SlideShare a Scribd company logo
http://www.flickr.com/photos/arnybo/2679622216
The Case for HTTP/2
@AndyDavies
#GreeceJS, June 2016
1999
1999
RFC 2616 - HTTP/1.1
The Web of 1999…
…is not the Web of 2016
…is not the Web of 2016
http://www.flickr.com/photos/7671591@N08/1469828976
HTTP/1.x doesn’t use the network efficiently
and we’ve been hacking around some of the limitations
https://www.flickr.com/photos/rocketnumber9/13695281
Each TCP connection only supports one request at a time*
https://www.flickr.com/photos/39551170@N02/5621408218
*HTTP Pipelining is broken in practice
So browsers allowed us to make more requests in parallel
Very old browsers - 2 parallel connections
Today’s browsers - 4 plus connections
To make even more parallel requests we split resources across hosts
www.bbc.co.uk
static.bbci.co.uk
news.bbcimg.co.uk
node1.bbcimg.co.uk
Increasing the risk of network congestion and packet loss
https://www.flickr.com/photos/dcmaster/4585119705
Every request has an overhead
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tholub/9488778040
HTTP 1.x - Higher latency = slower load times
PageLoadTime(s)
1
2
3
4
Round Trip Time (ms)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Mike Belshe - “More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (much)”
Accept:text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding:gzip,deflate,sdch
Accept-Language:en-US,en;q=0.8
Cache-Control:no-cache
Cookie:NTABS=B5; BBC-
UID=75620c7ca040deb7c0d3275d81c51c2361684a959e281319b3b5da4dab5958880Mozilla
%2f5%2e0%20%28Macintosh%3b%20Intel%20Mac%20OS%20X%2010%5f9%5f1%29%20AppleWebKit
%2f537%2e36%20%28KHTML%2c%20like%20Gecko%29%20Chrome%2f31%2e0%2e1650%2e63%20Safari
%2f537%2e36; ckns_policy=111;
BGUID=55b28cbc20d2e32f221f3ed0e1be9624c960f93b1e483329c3752a6d253efd40;
s1=52CC023F3812005F; BBCCOMMENTSMODULESESSID=L-k22bbkde3jkqf928himljnlkl3;
ckpf_ww_mobile_js=on; ckpf_mandolin=%22footer-promo%22%3A%7B%22segment%22%3Anull%2C%22end
%22%3A%221392834182609%22%7D; _chartbeat2=ol0j0uq4hkq6pumu.
1389101635322.1392285654268.0111111111111111; _chartbeat_uuniq=1; ecos.dt=1392285758216
Host:www.bbc.co.uk
Pragma:no-cache
User-Agent:Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_9_1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like
Gecko) Chrome/32.0.1700.107 Safari/537.36
Headers sent with every request
Contain lots of repeated data
and aren’t compressed
And small responses may not fill the TCP Congestion Window
Could have sent more segments in this round-trip
Small response
So we follow recipes e.g. Reduce Requests
https://www.flickr.com/photos/nonny/116902484
Create CSS and JavaScript bundles
++++
= =
Create CSS and JavaScript bundles
++++
= =More to download
and parse
Create CSS and JavaScript bundles
++++
= =
x+
Whole bundle is
invalidated if a
single file changes
More to download
and parse
and combine images to make sprites
and combine images to make sprites
To get just one sprite …
and combine images to make sprites
Browser must download and
decode the whole image
To get just one sprite …
We override the browser’s priorities
https://www.flickr.com/photos/skoupidiaris/5025176923
Embed binary* data using DataURIs
url(data:image/
png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAA
AANSUhEUgAAABkAAAAZCAMAA
ADzN3VRAAAAGXRFWHRTb2Z0d
2FyZQBBZG9iZSBJbWFnZVJlY
WR5ccllPAAAAAZQTFRF/
wAAAAAAQaMSAwAAABJJREFUe
NpiYBgFo2AwAIAAAwACigABt
nCV2AAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==)
=
*dataURIs can be text too e.g. SVG
and inline ‘critical resources’
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en-us">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
<link rel='stylesheet' href='http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Open+Sans:400,300,600' typ
<link rel="alternate" href="http://blog.yoav.ws/index.xml" type="application/rss+xml" title="Y
<style>
body { font-family: 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, sans-serif; color: rgb(72, 7
img { max-width: 100%; }
.li-page-header { color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding: 16px 0px; background-color: #8a1e1b;
.container { position: relative; width: 90vw; max-width: 760px; margin: 0px auto; padding:
.clearfix:before, .clearfix:after, .row:before, .row:after { content: '0020'; display: bl
.row:after, .clearfix:after { clear: both; }
.row, .clearfix { zoom: 1; }
There’s a tension between development and delivery
https://www.flickr.com/photos/domiriel/7376397968
Build tools and optimisation services help plug gaps
and won’t be going away…
But what if we could use the network more efficiently?
https://www.flickr.com/photos/belsymington/4102783610
HTTP/2
HTTP/1.1 HTTP/2
https://http2.golang.org/gophertiles
HTTP/1.1 HTTP/2
https://http2.golang.org/gophertiles
HTTP/1.1 HTTP/2
https://http2.golang.org/gophertiles
Impressive
But is it a real world test?
• HTTP methods, status codes and semantics remain the same
• Binary headers
• Header compression
• Multiplexed
• Server can push resources
HTTP/2
Each request becomes a stream
DATA
frame
HEADERS
frame
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 07 Sep 2015 17:39:33 GMT
Expires: -1
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Content-Encoding: gzip
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title>This is my title<title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css" type="text/css" />
HTTP/2HTTP/1.1
Streams are divided into frames
}
} DATA
frame
DATA
frame
Frames are multiplexed over a TCP connection
…
Stream 1
DATA
Stream 2
HEADERS
Stream 2
DATA
Stream 1
DATA
…
Stream 4
DATA
Client Server
TCP connection comparison HTTP/2 vs HTTP/1.1
HTTP/1.1
HTTP/2
Prioritised using Weights and Dependencies
https://nghttp2.org/blog/2014/04/27/how-dependency-based-prioritization-works/
Weight: 200
id: 2
Weight: 100
id: 4
Weight: 1
id: 6
Weight: 100
id: 12
Weight: 100
id: 8
Weight: 100
id: 10
Prioritised using Weights and Dependencies
https://nghttp2.org/blog/2014/04/27/how-dependency-based-prioritization-works/
Weight: 200
id: 2
Weight: 100
id: 4
Weight: 1
id: 6
Weight: 100
id: 12
Weight: 100
id: 8
Weight: 100
id: 10
2/3 1/3 Low priority
Prioritised using Weights and Dependencies
https://nghttp2.org/blog/2014/04/27/how-dependency-based-prioritization-works/
Weight: 200
id: 2
Weight: 100
id: 4
Weight: 1
id: 6
Weight: 100
id: 12
Weight: 100
id: 8
Weight: 100
id: 10
2/3 1/3 Low priorityIn reality, there are some difficulties implementing this
What is the optimal order… Does it change as page loads?
https://www.flickr.com/photos/add1sun/4993432274
Header compression
https://http2.github.io/http2-spec/compression.html
Does it make any difference?
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Singapore, Cable
Does it make any difference?
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Singapore, Cable
Does it make any difference?
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Singapore, Cable
Does it make any difference?
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Singapore, Cable
What about when server and client are close?
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Ireland, Cable
HTTP/1.1
HTTP/2
and evenly matched when server and client are close
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Ireland, Cable
HTTP/1.1
HTTP/2
and evenly matched when server and client are close
Host: Ireland, Test Agent: Ireland, Cable
HTTP/1.1
HTTP/2
https://speakerdeck.com/patrickhamann/http2-what-where-why-and-when-smashing-conference-march-2016
https://speakerdeck.com/patrickhamann/http2-what-where-why-and-when-smashing-conference-march-2016
https://speakerdeck.com/patrickhamann/http2-what-where-why-and-when-smashing-conference-march-2016
Opportunities for new kinds of optimisations
https://www.flickr.com/photos/inucara/14981917985
Browser Server
Server
builds
page
GET index.html
<html><head>…
Network
Idle
Request other page resources
Server push
Browser Server
Server
builds
page
GET index.html
<html><head>…
Request other page resources
Push critical resources e.g. CSS
Server push
Browser Server
Server
builds
page
GET index.html
<html><head>…
Request other page resources
Push critical resources e.g. CSS
Server push
Browser Server
Server
builds
page
GET index.html
<html><head>…
Request other page resources
Push critical resources e.g. CSS
Browser can reject push
but
may have already received data
Server push
Many opportunities for server push
HTML
CSS
DOM
CSSOM
Render
Tree
Layout PaintJavaScript
Fonts and background
images discovered
when render tree builds
Could we push them?
Multiplexing offers interesting possibilities too
How much of an image do we need to make it usable - 5%?
Experiment by John Mellor at Google
Parallel version looks usable with just 15% of bytes
And almost complete with 25% of the image bytes!
There are some questions over the user
experience with progressive images
Sequential version needs 80% of bytes to match up…
When do we kill off some HTTP/1.1 optimisation techniques?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyjcase/7183556158
Browser support for HTTP/2 is relatively good
40 Edge 9b39 30a
a. Opera Mini doesn’t support HTTP/2
b. Server-Push not supported yet
Server Support
https://github.com/http2/http2-spec/wiki/Implementations
Common servers already support it*
But choose your server carefully…
Does it respect stream and connection flow?
Does it support dependencies and weights?
Does it support server-push?
How does it help optimisation?
You might find some strange things…
https://www.flickr.com/photos/joebenjamin/5009411920
Implementations are still young…
Resources pushed in
reverse order!
(h20 v1.5.0 - fixed in h2o 1.5.3)
Different patterns of server resource usage
http://engineering.khanacademy.org/posts/js-packaging-http2.htm
Sometimes browsers have unexpected behaviour…
1.6s 1.7s 1.8s 1.9s 2.0s 2.1s
With Push 1.6
Without Push
(Chrome 46, in Firefox both tests were fast)
with push
without push
300ms gap in waterfall
while Chrome’s
preloader starts
Chrome recently deprecated NPN
https://blogs.dropbox.com/tech/2016/05/enabling-http2-for-dropbox-web-services-experiences-and-observations/
Tools that might help you understand more
https://www.flickr.com/photos/99783447@N07/9431062947
Wireshark
chrome://net-internals
https://github.com/rmurphey/chrome-http2-log-parser
http://webpagetest.org
Shows pushed resources
in Chrome & Firefox tests
Balancing HTTP/1.1 & HTTP/2
https://www.flickr.com/photos/kyletaylor/589628071
Some good practices remain constant across HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2
Shrinking content - compression, minification, image optimisation
Reducing re-redirects
Effective caching
Reducing latency e.g. using a CDN
Reducing DNS lookups and TCP connections
Others need to vary to make the most of each
Replace inlining with server push
Reduce CSS/JS concatenation and image spriting
Avoiding sharding
HTTP/2 combines connections for shards
When:
Refer to same IP address
Use same certificate (wildcard, or SAN)
But… how well does this work in the field, with complexities of Global Load Balancing etc?
HTTP/2 combines connections for shards
When:
Refer to same IP address
Use same certificate (wildcard, or SAN) DNS lookup, but
no new TCP connection
or TLS negotiation
But… how well does this work in the field, with complexities of Global Load Balancing etc?
No content until DNS, TCP and TLS negotiation complete
Efficient TLS is still important
Session Resumption, Certificate Stapling and improvements in TLS v1.3 all help
Efficient TLS is Important
istlsfastyet.com www.ssllabs.com/ssltestBulletproof SSL and TLS
Ivan Ristic
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mariachily/3335708242
Still plenty of challenges…
Use of Third-Parties is still growing
Requests by Domain
Bytes by Domain
W3C Resource Hints should help
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href=“//example.com”>
<link rel="preconnect" href=“//example.com”>
<link rel="preload" href=“//example.com/font.woff” as=“font”>
If you want to learn more…
hpbn.co/http2 http://daniel.haxx.se/http2
Go explore!
http://www.flickr.com/photos/atoach/6014917153
http://www.flickr.com/photos/auntiep/5024494612
@andydavies
andy.davies@nccgroup.trust
http://slideshare.net/andydavies

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