SlideShare a Scribd company logo
with
Philip Duff
powered by
The Cinchona Chronicles
@philipduff @fcbaliva
@philipsduff @ferrochinabaliva
2
CINCHONA
TREE
3
4
• China / China bark
• Quina-quina
• Jesuit's bark / Jesuit's
powder
• Fever tree
• Calisaya
6
Quinine benefits
TREATS MALARIA
KILLS PARASITES
REDUCES FEVER
REGULATES HEARTBEAT
CALMS NERVES
STIMULATES DIGESTION
KILLS GERMS
REDUCES SPASMS
KILLS INSECTS
RELIEVES PAIN
KILLS BACTERIA AND FUNGI
7
PHOSPHORESCENT
8
9
Countess of
Chinchón
DOÑA
FRANCISCA
ENRIQUEZ
DE RIVERA
VIRREYNA
DEL PERU
1
0
11
Cinchona - “china”
 C. Ledgeriana or c. succirubra
 1630s: First used as anti-malarial in it's native Peru
 1640: First used in Europe; Jesuits, popes, royals
 1820: Antimalarial quinine isolated
 Mid-1800s: Dutch & UK smuggle seeds to Java & Ceylon
 1918: Dutch near-monopoly, but then WWI & WWII
 1944: Quinine synthesized
 2016: - Africa now world's largest producer
Amaro: EU 110 / 2008
“Bitter-tasting spirit drinks or bitter
(a) Bitter-tasting spirit drinks or bitter are spirit drinks with a
predominantly bitter taste.”
(b) The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of bitter-tasting
spirit drinks or bitter shall be 15 %.
(c) Bitter tasting spirit drinks or bitter may also be sold under the
names ‘amer’ or ‘bitter’ with or without another term.”
Amaro: EU 110 / 2008
Amaro: EU 110 / 2008
Geographical protections for bitter-tasting
spirit drinks
 Demänovka bylinná horká, Slovakia
Rheinberger Kräuter, Germany
 Trejos devynerios, Lithuania
Slovenska travarica, Slovenia
 Amari, esp. china
elixirs
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china
elixirs
 Vermouth (1786)
Cinchona - “china”
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
 Amari, esp. china
elixirs
 Vermouth,
quinquina
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
Quinquina: EU 1601/91
“Bitter aromatized wine with
quinine”
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
 Hercules
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
 Hercules
 Caperitif (but its vermouth!)
Cinchona - “china”
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
 Tonic water 1825 on – English in India
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina
 Tonic water 1825 on – English in India
1858 – Erasmus Bond, London
Spain GINTONIC
25
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina, americano
 Tonic water
 Bitter lemon
 Amari, esp. china elixirs
 Vermouth, quinquina, americano
 Tonic water
 Bitter lemon
 Irn Bru
 Amaro (a bitter spirit drink, so not a quinquina),
containing cinchona (“china”)
and
iron citrate (“ferro”),
min. 15% ABV (30 proof).
Ferro China Amaro
Just to get things straight...
Non-alcoholic Alcoholic Wine based Spirit based Has quinine? Has iron citrate?
Tonic water X X
Irn Bru X X X
Vermouth X X
Quinquina X X X
China elixir X X X
Ferro china X X X X
Ferro China Amaro
So how, when & why did the Ferro China Category come to exist?
Why in Italy?
And why is there only one brand in Italy left?
Ferro China Amaro
Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff
 Strychnine, strychnos nux-vomica
tree
 Cocaine, paper by Paolo
Mantegazza,
professor in Milan (1860)
 China Marziale – china + nux
vomica + cocaine
 1863: Vin Mariani,
French-Corsican Angelo Mariani
 6mg to 7.2mg cocaine extract/oz.
 Fans: Queen Victoria, Thomas
Edison
 Vatican gold medal from Pope
Leo XIII
Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff
- 1863: Vin Mariani
- Inspired Coca-Cola (1885)
Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff
 Korea declares independence from
China.
 International Olympic Committee
founded.
 State of New York enacts first dog-
licensing law.
 Both Baliva and Bisleri brands of ferro
china born - the first entirely Italian
health tonic brands
1894
Dr. Ernesto Baliva
 Born 1863
 Graduated medical school 1880s
 Worked Red Cross, battling malaria in
south Italy
 Worked Farmacia Langeli, licensed to
import china since 1838
 Created Ferro China Baliva 1894,
outsourced production to Pompilio
Benedetti & received royalties.
 Benedetti exported to US during
Prohibition as “medicinal alcohol”
 Adults: a shot before dinner,
also as aperitif
 Children: a spoon before bed,
or whipped into an egg yolk
Ferro China Baliva
PRODUCTION
PROCESS
 Every distilling manual 1850-1900 had FC recipes
 Exports to the Americas, Asia, India
-
The Ferro China Craze
The Argentina Connection
-
Ferrocarril (Railway)
 1 part ferro china
 1 part Pineral
 1 part vermouth
 1 dash maraschino
liqueur
 1 dash grenadine syrup
Shake with ice
Strain into cocktail coupe
@philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016
Then Suntans Became Popular...
 1922: Fascists valued suntans & healthiness (“workers”)
 1923: Coco Chanel, Josephine Baker
@philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016
1914: Slight Interruption To Our Scheduled Programming
@philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016
1939: ...And Again.
2015
Diageo cease production of Ferro China Bisleri
2017
Pallini resume production of Ferro China Baliva
with
Philip Duff
powered by
The Cinchona Chronicles
@philipduff @fcbaliva
@philipsduff @ferrochinabaliva
Thank you for your attention!
This slide deck: www.slideshare.net/philipduff
Philip Duff: philip@liquidsolutions.org

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UPDATED The Cinchona Chronicles with Philip Duff, v2, Feb 2020 London

  • 1. with Philip Duff powered by The Cinchona Chronicles @philipduff @fcbaliva @philipsduff @ferrochinabaliva
  • 2. 2
  • 4. 4
  • 5. • China / China bark • Quina-quina • Jesuit's bark / Jesuit's powder • Fever tree • Calisaya
  • 6. 6
  • 7. Quinine benefits TREATS MALARIA KILLS PARASITES REDUCES FEVER REGULATES HEARTBEAT CALMS NERVES STIMULATES DIGESTION KILLS GERMS REDUCES SPASMS KILLS INSECTS RELIEVES PAIN KILLS BACTERIA AND FUNGI 7
  • 9. 9
  • 11. 11
  • 12. Cinchona - “china”  C. Ledgeriana or c. succirubra  1630s: First used as anti-malarial in it's native Peru  1640: First used in Europe; Jesuits, popes, royals  1820: Antimalarial quinine isolated  Mid-1800s: Dutch & UK smuggle seeds to Java & Ceylon  1918: Dutch near-monopoly, but then WWI & WWII  1944: Quinine synthesized  2016: - Africa now world's largest producer
  • 13. Amaro: EU 110 / 2008 “Bitter-tasting spirit drinks or bitter (a) Bitter-tasting spirit drinks or bitter are spirit drinks with a predominantly bitter taste.” (b) The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of bitter-tasting spirit drinks or bitter shall be 15 %. (c) Bitter tasting spirit drinks or bitter may also be sold under the names ‘amer’ or ‘bitter’ with or without another term.”
  • 14. Amaro: EU 110 / 2008
  • 15. Amaro: EU 110 / 2008 Geographical protections for bitter-tasting spirit drinks  Demänovka bylinná horká, Slovakia Rheinberger Kräuter, Germany  Trejos devynerios, Lithuania Slovenska travarica, Slovenia
  • 16.  Amari, esp. china elixirs Cinchona - “china”
  • 17.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth (1786) Cinchona - “china”
  • 18. Cinchona - “china”  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina
  • 19.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina Cinchona - “china”
  • 20.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina Quinquina: EU 1601/91 “Bitter aromatized wine with quinine” Cinchona - “china”
  • 21.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina  Hercules Cinchona - “china”
  • 22.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina  Hercules  Caperitif (but its vermouth!) Cinchona - “china”
  • 23.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina  Tonic water 1825 on – English in India
  • 24.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina  Tonic water 1825 on – English in India 1858 – Erasmus Bond, London
  • 26.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina, americano  Tonic water  Bitter lemon
  • 27.  Amari, esp. china elixirs  Vermouth, quinquina, americano  Tonic water  Bitter lemon  Irn Bru
  • 28.  Amaro (a bitter spirit drink, so not a quinquina), containing cinchona (“china”) and iron citrate (“ferro”), min. 15% ABV (30 proof). Ferro China Amaro
  • 29. Just to get things straight... Non-alcoholic Alcoholic Wine based Spirit based Has quinine? Has iron citrate? Tonic water X X Irn Bru X X X Vermouth X X Quinquina X X X China elixir X X X Ferro china X X X X Ferro China Amaro
  • 30. So how, when & why did the Ferro China Category come to exist? Why in Italy? And why is there only one brand in Italy left? Ferro China Amaro
  • 31. Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff  Strychnine, strychnos nux-vomica tree  Cocaine, paper by Paolo Mantegazza, professor in Milan (1860)  China Marziale – china + nux vomica + cocaine
  • 32.  1863: Vin Mariani, French-Corsican Angelo Mariani  6mg to 7.2mg cocaine extract/oz.  Fans: Queen Victoria, Thomas Edison  Vatican gold medal from Pope Leo XIII Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff
  • 33. - 1863: Vin Mariani - Inspired Coca-Cola (1885) Tons Of Crazy, Shady Stuff
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.  Korea declares independence from China.  International Olympic Committee founded.  State of New York enacts first dog- licensing law.  Both Baliva and Bisleri brands of ferro china born - the first entirely Italian health tonic brands 1894
  • 37. Dr. Ernesto Baliva  Born 1863  Graduated medical school 1880s  Worked Red Cross, battling malaria in south Italy  Worked Farmacia Langeli, licensed to import china since 1838  Created Ferro China Baliva 1894, outsourced production to Pompilio Benedetti & received royalties.  Benedetti exported to US during Prohibition as “medicinal alcohol”
  • 38.  Adults: a shot before dinner, also as aperitif  Children: a spoon before bed, or whipped into an egg yolk Ferro China Baliva
  • 40.  Every distilling manual 1850-1900 had FC recipes  Exports to the Americas, Asia, India - The Ferro China Craze
  • 41. The Argentina Connection - Ferrocarril (Railway)  1 part ferro china  1 part Pineral  1 part vermouth  1 dash maraschino liqueur  1 dash grenadine syrup Shake with ice Strain into cocktail coupe
  • 42. @philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016 Then Suntans Became Popular...  1922: Fascists valued suntans & healthiness (“workers”)  1923: Coco Chanel, Josephine Baker
  • 43. @philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016 1914: Slight Interruption To Our Scheduled Programming
  • 44. @philipduff @saperebere #IronAmaro #TOTC2016 1939: ...And Again.
  • 45. 2015 Diageo cease production of Ferro China Bisleri 2017 Pallini resume production of Ferro China Baliva
  • 46.
  • 47. with Philip Duff powered by The Cinchona Chronicles @philipduff @fcbaliva @philipsduff @ferrochinabaliva
  • 48. Thank you for your attention! This slide deck: www.slideshare.net/philipduff Philip Duff: philip@liquidsolutions.org