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The atmosphere
What would the Earth
be like without the
atmosphere?
Can those people who
planned to live in the
Have you experienced
boarding an airplane?
Do you know what
layer of the
 the layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.
 Earth's atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21%
oxygen, and one percent other gases.
 Atmos – vapor
 Sphaira – sphere
 Extends up to 1100 kilometers above the Earth’s atmosphere.
 Also rotates with the Earth.
The atmosphere
The atmosphere
- lowest portion of the atmosphere
- extends up to 9-16 km above the sea level
- where greater percent of the air mass is located
- Most of the things we see around us are in the troposphere.
- Weather patterns occur only here.
- Height of this layer depends on the temperature.
- Temperature decreases at the rate of 5.5 for every 1000 ft altitude.
- Tropopause separates the troposphere from the stratosphere.
The atmosphere
- second layer extends up to 5 km
- contains the ozone (O3) layer that protects the Earth from excessive
UV rays from the Sun.
- Jet planes usually fly in this region because of the absences of
clouds and weather disturbances.
- Temperature at the lower part is constant but increases slightly with
altitude in the tropical regions.
- At the ozone layer, the temperature increases rapidly.
- Stratopause separates the stratosphere from the next layer.
The atmosphere
- extends up to 8 km
- In this region, temperature suddenly increases, but as the altitude
increases, there is a sudden decrease in temperature.
- This layer contains the D-region of the Ionosphere where molecular
oxygen and atomic oxygen releases electron due to incoming solar
radiation.
- Mesopause is the transition zone above the mesosphere.
The atmosphere
- Extends from 80 km-640 km
- At 400 km, the temperature rises to 1.200oC
- Air is extremely thin
- UV rays, X-rays, and shower of the electrons from the sun ionizes
several layers of the atmosphere that makes them conduct electric
current.
- These layers reflect radiowaves of certain frequencies back to earth.
- Radio and television satellites are found in this regions.
- The E-layer [Heaviside or Kennely - Heirsed Layer] reflects
radiowaves of lower frequencies.
- The F-layer [Appleton Layer] reflects higher frequencies radiowaves.
- It contains the F1 and F2 layers.
The atmosphere
- extends from 600 km to the
outermost part of the
atmosphere
- The air is very thin that the air
molecules seldom collide.
The atmosphere
 Atmosphere is divided in two regions: ozonosphere and ionosphere.
 Ozonosphere – consists of the troposphere until the ozone layer.
 Ionosphere – consisting of the mesosphere until the exosphere.
- beautiful colorful curtains in the sky we call auroras (Aurora
Borealis in the Northern sky and the Aurora Australis in the southern sky) are
found in this region. These are believed to be electrical discharges in the
ionized air. The two auroras are sometimes referred to as the northern and
southern lights.
The atmosphere
The atmosphere
- continuous mixing and movement of air masses consisting of the
well mixed nitrogen and oxygen gases, are found from the bottom
of the atmosphere, close to the ground up to about 90 km.
- Except for the ozone layer that envelops the Earth at around 30 km
above sea level.
- Prefix homo means “the same”
The atmosphere
- there is no mixing of gases
- The gases separate in layers where atomic oxygen tends to be at
the bottom being the heaviest gas.
- This is followed by helium and hydrogen, the lightest gas tends to
settle in the outermost part.
- Prefix hetero means “variable or different”
 The sun’s rays reach the earth on the form of solar
radiation.
 transfer of heat energy in waves through
space.
 It supplies the Earth with heat and light
that will sustain life.
 3 types of the spectrum of rays affect us.
 Visible light 80%; UV rays 4%; and
infrared rays 16%
 100% that enter the Earth’s atmosphere,
about 30% is reflected back to space by
the clouds. About 70% is absorbed.
 reflecting power of an object.
 Scientists use the term albedo to
describe the percentage of solar
radiation reflected back into space by
an object or surface.
 A perfectly black surface has
an albedo of 0 (all radiation is
absorbed). A perfectly white surface has
an albedo of 1.0 (all radiation is
reflected).
 absorbing power
 70% insolation, about 20% is absorbed
by the clouds and the remaining 50% is
due to the Earth’s surface.
 The atmosphere is heated twice, first
from the direct heat from the Sun as it
enters and the second is from the
reflected rays by the Earth.
 As the air is warmed, it expands and
results in convection currents.
 These result in changes in the
environmental conditions affecting
weather and climate.

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The atmosphere

  • 2. What would the Earth be like without the atmosphere? Can those people who planned to live in the
  • 3. Have you experienced boarding an airplane? Do you know what layer of the
  • 4.  the layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.  Earth's atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and one percent other gases.  Atmos – vapor  Sphaira – sphere  Extends up to 1100 kilometers above the Earth’s atmosphere.  Also rotates with the Earth.
  • 7. - lowest portion of the atmosphere - extends up to 9-16 km above the sea level - where greater percent of the air mass is located - Most of the things we see around us are in the troposphere. - Weather patterns occur only here. - Height of this layer depends on the temperature. - Temperature decreases at the rate of 5.5 for every 1000 ft altitude. - Tropopause separates the troposphere from the stratosphere.
  • 9. - second layer extends up to 5 km - contains the ozone (O3) layer that protects the Earth from excessive UV rays from the Sun. - Jet planes usually fly in this region because of the absences of clouds and weather disturbances. - Temperature at the lower part is constant but increases slightly with altitude in the tropical regions. - At the ozone layer, the temperature increases rapidly. - Stratopause separates the stratosphere from the next layer.
  • 11. - extends up to 8 km - In this region, temperature suddenly increases, but as the altitude increases, there is a sudden decrease in temperature. - This layer contains the D-region of the Ionosphere where molecular oxygen and atomic oxygen releases electron due to incoming solar radiation. - Mesopause is the transition zone above the mesosphere.
  • 13. - Extends from 80 km-640 km - At 400 km, the temperature rises to 1.200oC - Air is extremely thin - UV rays, X-rays, and shower of the electrons from the sun ionizes several layers of the atmosphere that makes them conduct electric current. - These layers reflect radiowaves of certain frequencies back to earth. - Radio and television satellites are found in this regions.
  • 14. - The E-layer [Heaviside or Kennely - Heirsed Layer] reflects radiowaves of lower frequencies. - The F-layer [Appleton Layer] reflects higher frequencies radiowaves. - It contains the F1 and F2 layers.
  • 16. - extends from 600 km to the outermost part of the atmosphere - The air is very thin that the air molecules seldom collide.
  • 18.  Atmosphere is divided in two regions: ozonosphere and ionosphere.  Ozonosphere – consists of the troposphere until the ozone layer.  Ionosphere – consisting of the mesosphere until the exosphere. - beautiful colorful curtains in the sky we call auroras (Aurora Borealis in the Northern sky and the Aurora Australis in the southern sky) are found in this region. These are believed to be electrical discharges in the ionized air. The two auroras are sometimes referred to as the northern and southern lights.
  • 21. - continuous mixing and movement of air masses consisting of the well mixed nitrogen and oxygen gases, are found from the bottom of the atmosphere, close to the ground up to about 90 km. - Except for the ozone layer that envelops the Earth at around 30 km above sea level. - Prefix homo means “the same”
  • 23. - there is no mixing of gases - The gases separate in layers where atomic oxygen tends to be at the bottom being the heaviest gas. - This is followed by helium and hydrogen, the lightest gas tends to settle in the outermost part. - Prefix hetero means “variable or different”
  • 24.  The sun’s rays reach the earth on the form of solar radiation.
  • 25.  transfer of heat energy in waves through space.  It supplies the Earth with heat and light that will sustain life.  3 types of the spectrum of rays affect us.  Visible light 80%; UV rays 4%; and infrared rays 16%  100% that enter the Earth’s atmosphere, about 30% is reflected back to space by the clouds. About 70% is absorbed.
  • 26.  reflecting power of an object.  Scientists use the term albedo to describe the percentage of solar radiation reflected back into space by an object or surface.  A perfectly black surface has an albedo of 0 (all radiation is absorbed). A perfectly white surface has an albedo of 1.0 (all radiation is reflected).
  • 27.  absorbing power  70% insolation, about 20% is absorbed by the clouds and the remaining 50% is due to the Earth’s surface.
  • 28.  The atmosphere is heated twice, first from the direct heat from the Sun as it enters and the second is from the reflected rays by the Earth.  As the air is warmed, it expands and results in convection currents.  These result in changes in the environmental conditions affecting weather and climate.