communication Strategy Design
foreman
 
Empowering communities
Empowering communitiesEmpowering communities
Empowering communities
foreman
 
Ctxh nhap mon
Ctxh nhap monCtxh nhap mon
Ctxh nhap mon
foreman
 
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong DongKy Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
foreman
 
Ky Nang Thuyet Trinh
Ky Nang Thuyet TrinhKy Nang Thuyet Trinh
Ky Nang Thuyet Trinh
foreman
 
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi GianKy Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
foreman
 
Ky Nang Thuong Luong
Ky Nang Thuong LuongKy Nang Thuong Luong
Ky Nang Thuong Luong
foreman
 

More from foreman (20)

Chuyenxecuocdoi
ChuyenxecuocdoiChuyenxecuocdoi
Chuyenxecuocdoi
 
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
Phat trien con nguoi VN 1999-2004
 
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
Ngheo và giam ngheo của VN 1993-2004
 
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
Toan cau hoa, van de Gioi va viec lam trong nen kinh te chuyen doi:Truong hop...
 
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sachHuong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
Huong dan long ghep Gioi trong hoach dinh va thuc thi chinh sach
 
Suy Gam
Suy GamSuy Gam
Suy Gam
 
Bai ca ve cuoc song
Bai ca ve cuoc songBai ca ve cuoc song
Bai ca ve cuoc song
 
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thongNhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
Nhung ky nang co ban cho hoc sinh pho thong
 
Hoc theo tinh than Unesco
Hoc theo tinh than UnescoHoc theo tinh than Unesco
Hoc theo tinh than Unesco
 
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc StressCau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
Cau Chuyen Ly Nuoc Stress
 
Learn to live
Learn to liveLearn to live
Learn to live
 
Games used in workshop and in community
Games used in workshop and in communityGames used in workshop and in community
Games used in workshop and in community
 
Development Communication Sourcebook
Development Communication SourcebookDevelopment Communication Sourcebook
Development Communication Sourcebook
 
Participatory Communication Strategy Design
Participatory Communication Strategy DesignParticipatory Communication Strategy Design
Participatory Communication Strategy Design
 
Empowering communities
Empowering communitiesEmpowering communities
Empowering communities
 
Ctxh nhap mon
Ctxh nhap monCtxh nhap mon
Ctxh nhap mon
 
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong DongKy Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
Ky Nang Phat Trien Cong Dong
 
Ky Nang Thuyet Trinh
Ky Nang Thuyet TrinhKy Nang Thuyet Trinh
Ky Nang Thuyet Trinh
 
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi GianKy Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
Ky Nang Quan Ly Thoi Gian
 
Ky Nang Thuong Luong
Ky Nang Thuong LuongKy Nang Thuong Luong
Ky Nang Thuong Luong
 

Recently uploaded

High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
dimplekumaridk322
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
NZSG
 
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
anissageorge9890
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
Rupasingh82
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
Newman George Leech
 
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptxShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
macwanvancy
 
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
kevinkariuki227
 
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
tjcomstrang
 
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
pranjalgarg474
 
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publicationsSTEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
mcynthus
 
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
Katsuya Shiratori
 
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
Doug Hall
 
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptxupGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
himanshubclubofgsv
 
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
77sayre
 
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science PractitionersA Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
Tim Wilson
 
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel HammametRestaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
rihabkorbi24
 
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptxSTRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
ImranTabish1
 
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdfYouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
grizzyhuncho
 
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
44annissa
 
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for ObservabilityNetwork Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
GauriKale30
 

Recently uploaded (20)

High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
 
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
Qatar Airways Kuwait Office.pdf.........
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
 
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptxShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
ShotOniPhone campaign by Vancy macwan.pptx
 
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
 
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
20240716_ TJ Communications Credentials.pdf
 
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
HiFi Girls Call Surat 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publicationsSTEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
 
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
ハワイ大学留学プログラム最終プレゼン「ハワイ大学マノア校におけるシェアリングモビリティの提案」
 
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
 
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptxupGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
 
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vashi 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science PractitionersA Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
A Playbook for Solo & Siloed Data Science Practitioners
 
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel HammametRestaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
 
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptxSTRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
STRATEGY TO OVERCOME CURRENT PROBLEMS AT MTC.pptx
 
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdfYouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
YouTube Automation Step-by-step Guide.pdf
 
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
New Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for ObservabilityNetwork Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
Network Observability – 5 Best Platforms for Observability
 

The community Development Handbook

  • 1. THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK A TOOL TO BUILD COMMUNITY CAPACITY Written by Flo Frank and Anne Smith for Human Resources Development Canada
  • 2. This project was sponsored by the Labor Market Learning and Development Unit, Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC). Copies of this handbook, as well as the related Community Development Facilitator's Guide, in both French and English, are available from the HRDC Internet website at http://www.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/community Copies or further information may also be obtained from: Labour Market Learning and Development Canada 5th Floor, Place du Portage IV 140 Promenade du Portage Hull, Quebec K1A OJ9 Telephone: (819) 953-7370 Fax: (819) 997-5163 e-mail: learning-apprentissage.lmld-apmt@hrdc-drhc.gc.ca Author: Flo Frank c/o Common Ground Consulting Inc. Box 39, Meacham, Saskatchewan S0K 2V0 Telephone: (306) 376-2220 e-mail: flofrank@sk.sympatico.ca Author: Anne Smith c/o J. A. Smith Consulting Ltd. 10934 — 66 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 1Y2 Telephone: (780) 437-6749 e-mail: jasmith@compusmart.ab.ca © Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 1999 Cat. No. MP 33-13/1999E ISBN: 0-662-28233-7
  • 3. A ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Marc Rivard, a co-op student with the Labor Market Learning and Development Unit, as someone without The development of this handbook was greatly assisted any knowledge of community development, agreed to C by a number of committed people who helped to make read early drafts and provided insight into how it would it what it is. Our appreciation is expressed to: be viewed by people like himself. K Those who developed the Community Future Training N Dal Brodhead, François Lamontagne and Jon Pierce of package, Community Economic Development and the New Economy Development Group who coordinated Strategic Planning, produced by Human Resources the external validation process and provided many O Development Canada (HRDC) in 1992, that provided the valuable comments about this document. basis for the development of this Handbook. W This initiative was led by David Douglas at the The external content experts, from across Canada, School of Rural Planning at the University of Guelph in who actively assisted with the validation process: L conjunction with a team of national content experts. Stephen Ameyaw, Robert Annis, Paul Born, Dal Brodhead, David Bruce, Lucie Chagnon, E The team, led by Mary Glen and Cheryl O’Toole, who David Douglas, Wendy Featherstone, Harold Flaming, developed HRDC’s Community Capacity Building Toolkit Diana Jedig, Rankin McSween, Roy Mussell, David Pell, D of which this forms an integral part. Larry Kennedy and Carol Rock, Ron Ryan and Laurie Thompson. All of these Lois Williams of that team provided valuable input to people, recognized as experts in the community G this document. development field of this country, took time from their busy schedules to review the various drafts of this E HRDC staff—working at National Headquarters, in document and provide much valuable input. Regional Offices and in the field—who actively assisted M with the validation process: Elizabeth Bastien, Chuck Caroline Sparks of C. Sparks Consulting Ltd., Watson Bowie, Ken Donnelly, Radmila Duncan, Carol Evoy, Lake, Yukon, who provided input into the initial concept E André Fauvel, Neil Floyd, Anne Gillis, Roy Hanna, Tom and first draft. Hawco, Henry Holik, Brian House, Tannis Hughes, Susan N Kennedy, John Lutes, Shirley McCluskey, Sheila Phillips, Dr. David Redekopp of the Life Role Development Fianca Piccin, Daniele-Marie Rouleau, Gilbert Roy, Group, Edmonton, Alberta, who provided suggestions T Eileen Sobey, Brenda Varney, Mike Wedge, Valerie that helped shape the section on skills, knowledge Wilson and William Worona. and attitude. S Support was given throughout the project by Luna Bengio, Chief of HRDC’s Labor Market Learning and Development Unit. i
  • 4. A Ross Mayer of the Council for the Advancement of And a special thank you to Ken King, Consultant Native Development Officers, Edmonton, Alberta, who with HRDC’s Labor Market Learning and Development assisted with the overall structure and format. Unit in Ottawa, Ontario. Ken is a real champion of C effective community development. He initiated, Ley Ward of Common Ground Research and Consulting managed and coordinated the process that has resulted K Inc., Meacham Saskatchewan, who did the initial lay-out in this handbook. N and graphics. Finally, people who work everyday in community Gwen Chappell and Margie Johnson for their development are the ones who are making it an exciting O editing assistance. field of study and practice. Without you, there would be no lessons or experience from which to acquire learning W Mike Souliere from Communications with HRDC in or explore new concepts. This handbook is dedicated to Ottawa, Ontario, who provided the graphic design for you with thanks and respect for all the good community L this book. development work that is taking place across this country. E D G E M E N T S ii
  • 5. T TABLE OF CONTENTS A INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 B A Word About Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 L SECTION I — UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Principles and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 E What is Community Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Community Development Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 What is Community Capacity Building? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Impact of Building Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 O SECTION II — WHEN DOES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT HAPPEN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 F Responding to a Challenge or Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Community Awareness — The Power to Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 The Desire to Build on Diversity and Find Common Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 C Understanding Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Checking the Readiness of Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 O The Need for a Catalyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Who are Likely Catalysts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Can You Take on the Role of Community Catalyst? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 N SECTION III — DEVELOPING A PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 T 1 Building Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Who Should Be Involved? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 E Creating a Valued Local Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Developing Buy-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 N 2 Making a Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 The Benefits of a Community Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 T The Seven Steps in a Community Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Factors That Contribute to Successful Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 S iii
  • 6. T 3 Implementing and Adjusting the Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Possible Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 A Sharing the Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 4 Maintaining Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 B Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Building Community Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 L Funding Community Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 E Reviewing and Adapting the Community Development Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Motivation and Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Using Technical Support and Expertise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 O SECTION IV — ATTITUDE, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 F Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Communication, Facilitation and Team-Building Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 C Research, Planning and Evaluation Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Problem-Solving and Conflict-Resolution Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 O Management Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Organizational Design and Development Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 N Building on Skills and Responding to Skill Gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 T SECTION V — COMMON PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Not Understanding Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 E Getting From Planning to Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Failing to Evaluate Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 N Lack of Financial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Role Confusion and Power Struggles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 T Unresolved Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Not Applying Tools and Techniques Effectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 S SECTION VI — CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Evaluation Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 iv
  • 7. I INTRODUCTION Why this handbook was developed This handbook has been created by the Labor Market N In order to understand community development is it Learning and Development Unit at Human Resources important to understand that it means different things to Development Canada to support the understanding and effective application of community development. T different people in different places — and that our understanding about what constitutes effective or Community development is one of several vital tools appropriate community development has expanded used in the building of the capacity in communities R considerably in the past few years. What we do across Canada. know is that it is founded on voluntary and healthy interdependence, mutual benefit and shared responsibility. Community capacity is an important consideration in O In recent years, more often than not, community community development as the process of community development has involved local people seeking and development itself often results in increased capacity. taking advantage of opportunities or working together to Therefore, the two are interrelated but distinct. D solve problems. Combined or separate, they both have a great deal to do with developing potential and enhancing community living. This handbook was designed to look at communi- U Our interest in community development is not new but something to which we are returning. And returning to it ty development, realizing that capacity building and we are, with interest being generated in all sectors and other processes often get confused with it. C by a wide variety of people in each sector. Along with this increased interest comes some confusion about what Who this handbook is for community development is and what it is not. T While different approaches and a variety of ideas exist This introductory handbook is not designed to be a about community development, there remains an textbook for practitioners, but as an introductory guide underlying assumption that it is familiar to us and that we to community development and capacity building. It is I have a part to play in it. designed primarily for those who have an interest in community development but who may not have an in- O The fact is that, just as individual people vary, communi- depth understanding of the concept, the process or the ties differ and no one approach will work in all situa- resources available across Canada. tions. Therefore, a flexible process and general informa- N tion are being offered in this handbook to be adapted to For those already possessing knowledge about the topic your own situation. and/or experience in the field, this handbook provides a resource for exploring and initiating community development and reviewing the basics of the community development process. 1
  • 8. I What this handbook will do Contents of the handbook This handbook is designed to spark, rekindle and reaffirm This handbook is designed to provide information, N your interest in community development. To do this, tips and questions about the basics of community information and tools are offered to assist in building development, which can then be applied to your own common understanding and appropriate approaches. circumstances. Throughout, there are sections labeled T quot;Lessons from Experiencequot; and quot;Points to Ponderquot;. By reading this book, you should be able to: R quot;Lessons from Experiencequot; provides quick points about s define the terms quot;community developmentquot; and various aspects of each section. The comments are from quot;community capacity buildingquot; and explain the link consultants, community service workers and others with O between the two, extensive experience in community development. s explain the community development process, s explain the skills and knowledge needed to quot;Points to Ponderquot; offers questions based on the D be effective, information that has been provided in each section. s identify the most common problems experienced in The questions are designed to help generate thoughts community development and about what has been read and how it might apply to U s explain how experience tells us these problems may your own situation. These can also be used to be overcome. initiate discussion. C In addition, throughout this handbook, you will find What this handbook will not do stories that are based upon community development experiences across Canada. They are snapshots of T This handbook cannot and does not provide you with all different situations and are intended to be brief and to that you need to know to pursue community development the point. In order to keep them short and simple, there in your own community. Reading it, and answering all I is very little contextual background or detail provided. of the questions posed, will not turn you into a fully- These types of situations happen every day in most qualified community developer. Neither will it answer communities and provide concrete examples of the many O all of your questions. It is simply one resource that is ways the community development process can be available to you. If you are interested in learning more applied — as well as creating real-life stories upon which about these subject areas you will need to undertake we can draw. N further exploration by seeking out other resources and talking to individuals who have been active in the community development process. 2
  • 9. I The content of the handbook is as follows: A Word About Words s Section I focuses on defining community We have defined the term quot;community developmentquot; N development and capacity building; to mean the planned evolution of all aspects of community well-being (economic, social, environmental s Section II identifies the conditions that support and cultural). It is a process whereby community T community development; members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems (see Section I R s Section III outlines the community development for further elaboration). process and how to apply it; Other similar terms, such as community economic O s Section IV explores the attitudes, knowledge and skills development and community-based economic required to develop the capacity needed to effectively development, are being used within communities and, undertake a community development initiative; and often, they are used without a clear understanding of D their meaning. There is a great deal of confusion about s Section V examines common issues and concerns these terms because they may mean something slightly as well as providing some possible solutions. different to each person using them. U The handbook has been reviewed and validated There are no absolute definitions and rarely does by respected community development practitioners. everyone agree on the precise wording of terms that are C A listing of their names can be found on the commonly used. There may be different and even better Acknowledgements page. definitions than the ones provided, and they too may change over time. That’s the nature of working in the T A Facilitator’s Guide has also been developed and is community with people and learning better ways of available through Human Resources Development expressing ourselves. I Canada. It is designed to help facilitate learning and discussions about community development based on the O contents of this handbook. A copy may be obtained as per the inside cover of this book. N 3
  • 10. 4
  • 11. S E C T I O N The result is that the community’s overall capacity is not SECTION I - built, although the community appears to be developing. UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS Another example where capacity is built but community Although very closely related, community development development may not occur (or at least not right away) is and community capacity building are not the same thing. in marginalized communities. Some are in social and Some might argue that you can’t have one without the economic paralysis and are dependent on outside other or that one is a result of, or leads to the other — expertise and assistance. Sometimes communities remain and they would probably be correct. It’s much like the damaged and unhealthy for a very long time. They need I chicken and the egg. There is an obvious relationship to heal, become safe and build personal and community between the two, but there is also confusion about which wellness. Opportunities may be present, but the - is which and what is involved in each one. community is unable to identify or take advantage of them. Leadership is required, long-range thinking and u n d e r s t a n d i n g The primary focus of this handbook is on community strategic plans are needed, skills must be developed, development. The handbook will outline a community attitudes often have to change and resources must be development process that builds upon and results in acquired. It is important that capacity be built before increased community capacity. Both community community development can take place. development and community capacity building are being viewed and discussed as community-based and Most communities, however, experience a healthy participatory. In actual fact, community development relationship between community development and does not have to be driven by community members and, capacity building and, as a result, it is useful and in many instances, it isn’t — but when it is not, very little practical to consider them together as complimentary community capacity building occurs. processes. An example of this could happen when government and Principles and Values t h e industry are in control of the economic and social development of a community. Jobs are created, programs Principles and values are a key part of both and services are provided and yet the local residents community development and capacity building, t e r m s often have little input. In this situation, the community’s particularly when they are being considered as economic wealth may be improved (and some might participatory or inclusive processes. consider its capacity increased) but sacrifices are made in the community’s ability to manage itself, make decisions, They should be based on respecting people, improving sustain long-term well-being or prepare for a future that the quality of living, appreciating and supporting cultural might not include that particular industry. differences and being good stewards of the land, water and wildlife. 5
  • 12. S E C T I O N What we do now in communities has an impact on The primary outcome of community development is future generations. In order to honor one of the improved quality of life. Effective community overriding values in community development, which is development results in mutual benefit and shared to leave a positive legacy, care must be taken to add responsibility among community members value to everything that is done. The desire is to build and recognizes: capacity and develop communities in a way that enhances all aspects of the community (the total ecology) s the connection between social, cultural, and is appropriate for today as well as for tomorrow. environmental and economic matters; s the diversity of interests within a community; and I What is Community Development? s its relationship to building capacity. - Community development is the planned Community development requires and What Is Community u n d e r s t a n d i n g evolution of all aspects of community helps to build community capacity to Development? well-being (economic, social, address issues and to take advantage of environmental and cultural). It is a It is a quot;grassrootsquot; process by opportunities, to find common ground process whereby community members which communities: and to balance competing interests. come together to take collective action It does not just happen — it requires both and generate solutions to common Ì become more responsible; a conscious and a conscientious effort to problems. The scope of community Ì organize and plan together; do something (or many things) to improve development can vary from small the community. Ì develop healthy options; initiatives within a small group, to large initiatives that involve the whole Ì empower themselves; Let’s consider some of the assumptions community. Regardless of the scope of the Ì reduce ignorance, poverty about the words quot;communityquot; activity, effective community development and suffering; and quot;developmentquot;. t h e should be: Ì create employment and economic opportunities; and Community s a long-term endeavor, Ì achieve social, economic, s well planned, Often when we think of the term t e r m s cultural and s inclusive and equitable, environment goals. community, we think in geographic terms. s holistic and integrated into the Our community is the location (i.e. city, bigger picture, town or village) where we live. s initiated and supported by community members, When community is defined through physical location, s of benefit to the community, and it can be defined by precise boundaries that are readily understood and accepted by others. s grounded in experience that leads to best practice. 6
  • 13. S E C T I O N Defining communities in terms of geography, however, is The community development process takes charge of the only one way of looking at them. Communities can also conditions and factors that influence a community and be defined by common cultural heritage, language, and changes the quality of life of its members. Community beliefs or shared interests. These are sometimes called development is a tool for managing change and, communities of interest. therefore, is not: Even when community does refer to a geographic s a quick fix or a short-term response to a specific issue location, it does not always include everyone within the within a community, area. For example, many Aboriginal communities are s a process that seeks to exclude community members I part of a larger non-Aboriginal geography. In larger urban from participating, or centres, communities are often defined in terms of s an initiative that occurs in isolation from other related - particular neighbourhoods. community activity. u n d e r s t a n d i n g Most of us belong to more than one community, whether Community development is about community building as we are aware of it or not. For example, an individual can such, with the process as important as the results. One of be part of a neighbourhood community, a religious the primary challenges of community development is to community and a community of shared interests all at the balance the need for long-term solutions with the day-to- same time. Relationships, whether with people or the day realities that require immediate decision and short- land, define a community for each individual. term action. Development The term development often carries with it an assump- tion of growth and expansion. During the industrial era, development was strongly connected to increased speed, t h e volume and size. Many are currently questioning the concept of growth for numerous reasons. There is a realization that more is not always better. Increasingly, t e r m s there is respect for reducing outside dependencies and lowering levels of consumerism. The term development, therefore, may not always mean growth; it does, however, always imply change. 7
  • 14. S E C T I O N Community Development Resources as often we are not sure who should be doing what, what the required skills are, or where to get the necessary The term resources is used in many contexts. It is often skills if they are missing. Placing people into the right understood to mean money; however, in the context of roles and building skills or developing human capacity is community development it can mean far more than that. called human resource development. Occasionally it is Community development includes natural, human, referred to as building or increasing social capital. financial and infrastructure resources. Either way, it acknowledges the value of people and their talents and recognizes that this type of development is as Natural resources are all the things that nature provides. important as natural resource development. Unlike many I Oftentimes, community development focuses on the of the natural resources on the planet, people are natural resource industry that extracts the natural renewable and should be treated as the most valuable - resource, creating jobs and wealth but, if not managed resource in a community. u n d e r s t a n d i n g properly, may not be sustainable over time. Part of effective community development is to be good stewards Human resources include things such as: of the land and maintain a healthy balance between the environmental, economic and social undertakings in s healthy families and lifestyles; the community. s skills building, education and training; s career planning and employment; Natural resources include things such as: s effective and legal hiring practices; s workers compensation and pensions; and s land, air and water; s human rights and labour laws. s minerals and surface/subsurface metals and ores; s oil, gas and petroleum; The term financial resources is well understood. We know s trees and other plants; that it means money and it often implies having the ability t h e s wildlife; and to acquire it. What gets complicated is how to locate and s the standards, legislation and policies relating to successfully attract the type and amount of financial resources to community development initiatives. the above. t e r m s Just like having the right people doing the right jobs, it is important to have the right money at the right time. Human resources are about people. People are at the Traditionally, community development is funded (in part heart of all community matters and, as such, they are or in total) through economic development channels, critical to success. But just having people involved is not taxes or government grants. This leaves little power or enough. In community development, it is important to control in the hands of the people who want or need have the right people in the right jobs with the right to do things that are not on the government or private 8 skills, knowledge and abilities. This is not an easy matter
  • 15. S E C T I O N sector agenda. Fundraising and the seeking of grants A community development undertaking often has its own have become full-time jobs for many organizations and infrastructure, such as leadership or a physical building, groups involved in community service and development. but it should exist within a healthy relationship to that Financial resources include things such as: which exists. s fundraising and grant-seeking; Lessons from Experience s banks and other financial institutions; s community loan funds and lending circles; Experience tells us the following: s access to capital and investment funding; I s government loans and program funds; Ì There are many ways to define community. s cooperatives and other forms of investment; and - s policies and guidelines related to finance lending Ì We may belong to more than one community. u n d e r s t a n d i n g and reporting. Ì Community development follows a planned process Infrastructure is part of the resources needed to be that is long-term and integrated. effective in community development and includes such obvious things as: Ì Community development is not a quick fix for the s physical buildings and structures; day-to-day operations of the community. s transportation and access; s communication systems; and Ì Planning the resources for community development s electrical, hydro, sewage, garbage and heating. includes considering all the resources — people, money, infrastructure and the environment — However, infrastructure also refers to the political systems in which it will operate. t h e and leadership needed to support a community, as well as the policies, standards and laws established in the Ì Community development is a way to enhance the community. Without infrastructure there would be no resources of a community and often has sustainability t e r m s physical community. When considering resourcing a and increased quality of life as its primary focus. community development initiative it is important to consider what infrastructure is required, what the Ì Developing an understanding of and acquiring access relationship is to what currently exists and whether or not to resources is often difficult and requires specific there are policies or existing support systems to which skills. Community development helps to build them. contact or adherence are required. 9
  • 16. S E C T I O N Points to Ponder What Is Community Capacity Building? Ì How do I define my community? All people and communities have a certain amount of capacity. No one is without capacity but often we need Ì Do I belong to more that one community and, to develop it. What is important to realize is that the if so, what is the relationship between my heart of capacity building is people. Healthy communities different communities? are made up of healthy people and families. The creation of healthy environments will encourage healthy Ì What sort of development is going on in economies and sustainable development. It takes I capacity to do this as well as good leadership, a viable my community? plan, motivation and the support of the community. - Basically, it takes capacity to build capacity, and it takes Ì What sort of development would I like to see u n d e r s t a n d i n g a well-thought-out process to start both capacity building in my community? and effective community development. Ì How does or might this development improve Capacity is simply the ways and means needed to do quality of life? what has to be done. It is much broader than simply skills, people and plans. It includes commitment, resources and all that is brought to bear on a process to make it successful. Most often, capacity is referred to as including the following components: s people who are willing to be involved; s skills, knowledge and abilities; t h e s wellness and community health; s ability to identify and access opportunities; s motivation and the wherewithal to carry t e r m s out initiatives; s infrastructure, supportive institutions and physical resources; s leadership and the structures needed for participation; s economic and financial resources; and s enabling policies and systems. 10
  • 17. S E C T I O N Community capacity building is based on the premise More and more people will be getting involved, that community sustainability can be improved over identifying key issues and taking action. Results are time. Capacity, or the lack of it, is reflected in the people, becoming obvious and the abilities, esteem and economy, environment, culture, attitude and appearance resources of many communities are improving as of the community. capacity grows. Community Assets and Capacity Assessment It takes leadership, time and effort to build capacity. It may also require the support of individuals with expertise The following are assets in a community and should and/or money for training. Increased capacity is a direct I be assessed when considering a community’s assets result of effective community development and, as such, and capacity: is critical to everyone, whether they are aware that a - community development process is underway or not. s human assets and liabilities; u n d e r s t a n d i n g s environmental resources; Lessons from Experience s economic opportunities and limitations; s cultural and recreational facilities, programs Experience tells us that the results of building or and services; increasing capacity can be measured. The following are s financial, political and security systems; some examples of the outcomes of capacity building: s infrastructure in existence and needed; and Ì stronger community relationships: healthier people, s communication processes. caring families and safer, welcoming communities; The Impact of Building Capacity Ì an increased number of community-based When communities are building capacity, there is a opportunities identified; t h e significant impact on many aspects of community life. Capacity building places the emphasis on existing Ì the enhanced ability of community members to share strengths and abilities, rather than being overwhelmed by their ideas on a course of action; t e r m s problems or feelings of powerlessness. An indication that capacity is developing within a community is that people Ì increased competency in setting and realizing are active, interested and participating in what is going common goals; on. They may also be questioning, challenging and debating — but they will be debating what should be Ì expanded intuition in sensing what to do, when to do done, not complaining that nothing will ever change. it and when to quit; 11
  • 18. S E C T I O N Ì an enhanced respect for limited resources, including Points to Ponder people, so that shortages, duplication or waste are minimized; Ì Do you think that community development may be a useful approach for your community to tap into and Ì an increased awareness of the importance of build upon its capacity? protecting, advocating for and improving the conditions for vulnerable people, distinct cultures, Ì What is the capacity in your community that you can floundering economies and environments; build upon? I Ì skilled leadership; Ì What areas of community capacity need to be - developed or strengthened in your community? Ì an increased interest from young people to become u n d e r s t a n d i n g future leaders; and Ì an increased ability to handle disappointment, threats and hazards to community pride and well-being. t h e t e r m s 12
  • 20. S E C T I O N SECTION II - Responding to a Challenge or Opportunity WHEN DOES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A crisis which threatens the viability of the community HAPPEN? or an opportunity to enhance the quality of life in the community is often the driving force for community- Community development is a planned process that based action. Community members perceive that action requires certain prerequisites. Effective community must be taken. A multitude of circumstances could development most often happens when: occur that cause a community to respond. s a challenge or opportunity presents itself, and the Examples of negative circumstances that can motivate I I community responds; communities to consider a community development s community members are aware of their power to act approach are: together to benefit their community; - s there is a desire to build on diversity and to find s closure of a primary industry upon which many of d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y common ground; and/or the community members are dependent, s change is taking place and community development s a community facing significant social problems is understood to be a positive approach to manage but with little that can be achieved until issues of this change. community health and well-being are addressed, s too many young people leaving the community, Each of these situations is described below. At the end of s withdrawal of government funding for an initiative this section is a set of questions that will help determine upon which the community is highly dependent, or whether or not your community has the resources in s frustration about the results of previous efforts and place that will support community development. the desire to use a different approach. Community development is not solely pursued as a response to negative circumstances or a crisis. Increasingly, community development is viewed as a way to build upon strengths (capacity) and take advantage of opportunities. Some communities view the community development process as a way to tap into the multitude of strengths, skills and abilities of community members. 13
  • 21. S E C T I O N Examples of positive circumstances that can result in Lessons from Experience community development are: Ì A community is a group of individuals wanting to s the desire to build stronger connections between achieve something collectively rather than separately. community members; s an interest in creating grassroots Responding to an Opportunity Ì Regardless of how big or small the initiatives to respond to interests or action, the feature that distinguishes talents within the community (i.e. A group of friends on welfare community development from bartering, co-operatives, arts festivals); talked about the idea of creating anything else is the collective s the potential to diversify economic a community business. They knew that they had to become approach to decision-making. I I activity within the community; more self-reliant and their social s the need to help community members workers had provided Ì Any number of things can trigger an help themselves (community gardens, information about community interest in community development, - collective kitchens, cooperative loan funds for new businesses. so it is important to understand the d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y housing); or They asked others to join them in need or problem as well as the s the opportunity to create programs or the creation of a community- based economic development possible solutions. facilities for children, seniors or others project. Because they had in the community. experience in both cooking and Points to Ponder customer service, the group Regardless of whether the community is decided to open a restaurant. Ì Is there a threat or opportunity facing responding to a perceived threat or an Their goal was to create jobs for your community? opportunity, the motivation to pursue a themselves and others. It took community development approach stems effort, planning and the from a belief that the community itself not development of community trust Ì Do you think community development only has the solutions but the ability to to start the business, but there could be a useful approach to translate their ideas into action. was an opportunity to do responding to this threat something and they took it. or opportunity? Today a successful restaurant is in place. The restaurant remains committed to hiring disadvantaged people. 14
  • 22. S E C T I O N Community Awareness — The Power to Act Without the awareness and belief that community members have the power to act and to bring about Community development stems from the belief that the positive change there will be little motivation for community itself has or is able to develop solutions to community development. Motivation is not the only the issues and opportunities within the community. requirement for successful community development but Rather than waiting for someone else, community it is a foundation. members believe in their own ability to take action. Lessons from Experience The Power to Act Some people may need to be convinced Ì Creating awareness and motivating Community members in a small I I that they do in fact have the power to act rural community were disturbed community members to take responsi- and that the contribution they could make by the fact that many of their bility for the future of their community is of value. Too often we see outside young people were going to can be a challenge. The best approach - experts or professionals as the ones with larger centres to find work. As a may be to use real examples of inclu- the answers and defer to them. result of this concern and, after sive community development d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y Community development requires much work, a number of approaches as a powerful tool for awareness by members that they too have business people sponsored a creating awareness of the potential of small local sawmill. The mill is a this approach. expertise about their community. success and other business Although outside assistance may be opportunities are being needed, it should only be as a tool to considered to help create Ì Practical and small projects can be a develop community-driven responses in a additional jobs in the great experience that demonstrates way which responds to the community. community. Having seen one the power of collective community venture succeed, it is easier to development. Starting small and Discussion in the community may be plan others. building on strengths is a good needed to create the awareness that: strategy for building awareness and motivation. s community members are the experts with respect to the needs, hopes and dreams of their community; s it can be beneficial to act together to achieve results; and s all community members have skills, knowledge and abilities to contribute. 15
  • 23. S E C T I O N Ì Community development does not work well if The Desire to Build on Diversity and Find members see the answer to the threat or opportunity Common Ground as being outside of themselves (believing, for example, that government should act on their behalf Communities are made up of individuals with a variety of or that one large private-sector investor can turn the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, interests and concerns. economy around and make the One of greatest challenges is to find the common ground community a better place to live). out of the diversity. Success requires that a good cross- section of community members participate. Points to Ponder Inclusive processes are those that: I I Ì Do individuals in your community believe they have the power to bring about change? s are open and participatory in nature; s respect differences and value all contributions; - Ì If community members do not believe they have the s ask questions rather than impose answers; d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y power to act, how can you create this awareness? s look for solutions and areas of agreement; s break down barriers to communication such as the Ì If they do have this awareness, how can you build use of jargon and stereotypes; and upon it and sustain it? s provide a variety of opportunities for participation. Examples of the way communities include a variety of people in community development processes are: s town-hall meetings, s focus groups, s coffee gatherings and potluck suppers, s discussion papers that provide an opportunity for response, s questionnaires about community matters, s surveys that identify the skills and abilities of community members, s local media reports, s e-mail and chat rooms, s planning workshops, and 16
  • 24. s interviewing individuals in leadership roles. S E C T I O N Acknowledge this and get some experienced help if it becomes a problem. Failure to involve a cross-section of community members and interests will weaken your communi- Ì The process is as important as the ty development effort. To be effective, all Finding Common Ground results. A process that fails to be sectors must be involved. Invite inclusive is not good community community leaders to participate, and Two non-profit agencies were development, regardless of the results. design strategies to bring together frustrated by the fact that very individuals who do not normally few job opportunities existed in their community for mental Ì If certain people or stakeholders in participate in community processes. health survivors. There were your community are skeptical or don’t I I Make sure that it is the right time and that mixed feelings and much wish to participate, keep them there is enough interest to proceed. ignorance about the abilities of informed and continue to invite their the survivors and many doubts participation. An inclusive process - Community development is not one set of about supporting anything that keeps the door open. interests within a community imposing a d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y could create a financial solution or action on others. Community dependency. These two agencies development is a democratic process acted as the catalyst to bringing Ì To be inclusive, keep asking the and involves the active participation of together community people to questions quot;who else needs to be a variety of people. increase awareness, consider involved?quot; and quot;are we unintentionally options and develop innovative excluding someone from the process and community-based solutions because they are not connected to The strength of community development to the problems. They discovered is that it is an approach that brings a group or organization in that everyone was interested in individuals of diverse interests together sustainable and meaningful our community?quot; to achieve a common purpose. employment, regardless of other differences, so they proceeded to Ì Don’t just include the official or Lessons from Experience create a cooperative that was run regular leaders. There is a lot of talent by and for the mental health and energy in those less recognized in Ì Inclusion must be intentional. survivors. This helped improve community activities. understanding and enhanced Identify the variety of interests in your community relations. community and develop strategies for involvement. Ì Inclusion of a wide spectrum of interests can push people out of their comfort zones. 17
  • 25. S E C T I O N Points to Ponder Understanding Change Ì Which individuals or organizations should be involved Community development involves change. The community in a community development process? must understand that community development will bring about changes as well as address issues Ì Think of other community processes that have already taken place. Some of Sometimes It Doesn't Work with which you are familiar. Who was the changes will be anticipated, left out of these processes? How could but others will occur as part of the A rural town was trying to they have been included? organize a formal community process and may not be foreseen. development initiative with other I I Ì What challenges can you identify groups and agencies in the Community development can bring community. Some felt there was about significant transformations in the in designing an inclusive community an urgency related to funding community. These can involve re- development process in - cuts while others seemed content structuring, shifting of power, new your community? to share information about d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y relationships, and new economic or current and future events. community activities. They held several meetings that were well-attended, but didn't seem to be getting anywhere. Even positive change can be stressful and For the fourth meeting, they needs to be managed. How we respond hired an outside facilitator who to, cope with, or handle change is known tried to find a place from which as managing transition and is a part of the to begin. As it turned out, there community development process. was no common need or issue beyond the sharing of Community development is usually information and networking. initiated by individuals who have passion They decided that, for the time and vision. If, however, community-based being, that was a good enough goal and that a community plan structures are not put into place to or shared initiative was not that support this, even the best efforts can fail. important at that time. 18
  • 26. S E C T I O N Structures to support change can vary depending on the Lessons from Experience size and complexity of the endeavor. The following structures are examples: Ì Make community members aware that change will occur and may be stressful. Do not minimize the stress s a community development plan, that can be caused by change. Develop strategies for s a communication strategy, and managing change and transition. s a hub of individuals or organizations Understanding Change established as a focal point for Ì Community development requires a community development. A Community Development balance between process and action. Corporation (CDC) had been This can often be difficult to achieve. receiving base funding to create I I Community development is often Take time to develop an effective plan, jobs in an isolated area. The jobs supported by more formal organizational were part of the fishing industry communication approach and focal structures such as community economy that was slowly point for your activity. These structures - development offices, community collapsing. Over a three-year will be beneficial in the long run. d e v e l o p e m e n t h a p p e n w h e n d o e s c o m m u n i t y development corporations or not-for-profit period, new economic activities organizations. A formal structure may not began to be created in eco- Points to Ponder be needed every time. It is best to wait to tourism and the CDC had to re- determine what is most appropriate for the think its services. They shifted from being employment-focused Ì What changes may result from situation. The key thing to keep in mind is community development activity? to facilitating business start-ups that support structures are necessary to and seeking community manage the community development financing for joint ventures and process as well as the change it creates. Ì How will community members react partnerships. As the financial As this is an ongoing process, the to this change? agencies had not moved as structures will not be static. quickly to cope with the changes, the CDC also became Ì What actions can you and your They will change and adapt as the an advocate for policy and community take to offset the impact community moves forward. Make sure program changes that reflected of change? that you see the structures you create as the new priorities and opportunities. mechanisms to support your action, not as ends in themselves. 19