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Designing.Packaging.Branding.
THE ART & SCIENCE
OF
PACKAGING
mini
encyclopedia
Bright Media
Corporation
SCAN ME
© 2021 by Bright Media Corp.
Digital Edition published in 2021
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form
without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book
have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists
concerned, and no responsibility is accepted by producer, publisher, or printer
for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of
this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately
comply with information supplied. We apologize for any inaccuracies that may
have occurred and will resolve inaccurate or missing information in a
subsequent reprinting of the book.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often
claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book
are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor
mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and
authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on
the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional
services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the
services of a competent professional should be sought.
First Digital published in the www.creativeprintpack.com/resouces by
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Plot No. 106 & 107, Sri Rama Layout,
Subash Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad - 500055
Telephone: (+91) 040 - 42210199
Phone: (+91) 91333 95 810
Another book on package design? This one is different, we promise. This
book is about all the lessons we’ve learned in over a decade of experience
designing a wide variety of packages. But this is also about our peers, the
designers and strategists who create thoughtful packaging solutions with
style, panache, and ingenuity in engineering. We wrote this book because
we’re passionate about this part of our CPP studio practice and we’re
continually inspired by the work being done in this sector of our industry.
We see this book as a resource for young packaging designers or for
veterans looking to expand their expertise. And, of course, we are thrilled
to feature some of our favorite clients and many of our admired
colleagues.
Package design is perhaps the most evolutionary corner of the entire
design industry. While most disciplines swing to the ebb and flow of
trending color, type, styles, etc., package design has a literal and
figurative z-axis that is the physical form itself. Combined with rapid
advancements in materials, and a greater understanding of the
psychology of purchasing, we could argue that packaging is the most
engaging and challenging work out there for designers.
On the following pages you will find curated project case studies with
behind the- scenes anecdotes, technical details, perspectives from
different packaging designers and vendors, and lessons learned. (Ahem,
there’s also a lot be learned from packaging mishaps or unforeseen
obstacles in manufacturing. We’ve included these stories as well, with a
few words of advice, in hopes that you will avoid the same costly
mistakes.)
While we certainly won’t claim this to be the definitive guide for package
design, this book intends to put some real case studies before you that
solve real-world problems. We hope you find the book resourceful,
entertaining, inspiring and, duh, well-designed. Let’s get started!
Expert Words
Packaging, the only brand medium experienced
100 percent by consumers, provides a higher ROI
than any other branding strategy.
- Kondaiah Chowdary P
Managing Director,
CPP Group, India
 ANCIENT PACKAGING – 01
 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PACKAGING – 03
 THE FIRST CARDBOARD BOX – 06
 PACKAGING IN THE LATE 1800S : EARLY 1900S – 07
 THE FIRST CARTON – 08
 THE FIRST CEREAL BOX – 08
 MODERN PACKAGING – 10
 1890s, 1900s, 1910s BUILDING BRAND IDENTITY – 11
 PACKAGING SHAPE AS AN IDENTITY – 12
 1920s, 1930s, 1940s: THE ERA OF “SILENT SALESMAN” – 12
 SHIFTING SHOPPING BEHAVIOR : PIGGLY WIGGLY – 13
 INCREASING VISUAL APPEAL : FLEXOGRAPHY – 14
 1950s, 1960s, 1970s: Convenience As The Motivation – 15
 MEDICINES IN BLISTER PACKS : ENOVID – 17
 Explosion of the Toxins : Plastics -17
 1980s, 1990s, 2000s: The Rise of Digital – 18
 HISTORY SECTION
CONCLUSION – 19
……………………………………………………………………………………GOOD WORDs
Packages are brands that you trust enough to take into your home. We are
continually comforted and cajoled by packaging shapes, graphics, colors, messages,
and containers. The shelf is probably the most competitive marketing environment
that exists. From new brands to extending or revitalizing existing product lines,
considerations of brand equity, cost, time, and competition are often complex.
Packaging design is a specialty, and it routinely involves collaboration with industrial
designers, packaging engineers, and manufacturers. In the food and pharmaceutical
industry, it is regulated by the government. Package design is only one part of the
puzzle involved in a product launch. Timetables include packaging approval and
production, sales force meetings, manufacturing and distribution, and advertising.
1
THE HISTORY OF PACKAGING
The need to contain, store, and transport materials has been around since
the early days of humanity. However, overtime, packaging has transformed
from simply fulfilling a need to becoming integral to a brand’s messaging as
well as consumer experience.
Let’s take a moment to step back in time and observe the major
technological advancements throughout history that shaped the packaging
industry into what it is today.
Early Packaging
Packaging, as a concept, grew out of the basic need for early humanity to
store and transport their food from place to place.
While there is no record of when the first packaging materials were used,
historians believe that during the nomadic hunter/gatherer days, materials
such as leaves, animal skins, nuts or gourds were used to store and
transport items.
2
Ancient Egyptian Packaging Techniques
In Ancient Egypt, glass was costly and regarded as a precious stone typically
reserved for royalty. However, it was this obsession with glass that
eventually lead the Egyptians to discover glass blowing technology of which
could mold glass into containers for food and water storage. This ancient
glass was not transparent however -- that wouldn’t be discovered for
another 500 years.
Ancient Chinese Packaging Techniques
Ancient China is credited for inventing flexible packaging due to their
innovations in developing paper – i.e. the oldest example of flexible
packaging.
Historians believe that in the first or second centuries, the Chinese began to
use treated mulberry bark to wrap foods. In later centuries, when the
Chinese perfected their paper-making techniques, paper also began to be
used for packaging items such as medicine and parcels of tea.
3
Medieval Packaging
The middle ages saw a rise in popularity in using wooden barrels and
wood boxes as storage and transportation devices. Barrels were
typically used for travelling across oceans to store items such as rum,
dried food, and fresh water.
Fast forward to the Industrial Revolution: this era (starting from about 1760-
1840) gave way to major technological advancements, as the demand for
better quality packaging increased. This demand for quality was fueled by a
sudden surge in new products that were now available for the masses to
consume. However, it should be noted that many of the packaging materials
that arose in this era were expensive; meaning that the use of these
materials were typically reserved for storing and transporting luxury goods.
Industrial revolution created a sudden demand for better products as trade
flourished and more goods became available to consumer. Since materials
were expensive, packaging was limited to luxury goods only. The period during
and after WWI saw a remarkable number of packaging innovations like molded
glass, cardboard boxes, metal cans, and cellophane that made packaging
commonplace. This pushed manufacturers to establish an identity to sell to
consumers.
The Great Depression marked the rise of supermarket culture and it drastically
changed distribution and consumption patterns worldwide. This behavioral
4
change of self-service model called for packaging to assume the role of a
‘silent-salesman’.Post WWII consumerism enjoyed the conveniences offered
by the single use-and-throw materials that heralded with the discovery of
aluminium foil, and plastics.
The rise of digital technologies in later half of 20th century allowed businesses
to scale rapidly and become global. With unprecedented competition,
packaging came to be the way of differentiating product on the shelf. As much
as packaging has become essential to the business, it is also recognized as a
threat to the environment. And hence much research continues not just to find
new materials, but also to find optimal and sustainable solutions.
In last couple of decades, advances in personal computing, and mobiles have
significantly transformed consumer behavior and thus their expectations. With
access to information every time, everywhere, they value engaging
experiences that provide a utility or novelty. Since the birth of barcodes, many
digital technologies have continually been tested to bring reforms to retail
experiences. And once again product packaging is at the center of these
developments.
With the rising notion of the Internet of Things, coupled with advances in
mobile computing, RFID, Augmented Reality, and Biosensors, we are at the
tipping point where delightful digital experiences will position product
packaging as an ESP or Emotional Selling Point.
Here are some of the more notable packaging advancements that occurred
during this era:
5
Napoleon’s Food Preservation Prize (1795)
In 1795, Napoleon offered a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who could
invent better methods of food preservation. This push for innovation was
due to Napoleon needing to find a way to feed his army who was in the
midst of a war.
However, it wouldn’t be another 15 years until this prize was claimed by a
man named Nicolas Appert. Nicolas Appert, also known as the father of
canning, invented a method to preserve food for an extended period of time
by boiling then sealing food in airtight glass containers. We still use this
method today with canned foods!
The Rise of Tin (1810)
In 1810, Peter Durand, an Englishman, patented the use of tin-coated iron
cans instead of bottles to preserve food. Over the next 20 years, tin would
become one of the most popular packaging materials for packaging things
like cookies and tobacco.
6
 In 1690, first paper mill in the U.S. was built near Philadelphia. At that
time paper was hand-made out of parchment and rags, both of which
were expensive and limited in supply.
 In 1796, Lithography was invented Alois Senfelder in Munich. This
enabled printing of black-and-white illustrations on printed labels. One-
color lithographed or letterpress labels were widely used on glass
bottles, metal boxes and early paperboard boxes. Color printing or
chromolithography was invented in 1837 and became popular soon after
manufacturers realized its potential.
 First paper making cylinder machine was installed in 1817 by Thomas
Gilpin in Delaware used to make paperboards and other forms of paper
used in packaging. This gave birth to ‘flexible packaging’. Mechanization
made paper plentiful but cost limited its use until paper could be made
commercially from wooden pulp in 1850s. The invention of paper bag
making machine in by Francis Wolle in 1852 further pushed use of paper
in packaging.
Though cardboard itself had been invented several hundred years earlier in
China, the cardboard box wasn’t created until 1817 by Sir Malcolm
Thornhill. Note: these boxes weren’t corrugated yet, that wouldn’t be
7
invented until 1871. Cardboard boxes were popular among silk
manufacturers to transport moths and eggs from Japan to Europe.
The First Paper Bag-Making Machine
(1852)
Several years after the first commercial
paper bags were created in 1852, an
American inventor Francis Wolle invented
a machine capable of mass-producing
paper bags. He spent a lot of time in his
father’s grocery store to help customers
carry stuffs from their shop.
Note: the paper bags back then didn’t
exactly look like what we’d think of as
paper bags today – they resembled large
mailing envelopes.
In 1871, an American, Margaret E. Knight designed another machine that can
produce flat-bottom paper bags. The machine eliminates the envelope and V-
shape-bottom-making machine, and we can put many things into the paper
bag in our arms or hands.
In 1883, an American, Charles Stilwell invented a machine that can produce
square-bottom paper bags with pleated sides making them easier to fold and
store.
In 1912, an American, Walter Deubener used cord to reinforce paper bags and
add carrying handles.We can slip the bags over our arms with much more stuff
and get better shopping experience.
The normal Kraft paper bag, it can hold even up to 8kgs , easily to be folded
and stocked, and the paper bag handle allow us to slip the bags over our arms.
Now we can find this kraft paper bag everywhere, like many shopping bag and
take-out bag, but do you know the evolution of it?
Most inventions are refined over time by myriad people, and these four people
play the most important roles in the paper bag machine’s evolution. Thanks for
these four inventors, We can enjoy the convenient and happy shopping, we
can use the biodegradable, environmental and recycled paper bag instead of
8
the plastic bag. As we know, the plastic bag will cause irreparable white
pollution. They contribute the protection of the world and the convenient of
our daily life.
Francis Wolle, Margaret E. Knight, Charles Stilwell, Walter Deubener play very
important part in the evolution of paper bag machine. The paper bag machines
they made contribute the protection of the world and the convenient of our
daily life.
Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series:
Boxes. Photograph courtesy Alison Oswald.
Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer developed the first carton by accident! Gair
was the owner of a paper bag company. One day, one of Gair’s machines
malfunctioned by slicing through (rather than creasing) a stack of paper
bags. It was then that Gair realized that cutting and creasing cartons in one
operation could make prefabricated cartons.
The Kellogg brothers, known for the invention of Corn Flake cereal in 1877,
began using cardboard to distribute and market their cereal as early as
1906. Initially, the cereal box was wrapped in a heat-sealed bag, with the
cereal loose on the inside of the box. Eventually, however, a plastic bag was
placed inside of the cereal box to contain and protect the cereal.
9
The Invention of Cellophane (1908)
Jacques E. Brandenberger, a Swiss Chemist, is credited for the invention of
cellophane after he decided to create a cloth that wouldn’t absorb liquids.
His original formula was created using wood cellulose. In 1912,
Brandenberger built a machine to manufacture cellophane film.
Cellophane had a major impact on the packaging industry as its
transparency made it the material of choice for wrapping in the 1950s and
1960s. Cellophane also laid the foundations for plastic packaging in the
following years.
10
The Invention of Saran Wrap (1933)
The discovery of polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), what saran resins and films
are made of, was discovered accidentally by Ralph Wiley in 1933. Wiley was
a lab worker at Dow Chemical who was responsible for cleaning the lab’s
glassware. One night, Wiley came across a vial he couldn’t scrub clean. He
originally called the substance “eonite”, but the name was changed to Saran
by Dow Chemical’s researchers who then remade this substance into a dark
green film. This early iteration of saran was sprayed onto military planes in
order to protect them from the elements. Later, researchers were able to
remove saran’s green colour, which allowed it to be approved as a food
packaging material following World War II.
The Invention of Bubble Wrap (1957)
Bubble wrap was invented in 1957 by Sealed Air’s founders Al Fielding and
Marc Cavannes, but it was not first utilized as the protective packaging
material we know it as today. Initially, Fielding and Cavannes were trying to
create textured wallpaper by sealing two shower curtains together to make
air bubbles -- however, this interior decor trend didn’t take off. They later
decided to market the material as greenhouse insulation, though this
proved to be an unsuccessful endeavor as well.
Three years after bubble wrap was invented, Frederick W. Bowers (a Sealed
Air marketer), made a pitch to IBM to use bubble wrap as a protective
packaging material for their computers. The pitch went well and IBM began
purchasing bubble wrap for all of their fragile products.
The Invention of the Pop Tab (1959)
The pop tab was invented by Ermal Fraze, founder of DRT Manufacturing
Company. After forgetting a can opener at a picnic (also known as a church
key), Fraze embarked on a quest to design a can that didn’t need a separate
opener.
In the following years, after some trial and error, Fraze had finally
developed a can where the user only needed to pull a removeable tab to
access the drink. By 1965, over 75% of brewers in the U.S. were using
Fraze’s can.
11
In 1977, after pop tab waste began to increase, Fraze patented the pop tab
we use today – a push-in and fold-back tab.
The Invention of PET Plastic Bottles (1973)
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles were first patented in 1973 by
chemist Nathaniel Wyeth. At the time, these were the first plastic bottles
capable of containing carbonated drinks and they soon became the material
of choice for manufacturers who wanted a cheaper alternative to glass.
Packaging Today
With sustainability having become a major concern in recent years, today’s
packaging innovators are continuously coming up with new ways to reduce
the packaging industry’s impact on the environment. Recent eco-friendly
innovations such as biodegradable and edible packaging not only reflect the
state of our society today, but it also demonstrates the packaging industry’s
ability to adapt to the ever-changing needs and concerns of consumers.
With rising trade, the phrase “let the buyer beware” became popular since
inferior and impure quality products were disguised and sold to uninformed
customers by counterfeits. This posed serious threat to original manufacturers
and they began to mark their product with their identification to alert potential
buyers. But that was not sufficient, so manufacturers turned to use packaging in
innovative ways to establish their brand identity.
Branded Packaging — Uneeda Biscuit
In 1896, National Biscuit Company invested $1 Million in creating an identity for
Uneeda Biscuits to take on its rival Cracker Jacks.
Uneeda Biscuits were wrapped inside a waxed
paper liner inside a tray-style paper carton, and the
colorful brand-printed wrapper featured a boy in a
raincoat to emphasize the moisture barrier. This
allowed preserving biscuits for longer periods and
they can now be transported easily in a clean unit-
size package.
| Nabisco used a boy in yellow raincoat in its advertisements
and packaging cover of tin boxes to emphasize the moisture
barrier. Ever since 1896, the boy in a yellow raincoat has
become synonymous with Uneeda Biscuits. |
12
The Uneeda Biscuit package is often cited as the birth of consumer packaging
because of its widespread distribution and the dramatic effect that folding
cartons were to have on retailing business in the century to come. The carton
packaging also represented the power of brand advertising that relied on
packaging as a sales tool tied to an easily recognizable identity advertised in
magazines, and on the billboards.
In early 1900s, Coca Cola found that a straight-sided
bottle wasn't distinctive enough and that Coca-Cola
was becoming easily confused with ‘copycat’ brands.
Glass manufacturers were approached to come up
with a unique bottle design for Coca-Cola. The Root
Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, designed
with the famous contour shape, which won
enthusiastic approval from Coca-Cola in 1915 and
was introduced in 1916. The new bottle design
instantly became an integral part of the brand
identity and is today one of the most recognized
icons in the world — even in the dark.
| Coca-Cola ad featuring the unique bottle design to promote the drink.
The bottle was an integral part of the brand identity until 1970s. Even
today, the shape of the bottle is synonymous with the brand.
Source: Adflip |
More innovations during this period:
 1890 — Michael Owens invented first
automatic rotary bottle-making machine. Suddenly, glass containers of all
shapes and sizes became economically attractive for consumer products,
and from the early 1900s until the late 1960s glass containers dominated
the market for liquid products.
 1894 — Thompson and Norris produced the first double-faced
corrugated boxes that prevented material from stretching during
transportation. Corrugated boxes played an essential role in developing
mass distribution throughout the 20th century.
In the early part of the 19th century, retailers played an important role in
making a trade happen. Food items were sold in loose, and needed wrapping
and weighing. This meant that consumer had to wait while their orders were
made up. But the rise of cheap and clean packaging solutions had solved this
problem to a large extent and retailer’s role in facilitating a trade started to
13
marginalize. This allowed for huge retail chains to come in where products were
displayed on the shelf, and consumer themselves had to make a purchase
choice. The big chains had a price advantage, and were slowly gaining
momentum.
But immediately after The Great Depression, supermarkets became a dominant
force and marked a major shift in the consumer behavior. Manufacturers once
again turned to product packaging to be the silent salesman — differentiating
from competition and affecting a sale.
| Interiors of a Piggly Wiggly store in Kentucky in 1920s. Piggly Wiggly was the first true self-service grocery
store founded in Memphis, Tennessee in 1916. Source: Ipernity.com |
Shifting Shopping Behavior — Piggly Wiggly
Clarence Saunders’ Piggly Wiggly stores are widely credited with introducing
self-service shopping chain in U.S. in early 1920s. Consumers were given
shopping baskets and asked to pick what they needed. This was a little
bewildering, but the 4.5%-14% price advantage made it an immediate success.
The rise of automobiles fueled its growth further as housewives could now
travel miles to get the deals.
14
After the Depression hit U.S. economy in 1929, a sharp demand for low prices
encouraged chains like Kroger, A&P, Safeway and others to open giant
superstores that offered everything under single roof at very prices up to 14%
lower than most chains.
| Print ads in magazines promoted the idea of Self-service as the modern way of shopping. |
Increasing Visual Appeal — Flexography
Most packaging till this period leaned on distinct typographic treatments to
create a visual identity. Due to limitations of letterpress printing, product
packaging could only be embraced with illustrative painted imagery to define
the contents, it was not truly an interpretation or an honest impression of the
product contents. It was after the invention of aniline printing technology in
late 1920s that packaging materials afforded visual information with a higher
degree of accuracy, reproducing impressions of actuality realistically. The
aniline printing used aniline dye on rubber blocks and the technique allowed
printing on any kind of substrate including corrugated boards, milk cartons,
paper bags, folding cartons and metallic films. This technique later on came to
be known as Flexography, and is now the default for package printing.
15
More innovations during this period:
1920s — Nutritional value of canned foods gradually approached that of the
fresh product. For consumers, the choice between fresh or canned food
increasingly became a question of taste, preference, and convenience.
1924 — DuPont bought licensed exclusive rights to make and sell Cellophane in
U.S. The cellophane sheet was a clear, transparent protective layer wrapped
over primary packaging, to prevent product from moisture and extend its shelf
life.
1931—Aluminum foil was packaged in appropriate sizes and thicknesses, in
both rolls and sheets a decade after first aluminium foil laminated carton was
produced. It started being used as an institutional wrap primarily for use by
hotel, restaurant, and hospital kitchens.
1930s and 1940s — The years preceding World War II, amidst a climate of
escalating industry consolidation, were also a time of tremendous innovations
for synthetics like vinyl, ethylene, and acrylic. U.S. government massively
invested in building industrial infrastructure for this new sector. And these
innovations lead to discovery of PVC, Nylon, Teflon, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,
each of which transformed several industries and heralded the rise of Plastic
Age in years to follow.
1950s, 1960s, 1970s: Convenience As The Motivation
Post World War II, U.S. experienced massive economic growth over next three
decades as its gross national product grew more than nine times the value of
$100 billion in 1940. During the time, even the poorest Americans were affluent
compared to world standards. As a result of this, everyone was able to afford
most luxuries available at the time. This lead to an exuberant growth in
consumerism, and everyone wanting to have a modern and convenient
lifestyle.
Most development of the moldable metals and plastics, happened much earlier
than this period, but its exploits were primarily limited to military use. But after
WWII, the consumer market exploded with the continuous innovations in
aluminium and plastics. Owing to mega efforts of giants like DuPont, Dow
Chemicals, and the likes — shinier, sturdier, cleaner, more flexible, and modern
looking materials were available at cheaper price compared to traditional
materials. This provided impetus to re-invent existing packaging solutions and
plastics and metal cans took over majority of consumer packaging, while paper
was limited in use and glass reserved for high value products only.
16
| Many see the TV Dinner as an icon of American culture. It represents a moment when pre-processed, pre-
cooked food was still novel. It also symbolizes shifting definitions
of “meal time,” and our nation’s enthusiastic embrace of the television. |
Convenient Lifestyles — Swanson TV Dinners
Soon after invention of aluminium foil in 1954, Swanson introduced TV Dinners
that offered busy consumers, the conveniences of pre-processed foods
requiring minimal preparation. The original dinner tray was made out of
aluminium, carved into three compartments to neatly house frozen foods. The
frozen dinner could be heated in an oven and easily consumed. TV Dinners
17
fulfilled two post-war trends: fascination with television, and lure of time-saving
modern appliances. While these trends encouraged buying behavior,
disposable or use-and-throw packaging materials became increasingly
acceptable.
Medicines in blister packs — Enovid
In 1957, when Enovid was introduced to treat menstrual disorders and
infertility, the idea of medicine pills was born. In 1960, the same pills were
rebranded and repackaged in blister packs as oral contraceptive pills. The
unique blister pack was conceived initially as an aid to patient compliance. The
popularity of “the Pill” created a new market for pharmaceutical companies.
For the first time, healthy women would be taking medication for an extended
period of time. The advanced Enovid-E Compack packaging from 1976, had 20
pills in a blister pack with days of the
week written around the rim of a plastic
case as a ‘memory-aid’ to assist women in
tracking their daily pill regimen. The styled
cases also allowed pills to be discreetly
carried in bags and purses. Continuing the
trend, pharmaceutical companies
developed unique packaging in order to
distinguish their product from those of
their competitors and build brand loyalty.
Explosion of the Toxins — Plastics
DuPont and Dow Chemicals heralded the
rapid rise of plastics as they were used for
textiles, tires, toys, paints, electronics,
and as packaging material, affecting all
aspects of life. Alan Pendry captured the
versatility of plastics in his award winning
short film The Shape of Plastics, in 1962.
| G. D. Searle and Company of Chicago, Illinois, produced
this Enovid-E brand oral contraceptive in 1976. The 20-pill
blister pack is in a trademarked Compack plastic case. The
days of the week are written in gold around the rim of the
Compack, with three pills descending to the center under
each day except Friday, which has only two pills |
18
While the widespread use of
plastics made a lot of economic
sense, its environmental effects
were soon apparent. In absence
of regulations, it was difficult to
keep a check on manufacturers.
U.S. government passed
National Environmental
Protection Act in 1970 and form
EPA as an authority to tackle
environmental issues and form
necessary regulations.
More innovations during this
period:
1950 — Polyethylene was
invented to be used as cable
shielding material, but soon it
outgrew its original use and was
used to make products such as
food and garbage bags,
packaging films, and milk
containers. In less than a
decade, the demand for PE grew from 5 million pounds to 1.2 billion pounds at
the end of 1960.
1960 — Reynolds and Alcoa made all-aluminium cans out of one piece of metal.
This solved the problem of weights of cans, now only a lid needed to be
attached. This provided impetus for invention of rip-off closure and the pop-top
lids on aluminium cans.
1977 — Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE) invented as material for beverage
packaging is today one of the most commonly used plastics.
1980s, 1990s, 2000s: The Rise of Digital
This era was marked by the rise in computing abilities and the evolution of
printing technologies as a result. Digital printing technologies, coupled with
innovative transactional capabilities provided an unprecedented speed of
execution and rapid scaling of business became possible.
| This hideous advertising from DuPont reflects consumer
aspirations at the time and the deep impact of Cellophane.|
19
While the growing fascination with plastics
lead to innovation in packaging shapes and
materials, it meant other materials like
paper and glass found themselves limited
in its use for packaging. This widespread
adoption of plastics paved way for use-
and-throw behavior, and non-
decomposable packaging waste became
primary constituent of landfills as a result.
In early 2000's, EPA created stringent laws
for businesses to control and reduce
environmental impacts. As a result, finding
sustainable materials and optimizing waste
became a prime agenda, heavily
influencing the package design. Now a
days, it is a business imperative to reduce
the amount of packaging for products not
just for its financial benefits, but the
emotional connect it offers for consumers
— making them feel good about their choice.
Rise of Barcodes
Barcodes have existed since 1950s, but the first commercial U.P.C. scanner was
installed in 1974 at a Marsh’s supermarket in Troy, Ohio and the first product to
have a bar code included on packaging was a packet of Wrigley’s Gum. Since
then, barcodes have become the default checkout processing technology and
have revolutionized the retail industry. While barcodes made supermarkets a
convenient place to be in, they also hastened the demise of public markets and
independent grocery stores.
History Section
Conclusion by CPPian
Aaron L. Dennison (1812-1895), a Boston watchmaker and jeweler, and his
brother Eliphalet Whorf (E.W.) Dennison (1819-1886) were early contributors
to the manufacturing of set-up boxes in America for jewelry items. The
Dennison’s sought to mechanize the process of set-up boxes and, “worked out
the first paper-box machine, which was promptly set to work.” (Minson, page
25). Their company, Dennison Manufacturing Company, founded in 1844,
expanded under the leadership of E.W. Dennison to include other paper goods
such as merchandise tags, crepe paper, and wrapping paper. By 1860 more
box-making plants were emerging in America and those manufacturers
| Cover of Mad Magazine April’78 issue highlighting
the emergence of UPC Barcodes|
20
developed specialized equipment to speed production and reduce costs.
Mechanization only increased the demand for boxes and the folding carton, a
more efficient type of box for packing and shipping goods emerged on the
market.
Advertisement, Robert Gair Company, undated. Warshaw Collection of
Business American, Series: Paper Products (AC0060-0003110)
Attributed to a factory mistake, the folding carton came on the scene in 1879,
courtesy of the Robert Gair Company of Brooklyn, New York. Founded by
Robert Gair (1839-1927), an inventor, printer, and paper manufacturer, Gair’s
folding box, “would be the ‘fit survivor’ to the set-up box” (Bonner, page 595)
and was enthusiastically received by the paper industry and consumer.
According to an issue of Gair Today, in 1879, a machinist working for Gair,
“allowed a rule on his printing press to stand up a little too high. It cut neat,
but ruinous slits through several thousand paper seed bags before the mistake
was discovered. Gair deliberately and experimentally raised the whole pattern
of metal strips too high and saw his press cut out the perfect pattern of a
folding box.” There is no evidence that the process was patented in 1879, but
this observation by Gair and his implementation of the process helped the
packaging and merchandising industries by ushering in a box cut from a single
piece of paper.
In 1891, Matthew Vierengel, a “practical machinist,
inventor and draughtsman” in New York assigned his
patent (US 463,849) for a machine for making plaited
boxes or similar articles to the Robert Gair Company.
Viergenel’s intention was, “first, to form a blank into a
box, cup, cap, or similar article and fold or gather the
sides of the same into plaits by one operation;
secondly, to transfer the article after being formed
and platted to edging, pressing, and embossing dies,
so that the successive operations shall be performed
on the article automatically.”
Using less paper, the folding carton was shipped in its
folded state, saving on shipping and storage
costs. Items formerly packed in tin or wood could now
be packed in paper that offered similar strength
and protection.
Gair held several utility and design patents for boxes.
| Advertisement, Robert Gair Company,
undated. Warshaw Collection of Business
American, Series: Paper Products
(AC0060-0003110) |
21
In 1893, he patented a sample box (US 493,921) “usually made from a blank
cut-out of a single piece of paper, card board or other material and folded up
and secured by glue, cement or other adhesive.” In 1894 his paper box (US
519,451), “related to that class of boxes, which are formed from a blank cut in
a single piece from paper, card or straw board and like materials and arranged
to be set up and secured by causing the end flaps to engage slots in the turned-
in portions of the sides.”
| Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Boxes. (AC0060-
0003103-06) |
| Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Boxes. Photograph
courtesy Alison Oswald. |
22
After seeing the prototype, we felt
compelled to make Bolchini’s prism-shaped
box. Following his pattern of folds, and with
some minor adjustments, we
succeeded. We’ll gladly share our boxed
up collections.
| Souvenir coal box, undated. Lehigh Coal and Navigation
Company Records. Photograph courtesy Alison Oswald.|
 THE ART OF PACKAGING – 23
 PACKAGING EVOLUTION – 24
 THE POWER OF PACKAGING FOR THE BRAND – 26
 BRAND IMAGE PARADIGM – 26
 PACKAGING'S ROLE KEEPS CHANGING – 27
 MEASURING PACKAGE DESIGN'S RETURN ON INVESTMENT – 29
 THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PACKAGE DESIGN – 35
 CREATING THE RATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL CONNECTION - 36
 BRAND STORY – 38
 CREATING REAL AND LASTING CLIENT-TO-CUSTOMER
CONNECTIONS – 39
 PACKAGING DESIGN TEAM JOURNEY – 41
 THE VALUE OF PACKAGE DESIGN – 43
 WORKING WITH….. BIG BRANDS VS. SMALL BRANDS – 46
 SHELVING, DESIGNED TO SELL – 48
 WORKING WITH A BUDGET – 50
 PRIMARY + SECONDARY PACKAGING – 51
 BRAND REFRSH – 54
 BRAND FORCE – 55
 MAKE IT GIFTABLE -56
 PACKAGING - METRICS FOR ISOLATED TOUCHPOINTS – 57
 PROCESS: PACKAGING DESIGN - 57
 PACKAGING TRENDS – 58
 THE SIX KEYS TO SUCCESS– 60
 SIX PURPOSES OF PACKAGING – 62
 PACKAGING PROJECT KICKOFF MEETING QUESTIONS – 64
 CREATING EFFECTIVE SHOPPING SYSTEMS – 66
 PACKAGE PRODUCTION: LOOKING BACK AND LOOKING AHEAD
– 66
 HOW TO READ A DIELINE – 69
 QUALITY CONTROL OF PRODUCTION ART/FINISHED FILE – 70
 PRINTING PROCESSES – 73
 PACKAGING BASICS -76
23
ICONIC ASSETS OF THE BRAND
We at guide and train strategical packaging
concepts for our designers that is also informative to the many other
professionals involved in the process, providing understanding and value for
all. Packaging requires the expertise of many disciplines: marketing, strategic
planning, research, psychology, art, industrial design, graphic design, logistics,
engineering, production, manufacturing, distribution, and retailing to name
just a few. This complexity means package design doesn’t happen in a vacuum.
Many factors influence a final piece, and our strategical packaging concepts
reflect that truth as we take you on the creative journey to successful
packaging.
With the fragmentation of
traditional advertising, due mainly
to the overwhelming number of
media delivery options, more
companies are looking to a
product's package to deliver the
brand message to consumers
directly. After all, every package is
seen by 100 percent of a brand's
consumers. As a result, the retail
experience is in a constant state of
evolution as brands and products
are continually positioning
themselves in new and innovative
ways.
As cultures evolve, so does the
visual language that expresses this
moment in time. As concept-
oriented packaging designers, we
are creators and adopters of new
aesthetic paradigms, shaping and
molding human information. It has
been proven in case study after case
study in product categories from
computers to soda that great design
sells. If you look at these success
stories closely, as we do in this
book, you'll see that design is
always founded on innovative
positioning and solid, consistent
Now more than ever, packaging has a huge opportunity to prove itself as a
brand's most valuable consumer touch point. For designers, it's a time of
newfound awareness of the power of design. This attention brings with it
responsibilities for each of us to present and represent our talents in ways
that build and establish permanence to design's valued role in business.
24
brand strategy. This is what we
mean by art plus science in
packaging: the ability to take
sophisticated research and analysis
and convert it to visually stimulating
design. This collaboration of
opposite’s rational science with
emotional, artistic thinking-can and
does make for unpredictable
situations and solutions. How we
manage them, and who is in charge
of the process, can seriously affect
the product outcome.
We analyze the steps and processes needed for success-from the preparation
of strategic briefs through creative development to prepress and completion-
every step has its purpose and value. During the creative journey, we give
examples that provide inspiration as well as templates for your own triumphs.
Companies assessing package design firms look beyond creative talent; they
seek designers with a real ability to understand human behavior and target
consumers in a compelling, fresh, and entertaining way.
-. Kacharagadla,
Packaging Expert | Sr.CPPian
CREATIVE PRINT AND PACK
In today's market, we could
broaden our definition of packaging
to include the packaging of entire
brands, not just specific products.
Leading companies such as Target,
Nike, Whole Foods, and Starbucks
are brands whose packaging
extends to the entire retail
experience. For them, the idea of
packaging goes beyond the
container to the total package of
the store. This is a real brand
experience. And it is the packaging
of this brand experience that allows
us to become enchanted and
entertained. Consumers connect on
a whole new level with the
complete concept of packaging.
What we consider a package
something that holds, protects, and
stores its contents-occurs naturally,
as in the protective covering of a
banana, the cocoon of a butterfly,
and an oyster, with its hidden
treasure. These all perform the
functions of a package.
Humankind's creative curiosity has
led to the adoption of many of
nature's examples. In 100 B.C., the
Chinese used sheets of treated
mulberry bark to wrap food.
Containers made from clay, shells,
animal skins, and leaves functioned
as they did in nature. As societies
and cultures grew, communication
and clarity became important;
therefore, icons and words began to
grace the surface of containers.
Evolving over time from basic utility
to marketing vehicle, the simple
25
package has become complex. It still
functions, of course, but now it's
made from a host of high-tech
materials and has taken on
unconventional forms and shapes. It
features delivery systems such as
pull tops, self-cooling devices,
biodegradable inks, and date codes
that change color when expired. All
of these innovations improve and
expand on the functionality of the
package while giving the
manufacturer an edge over its
competition.
Even the term packaging has
evolved, from package (a container)
to packaging (a container that has
written communication about its
specific contents). This
transformation occurred in the
nineteenth century and segued into
the development of brands.
Branding has grown to become the
most important marketing tool,
with packaging as its most ardent
companion. The evolution of
packaging has played an important
role in the advancement of
humankind. Today many of us take
for granted how products are
brought to the shelf and how they
are manufactured and packaged to
protect against damage or spoilage.
We now live in a society that looks
beyond the functional aspects of
packaging to how it makes one feel,
look, and speak. Image has become
the driving force behind packaging
and branding. From utilitarian
function to emotional billboard, the
package now serves two masters: It
hosts the brand, and it entices the
potential buyer through inviting
graphics and entertaining visuals.
The functional qualities of
packaging are seen through
distinctive delivery systems of
convenience and portability.
Packages must keep up with
consumers' changing lifestyles.
26
In the mid-1900s, manufacturers saw the value in developing marketing
strategies for their products. Many changed their focus and developed brands
and packages with such effectiveness that consumers saw them as one and the
same. What was Coke without its bottle? Or ketchup without the Heinz label?
Or Campbell's soup without the red label? Some products became so
synonymous with their brand names that their names were the very words
used to describe the entire category of competitors-Thermos, Kleenex, Band
Aid, and Pop-Tarts, to name a few.
Increased Competition
Brand image was developed in the early 1960s as a way to further differentiate
products from their increasing competition. Packaging was, and still is, the
perfect communication vehicle to showcase brand image. In today's cluttered
marketplace, packaging continues to evolve and become even more
sophisticated. Research shows that different brand images delivered via
packaging appeal to different consumer demographic segments. Market
research into consumer behaviors, along with demographic and psychographic
analysis, is all used to position brands and refine product packaging. The
resulting designs catch consumers' eyes. Packaging can be so strong that it
makes a brand instantly recognizable.
Does the package live up to
the brand image?
CONSIDER THIS:
a) 75 percent of a purchase
decision is made at the
shelf.
b) 100 percent of your
buyers see the package.
No other form of
communication can claim
such impact.
27
Packaging design is an exciting field that
continues to evolve. More than just devices
those enclose and protect products for
distribution, storage, sale, and use, packages
work hard to attract and convince consumers to
purchase. The role of packaging continues to
grow and change. New innovations in materials,
manufacturing, and printing are developed as
technology advances in the marketplace in
response to changing consumer needs and
lifestyles. Watch for packaging to take on
additional responsibility in marketing to
consumers.
More and more brand managers and marketers
are recognizing the strong effect great
packaging can have on purchase intent. Not
surprisingly, we see store brands or private-label
products embracing new trends and taking risks
Packaging Preferences
Let’s face it, consumers today are a
moving target. Marketers get only a
few seconds to attract them, hold
their attention, and tum casual
browsers into serious buyers. Many
factors contribute to maneuvering
consumers into a retail
environment, but once they are
there, ifs the job of packaging to
prompt sales. A package not only
delivers the product to the
consumer, it brings the consumer
to the brand.
Here are ways design can affect
consumer's preferences:
• Attract the eye with greater
impact on the shelf.
• Cause the belief that a product is
better than its competitors.
• Provide clear and relevant
information.
• Appeal directly to the senses.
• Link consumers to communities.
28
more readily than the large global brands. This has given rise to consumers
involving themselves with store brands more often, as they feel the packaging
is entertaining and engaging. Knowing that design has made the difference is
something all designers can use to argue in favor of using package design as an
effective tool that can help boost the bottom line. Because corporations have
seen how creative packaging and brand identity have positively impacted the
sales and growth of certain products, design is now being considered a real
player in marketing. Designers must step up and articulate their designs'
results, not just talk about the wonderful aesthetics, in order to capture these
new opportunities.
Advertising
Advertising is public
communication, paid for and
controlled by a brand that is
distributed via a variety of media
delivery methods, including
television, radio, movies, the
Internet, newspapers and
magazines, and outdoor vehicles
like billboards and bus shelters. Its
primary role is to draw attention,
spark awareness, and create desire.
Promotions
With a primary goal of furthering a
brand's popularity, promotions can
be "above the line," by
communicating paid messages
through the media, or "below the
line," by means of sponsorship,
product placement, endorsements,
and public relations. Promotions
also work to increase sales, boost
acceptance, enhance brand image,
and create trial.
Packaging
Packaging is primarily the containing device for products, but it also works as
part of the marketing mix of tools by delivering graphic communications and
brand messages along with the product itself directly into the hands of the
buyer. It delivers the brand idea.
29
An interview with , Managing Director of Creative Print
and Pack (CPP), Hyderabad, Telangana. India.
BRANDING, PAPER PACKAGING DESIGNS RELATED
Q Shall we discuss about branding, paper packaging designs?
A. Yes. We will…
Q. What is your and your company background?
A. We have over 25 years’ experience in package industry, and I'm the
Managing Director of Creative Print and Pack, a concept-oriented print and
packaging firm. We are the world’s first concept-oriented print and packaging
company, started in 2007. We do manufacturing Paper Hang Tags, Barcode
Tags, Mono Cartons, Corrugated Boxes, Rigid Boxes, PP/PET Boxes, Paper
Shopping Boxes and other branded packaging materials
Q. What do you focus on in your ideology about package design and
patterns?
A. With our concept-oriented package pattern’s play preeminent role in
communicating the brand's core identity, its emotional essence, and its
primary connection to consumers. We've shown that, if brought into the
strategic marketing process early and given the chance to set the visual
platform for all brand communications, our package patterns can affect
unprecedented results.
Q. Hasn't it always been advertising that leads the way, not packaging?
A. We believe package design and patterns are the single most sales-effective
and cost-efficient marketing tool. Many corporations have elevated the term
package design to brand identity design. Smart corporations are taking
advantage of the increased role packaging can play in their brand's success.
Good packaging can promote a fantastic level of interest in a product. It can go
beyond loyalty; great packages can create brand advocates. It is the single
most compelling vehicle a marketer can use to connect with consumers- 100
percent of a product's buyers interact with its package.
Q. Are corporations recognizing the power of package design and patterns?
A. Many corporations still don't engage in brand identity until well after brand
strategy has been established, and only a precious few actually validate results
that brand identity generates. Because packaging designers have talked to
their clients' executive management in terms of creativity and not process,
30
they are not addressing an audience that believes, "If you can't measure it, you
can't manage it." As designers, we need to start speaking about return on
investment (ROI) when we talk about packaging.
Q. Is packaging ROI possible?
A. Yes, We are confident that ROI is real and measurable. We've done it at our
Creative Corrugated Box LLC in conjunction with statisticians from CPP Lab for
some of our clients. Unfortunately the results are confidential, so I can't share
specifics, but we have been able to obtain empirical proof of a design's direct
impact on the bottom line. Handled properly, this information points directly
to design's value. We are working on bringing our methodologies into industry
wide practice.
Q. What are some of the ways packaging designers can talk about a
quantifiable ROI?
A. Talk about efficacy. Research shows that well over two-thirds of consumer
product purchase decisions are made at point of sale. In some categories ,
impulse purchasing at shelf accounts for 85 percent of sales. It is quite evident
that brand identity and package design drive this all-important dynamic. In
terms of recall, also known as "brand equity" cross-category studies show that
in unaided awareness tests consumers remember more about the package
than they do about advertising or promotions. Hundreds of equity studies
confirm that consumers recall the color of a package first, the shape or
structure second, and the style of a brand's logo third. This proves the most
recognized components are design-related. Also address impressions. One
hundred percent of a brand's current and potential audience is exposed to a
product at retail when encountering its package. A package's influence
continues well after purchase is made.
Q. Can packaging ROI really be measured?
A. It's an evolving concept. In the past, measurements have been largely
subjective. As we move forward, technology will allow corporations to track
data from all aspects of a product's lifecycle. We will be able to look at various
data from inventory through sales and analyze the impact of whole brand
communication programs to evaluate ROI. It's definitely something creatives
and brand experts agree would be very useful in the fight for the budgets and
resources needed to optimize the brand identity process.
Q. What does the future hold for brand identity and ROI?
A. In the end, it's all about brand identity being involved in the first five
minutes of marketing, not as an afterthought. Packaging Designers need to
understand the marketing process and how their decisions affect their client's
31
business. Clients need to understand that brand identity design belongs as the
cornerstone of all their marketing efforts.
Q Shall we discuss about your firm procedure, you know like pricing,
processing and dispatches?
A. Yes.
Q. How do we receive a quote?
A. The best and quickest way to get a quote, you should accurately provide the
following details:
1) Product Specifications
2) Box Dimensions
3) Type of Material (Folding Carton, Corrugated, Rigid or tag)
4) Quantity of boxes
5) Location
6) Image reference link or attachment (helpful but not necessary)
7) Other details (if needed)
You will typically receive your quote within 1-2 business days after submission.
Q. Do you have price breaks?
A. Generally higher quantities will always result in lower cost per unit pricing.
Please submit a quote or consult one of our Product Specialists for more
details.
Q. What is the process of getting my boxes made?
A. Our general custom box process typically consists of:
Specification & Project Consultation
1) Quotation
2) Payment
3) Pre-press
4) Sampling and/or Production
5) Shipping & Fulfillment.
STRUCTURE RELATED
Q. What types of boxes do you manufacture?
A. We offer a wide range of box options such as paperboard (folding
carton), corrugated and rigid boxes with fully customizable options.
Q. How are dimensions measured?
A. Generally, measuring a box for packaging is based on the inner
dimensions of the structure. This guarantees your product will fit properly
32
within the box regardless of stock thickness.
If you are looking to duplicate a box and provide outer dimensions.
Q. What is a dieline and why is it important?
A. A dieline is the template/outline needed for the design/artwork of the box.
It is essential to the cutting and creasing process giving the appropriate
information to our machines to precisely cut and fold areas where needed.
Q. Can we order multiple artworks with the same type of box
simultaneously?
A. Yes! This is typical in many packaging production projects.
PRINTING RELATED
Q. What is CMYK and why is it important for printing?
A. CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta Yellow and Black. These colors are used for
generating print outputs. Before boxes are sent for printing, it is important that
the artwork (on illustrator) is converted from RGB to CMYK Not converting the
color mode will result in color variance between what you see on your display
compared to the final product
Q. How do I place my artwork in the dieline?
A. You can check out Creative Print and Pack's Step-by-Step Artwork
Preparation Guide on how to place your artwork onto our dieline templates.
Q. What is the requirement for the artwork before production?
A. You can refer to the General Artwork Guidelines for the required instruction
needed for box printing.
Q. Can I print on both sides of the box?
A. Definitely! We are able to print on the outside (1-side) and the inside of
boxes (2-side). Extra fees apply.
Q. What is PMS and does it require extra cost?
A. The PMS (Pantone Matching Color) is a standardized color matching system
that ensures accuracy according to a specific type of color and is coded
through a numbering system (also known as Pantone). It widely used in
packaging, printing, fashion, graphics and interior design. Yes , PMS colors do
add to the cost of printing.
Q. What are additional processes?
A. Additional Processes refers to elements you can add to give your packaging
even more brand personality. We Offer:
 Window Patching,
 Embossing,
 Foil Stamping,
 Special Diecut,
33
 Drpp off UV  Spot UV
Q. What print coatings do you offer?
A. We provide several types of coating from AQ & UV to Lamination. Speak
with one of our Product Specialists to learn more!
PRODUCTION RELATED
Q. How can I save on shipping with very large orders?
A. There are two ways you can save on shipping:
1) Minimize the size of your packaging and/or use standard structures
2) Consider sea shipping. It can take up to 40-60 business days.
Q. Where can you ship to?
A. We ship internationally, with minimal restrictions. To find out if your
country is eligible, please contact one of our Product Specialists.
Q. How do I get started with getting my boxes produced?
A. You can request a quote and get started by doing the following:
1) Providing your specifications in one of the product page
2) Sending us an email regarding your project
3) Giving us a call and speak to one of our product specialist
Q. What is the turnaround time for the project?
A. After artwork approval, we started further procedure.
 For custom sampling (New Product Development) Processing lead time-
from 5 to 7 business days.
 For folding carton & corrugated boxes processing lead time from 10 to
15 business days
 For rigid boxes processing lead time from 25 to 35 business days
Q. How can I get a sample?
A. We offer both existing and custom samples. For existing samples, you can
contact one of our Product Specialist to check if we have a similar box style in-
stock to send you as a sample.
For custom sampling, you will need to provide all the specifications needed,
along with a dieline with the artwork and then a product specialist will help
you get your sample produced. Production and delivery times will differ based
on the type of sample you require. Please contact one of our Product
Specialists for more details!
Q. Can I order separate artworks in one order?
A. Yes you can! More than one artwork in one production work is subject to
additional charges.
34
Q. What is the minimum order?
A.
 Our minimum order for paperboard (folding carton) and corrugated is
10000 units.
 Rigid boxes have a minimum of 10000 units.
 To take advantage of our lowest price, the suggestive minimum
for paperboard and corrugated are 10000 units & 15000 units
respectively
 For special requests, please check with marketing executive.
Q. How much is shipping?
A. Since all orders are custom, shipping costs will vary depending on many
factors.
Q. Do you offer rush order?
A. Rush orders may or may not be available for certain periods of time in the
year. Please speak to a Product Specialist for more information.
Q. What is the approval process before production?
A. The approval process before production consists of artwork approval by our
designer, by the client, CTP approval from production and 3D rendering (if
necessary)
Q. Where are you located?
A. Our Production units are located in Hyderabad; Marketing offices are
located in all metro cities in India and Agency offices located in North America
and Canada.
Q. What is prepress?
A. The prepress is the stage (or process) in which digital files are prepared for
the printing press. Prepress turnaround time typically varies depending on the
complexity of the project. It can take as quickly as several hours or several
days.
Q. How are boxes shipped?
A. Most of our boxes are shipped flat. Special structures, typically rigid box
styles, usually need to be shipped as they are.
35
SCIEN
AGE SIGN
Bridging the gap between business strategy and
design
There are two different ways to look at the packaging design process.
Packaging can be an afterthought as a means to an end: getting a product from
Point A to Point B. Packaging can also be an integral part of the new product
development cycle. One of these methods simply checks a box, while the other
brings about opportunities for massive cost savings and a transformational
customer experience.
When packaging is built into the foundation of the new product development
cycle, changes can be made to the product itself early on in its composition to
be compatible with the package. These changes can help reduce the cost of the
package after the product is in production. For example, by adding extra braces
to a product, such as a computer, it may not break as easily when dropped.
This means the product needs less protection during distribution. Rather than
considering packaging in a one-dimensional light, try thinking of packaging as
an integral part of the product. This can lead to great innovation and success.
However, when considered too late, it may no longer be possible to increase
the durability of the product, causing the price of packaging to skyrocket
unnecessarily. Therefore, it is obligatory to incorporate package design early
and often in the product design phase.
While thinking of package design early can help save costs, the mission of a
designer is multi-faceted. Once a product makes it safely from the
manufacturing site to the store, there is a great need for the package to be
attractive to possible consumers. A company can have the most efficient
packaging system in the world but be completely unsuccessful due to aesthetic
deficiencies. Any given grocery store has roughly 10,000 items on the shelves.
Of those 10,000, the average consumer notices only 100. As if the odds
weren’t stacked against the producer as is, consumers spend less than seven
seconds examining a package before making a purchasing decision. Quite
clearly, it is imperative that the design of the package encompass protective
36
features, but also look appealing to the target consumer. In order to
accomplish this goal, much like a scientist, a designer must analyze the trends
and wants of the perceived consumer and craft a design that will cause this
consumer to initiate a purchase.
It is incredibly tempting to look at packaging design from one angle. However,
any veteran packager will tell you the science of design and the aesthetics of
design are dependent variables. One cannot survive without the other, thus,
the importance of understanding packaging design as a whole.
If you eliminate the emotional guiding factors, it's impossible for people to
make decisions in daily life."
Every day, we are faced with making both rational and emotional decisions.
People are drawn to the rational because it is explainable, measurable, and
finite. However, rational thinking does not always play into consumer
behavior. Sometimes it's all about emotions. Whether you are a package
designer or a product marketer, it's critical to understand both the emotional
and the rational drivers that affect product success in the marketplace. To do
this, you must examine the influences of both the left and the right brain.
Right- or Left-Brain Thinking
Although the two sides of the brain are similar in appearance, the function of
each cerebral hemisphere is different. The left side governs linear reasoning,
rational and analytical thoughts, while the right side deals with holistic
reasoning, the emotional, and the artistic. This is a broad generalization, but
research does support the notion of specialized areas of brain function.
37
Apparently individuals do have a preferred method of approaching the world-
rationally or emotionally, using left- or right-brain thinking. By recognizing the
existence of "right-brained people" and "left-brained people," theory becomes
practice when objectives to satisfy both or either are woven into the design
process. This is especially significant in the early planning and strategy phases
of development.
Packaging Calls for Both
Design taps into both modes of thinking to make lasting connections with
consumers. Successful package design plays both sides of the fence by
integrating left-brain strategies with right-brain creative vision. Although these
two forces often seem at odds, in the hands of a skilled team, design provides
a balance that motivates purchase. A package can be pleasing to the eye while
offering precise product information, for example.
Effective design is a vital ingredient for building successful brands. Here, again,
the impact of both right-brain and left-brain factors is seen. All too often,
strategic issues, operational concerns, logistical tactics, and entrenched
marketing attitudes can overshadow design, cutting off its full potential to
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contribute to the bottom line. Design can be a powerful emotional language,
but it's also a highly effective means of clarifying and organizing messages.
That is why it is key to translate scientific knowledge, marketing research, and
other left-brained pursuits into unique right-brain solutions. The services of a
skilled package designer are not purely about creating a beautiful design;
they're about an intuitive understanding of what motivates consumers to
purchase a product or service.
“LET THE BRAND DO THE TALKING”
The brand story in 2021 will be an essential aspect, and it acts as the backbone
of the entire brand identity through packaging design. An excellent brand story
will focus on the central message in every visual piece of business branding.
Make sure of the brand positioning before building the brand story. Include
values, culture, what brand stands for and emotions which will evoke customer
desires. The un-boxing experience is also an upcoming trend which is part of
the brand story. The brand story will drive by data in 2021, which will include
customer’s preferences, desires and beliefs. Human brain processes image
60,000 times faster than data; text hence visualizes your brand story in the
mind of the audience through images as visually compelling stories will cut
through the clutter. Example: The Maggi brand of nestle have successfully built
their niche in the storytelling and conveyed brand messaging through various
campaigns such as “Me and Meri Maggi” focusing on everyday routine
storytelling.
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The coming year will not restrict un-boxing
experience up to e-commerce. Even offline brands
will focus on this as it’s the best way to surprise and
create a memorable experience with consumers. The
online retailers have a fewer point of contact to
provide pleasure compared to physical retailers;
hence, they will focus more on providing incredible,
memorable un-boxing experience and get profit also.
The year 2021 will break the myth of associating the
experience with only luxurious and premium
products; in fact, sometimes a simple note is enough
to thank or to bring a smile on the face of consumers.
The un-boxing experience will be a boom because all
companies are providing the same product with the
same quality, quantity what will differentiate your
brand over others includes “un-boxing experience”.
Examples: Brand can include a discount coupon, and
in passing, you favour the recurring purchase and loyalty to the user. You can
even offer an additional discount to the user who uploads their unboxing.
Using the Art and Science of Package Design
People are bombarded with countless marketing messages every day. With the
average retailer stocking 40,000 products, it's no wonder consumers have
learned to tune out and filter. Product parity and price competition have led
marketers to seek new directions for differentiation. Designers and their
clients are seeking new ways of communicating with and ultimately connecting
to consumers.
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Packaging keeps evolving, and so do the people who create and market the
products. Technology has changed how we work while retailing has changed
the way we buy packaging. Lifestyle and value shifts will always influence the
face of packaging. It is a reflection of our culture; it defines us, just as we
define it.
Brand Authenticity
Consumers are hypersensitive and
overexposed to design, so much so
that they are critical of its
manifestation. They involve
themselves with what keeps them
interested and entertained. Today
companies must be honest in their
endeavors because consumers are
skepti- 34 PACKAGE DESIGN
WORKBOOK cal. Issues of obesity,
health, nutrition, origin,
sustainability, freshness, and safety
are all critical concerns . While
packaging designers often want to
go simple to avoid visual clutter,
consumers want to learn more from
the package. Inherent to all
companies that produce a product
is the constant quest to innovate for
a competitive edge. To add value
and convenience, many companies
launch new brands or extend
established brands into an already
confusing marketplace. Once
introduced into the market, these
often fail to interest the consumer.
Was the product a bad idea? Or was
it poorly presented to the
consumer?
Consumer Behavior
Understanding how consumers
experience a brand and its products
is the secret to successful
marketing. After all, the brand is
more than a well-designed logo. It
has personality and an inherent
level of approachability. People
gravitate toward brands like they
choose their friends. This
connection requires more than a
pleasing aesthetic. A brand
designed to connect hits the
consumer on an emotional level.
The package may be silent, but
through design it triggers senses
and an emotional buying decision.
Packaging also must appeal to the
rational and factual requirements
consumers have, proving the
product is also the logical choice.
These connections are necessary
when launching a new brand or
invigorating one with a legacy.
Product Differentiation
Designers and marketers need to realize they are not just selling products; they
are telling stories through packaging. Package design is the visual expression of
the brand's soul. Used effectively, packaging can define, build, and entertain
consumers. However, to develop effective packaging that lives up to its
potential, both art and science must be considered.
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he team is the heart of any project. If the heart is
not pumping correctly, the body loses energy,
becomes fatigued and sluggish, and can die.
Having the smartest and most talented people on your
team is no guarantee of success.
Collaborative Discovery
Relationship is an ever-present word in our industry,
and for good reason. The packaging design process is
highly collaborative. Designers and clients are on a
journey of discovery together. For clients, the creative
journey is just as important as the final destination or
design solution. If they have a bad experience with your
team, even if they have a fantastic end product,
chances are you won't be hired again. Just as we speak
about brand experience within retail setting, our own
brand is viewed and evaluated the same way.
Client Designer Team
Whether you are a sole proprietor working with a small
client, a large design firm working with a Fortune 500
company, or an in-house design department working
with an internal marketing department, the relationship
between you and the client grows and is nurtured
through mutual respect. In each of these working
arrangements, team synergy is essential. First and
foremost, roles and responsibilities, along with team
objectives, must be set to form the foundation for ultimate success. All too
T
User Experience
The integration of graphic
user interface design and
physical product design is
converging more than ever.
The successful products
create a seamless integration
between the screen and the
device. Human interaction is
now embedded in many
products, and interface
design bridges the physical
and virtual divide. Clients are
requesting user interface
design at every turn, and our
designers excel in
understanding the user
experience.
At Creative Print and Pack,
our packaging experts are
concerned with the end user
experience, which guides the
overall look and feel of the
package. They work to
maximize the opportunity
available on major retailer
shelf space and improve the
billboard side of the package
for consumer convenience.
They defend your brand by
ensuring all graphics have
exceptional print quality for
better marketability and
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often, projects are started without these basic principles. Creative briefs are
lacking in ownable content, positioning is not unique, or the objectives are not
clear-all of which lead package design teams down blind paths.
With mutual goals intact, teams can work together to achieve great solutions.
Having bright talent that can look at problems from a variety of viewpoints is
imperative, but even more important is how well team members work
together.
Improving the Odds
If you have a dysfunctional team, it is virtually impossible to reach success. In
these situations, you need to look for ways to improve the team's dynamics. Is
the problem bad chemistry? Personality clashes? Understand that conflict can
be a good thing, as long as it's achieved with respect for others. Conflict can
lead to new creative ideas. Within any given team situation, each person must
understand the game plan for the project. Who is making the decisions? How
far do they want to push the project? This should be in the brief. The larger the
group, the more room there is for watering down a good idea. Designers must
keep the team on track by reviewing and clearly communicating objectives in
relation to the creative. Large or small, teams need good leaders with focused
goals.
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A broad array of talent, skill, and knowledge is required for the development of
any package. Many people and factors contribute to a product's success. The
chart, (left), identifies many of them. Marketers occupy a central role and
ultimately are held responsible for the success of a brand or product. They
must have a keen sense of timing, consumer insight, and intuition to launch or
revitalize products for their respective brands. Within a design firm, the
creative director plays a key role in fully understanding the brand and the
products it represents. He or she is the leader, guiding both client and design
teams to targeted solutions. The creative director must possess an innate
ability to evaluate consumer behavior, project goals, as well as applicable
aesthetic and cultural trends and the further ability to turn this knowledge into
creative solutions that are stimulating and effective for the market.
An Interview with Bheemesh Chowdary Kacharagadla, Director of Brand
Design, Creative Print and Pack (CPP), Hyderabad, Telangana. India.
Q. As the Senior Director of Brand Design, what is your role at CPP?
A. My role is two·fold. First, it is my responsibility to create or have the vision
for how design can influence the success of our clients brands. Secondly, for
each brand, my team and I are asked to identify what opportunities exist for a
specific marketing and design problem on a project-by-project basis.
Q. How do you view branding in its relationship to packaging?
A. Branding is the expression of a brand -how it appears and is expressed
across all the customer and consumer communication channels. One
application of that brand expression is on the package.
Q. In the marketing mix, what value does packaging play?
A. Every part of the marketing mix has value and is important. But the package
is the only vehicle that is considered alongside its competitors and is evaluated
by the consumer at the point when they use and experience the brand. It most
closely reflects the brand and what it stands for or promises.
Q. What makes a successful package design?
A. We believe there are four criteria that help to make a package successful:
First, it must be consistent with the brand positioning and what the brand
stands for-the design should express the brand story accurately. The second
aspect of a successful package is that the design is relevant to the specific
consumer the brand is targeting. Third, the package has to be clearly
differentiated from the other options available to the consumer. And lastly, the
design has to be well-integrated with the other communication vehicles. The
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brand will be expressed online, in advertising, in-store, etc, so a package is only
successful if it works effectively with these other communication vehicles in a
unified way.
Q. What do you see as the biggest challenge for designers?
A. The dynamics inside a corporate environment are very complex. There are
many priorities and a constantly shifting balance of demands. This dynamic is
the most difficult for us to communicate to our agencies and for the agencies
to truly understand. The result of this is agencies periodically have a hard time
adjusting to those shifting demands, leading the creative process in the context
of those challenges, and coming out the other end with a design solution that
meets the demands of the business.
Q. If you could change one thing within the branding and packaging industry
what would it be?
A. If I had that kind of influence, I'd like to see greater integration of what
happens on the package with the other customer and consumer
communication elements. I'd like to see the design for our brands be more
holistic and unified. When a brand is well integrated, then all elements are
more effective (including packaging) and the brand benefits more. Some of our
brands do an outstanding job of that. Others can do better.
Q. What is the single biggest obstacle you see with package design?
A. I think the environment that our brands compete in is very complex and
therefore filled with a variety of challenges. But one problem that we
consistently see is a lack of a strong creative vision. That vision must come
from the brand team, (my staff, marketing, R&D, etc), in order to stimulate the
creative process. When that doesn't happen, the effectiveness of the final
solution can suffer. On a more executional level, another challenge is the
desire and request to put too much information on our packaging. We typically
want to say many more things than the consumer is interested in hearing. The
result is the information that could influence their decision to buy a brand is
more difficult to find and, in fact, may not be seen. It is a classic example of
less is more.
Q. What is the biggest challenge facing your clients?
A. The need to understand the role of design and harness its power. Brands are
all about meaning that transcends mere commercial transactions. Clients need
to create products that are riveting, compelling, and instantly appealing. They
need design to help achieve this. The role of design is to tell rich stories, to go
beyond the decorative, enliven the senses, and captivate us all.
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Q. What role does research play in developing branding and packaging?
A. The right research is every designer's friend. Research that is more symbolic
and projective engages consumers, and they really tell you stuff. By activating
consumers' imaginations, we get research that is exciting, new, and highly
reflective. It tells us where a brand could go. It helps us see potential.
Traditional research tells us all about the familiar. Really new concepts seem
like crazy ideas and never gain acceptance or validation through old research
methods. The old protocols are definitely risk averse. In any case, research
should be used as a gut check and not dictate the final decision.
Q. In the marketing mix, what is the value of packaging?
A. Packaging is totemic. It encapsulates the essence of the brand and lets
people hold it in their hands. If branding is a story, packaging is the consumer
experience of that story. For many, the package is the product. They are totally
connected. Thus, I think package design should be more respected and valued.
Advertising casts a wide net to attract and appeal, but packaging closes the
deal. Design is in a transitional phase. More corporations are aware of design,
but they aren't all sure what to do with it yet.
Q. What makes a successful package design?
A. It is an object that is intriguing and compelling. It makes people love it and
pull it off a shelf. Good design reconnects us to our humanity by giving us
excitement and pleasure.
Q. What do you see as the biggest challenge for designers?
A. Designers need to keep talking about the power of design, how it is of
cultural significance; they should not just exist to support a functional,
transactional purpose. Designers should also be the ambassadors of green
thinking. They should address sustainability in a serious fashion for the good of
the planet and all humanity. Business, with the help of designers, should solve
the problem and be our salvation. It's a big challenge.
Q . What do you see as the biggest challenge for marketers?
A. Companies have got to transcend their concern for the bottom line.
Q. Being a forecaster, where do you see branding and packaging going in the
next five years?
A. We need to look at a longer time horizon and take a wider view. It's up to us
to embolden and push our clients. We need to encourage change and resist
fear.
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"You now have to decide what
image you want for your brand.
Image means personality.
Products, like people, have personalities, and they can make or break them in
the marketplace."
he fundamentals are the same, whether working for a large brand or a
small brand, but the complexity and risk associated with large brands can
alter the design development process. Large brands have established
equities and brand loyalties that represent a huge part of their income.
More Complexity
Understanding consumers' behavior, and how a particular brand integrates
into their life, is key to designing or identifying graphic changes for a design
revitalization, especially in a big brand. Once the proper evaluation and
observations have been done, a strategy can be developed. Working under
these analytical conditions is not for every designer. Different skill sets and
expertise are required when working on large brands. Specifically, designers
need to have a deep knowledge of branding and its effect on consumer buying
habits. To serve a megabrand, a design firm needs a team of experts dedicated
to evaluating trends and changes in the marketplace. These firms typically
offer services outside of design, including strategic planning, market research,
and brand analysis. As a result of the added complexity of large brand design
programs, design firms typically charge higher fees.
More Flexibility
Conversely, small brands, if not owned by large companies, are much more
adaptable, allowing them to reposition more quickly, and with less risk. Design,
in these situations, is used as a strategic tool. Small brands are more easily able
to capture new trends in the marketplace. Also, innovations in structure and
printing processes can be launched faster due to smaller volumes. Layers
within these organizations are much flatter, resulting in faster approval
processes, typically with fewer changes. The downside to working on a smaller
brand is often more limited budgets and lower compensation to the designer.
We see private-label or store brands taking advantage of big brands'
weaknesses through innovative design. Because of this phenomenon, we see
consumers becoming more engaged with their new fresh looks. The successful
T
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use of design as a point of differentiation is working to convince the big brands
that design is, indeed, a valuable tool.
Small Brand Issues
 Nimble, able to make changes readily
 May be an upstart in a category, having the ability to shake things up
 Less risk because of less brand equity, typically
 Low-volume manufacturing means high-unit cost per package
Big Brand Issues
 Often large, multinational corporations therefore, move more slowly
 May be the first in a product category, having considerable market share
 High risk due to considerable brand equity
 High-volume manufacturing means low-unit cost per package
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It is easy to kick back in the rarified air at your
computer screen and dream up fantastic package
designs. Then it happens. The product goes to
production, gets loaded onto pallets, and
somewhere an underpaid kid grabs your hard work
and throws it onto a shelf. Sideways. Of course, it
doesn’t always happen like this, but accommodating
imperfect circumstances is one of the most
important considerations when designing for the
shelf.
Target is well known for a process
known as “merchandising in
multiples” and the psychology
behind it. Essentially, a large rack
with many of the same item
conveys not only newness
(freshness in the case of giant stacks
of produce), but also provides a
giant billboard for the product.
Increasing the ease of quick
purchasing decisions is one key to
improving sales. Think about how
many times you have been
reminded that you are out of
detergent when faced with a large
display, conveniently located at
whatever height you are because
the entire shelf is a single product.
Target has the luxury of large
amounts of real estate that most
other retailers do not,
unfortunately. What you design
needs to convey the brand promise
and function quickly, and with a
single unit. No small task.
Eye movement recorders
examine how an individual views
packaging or shelf displays by
tracking eye movements. These
devices show when the subject
starts to view a picture, the order
in which the elements of the
image were examined and
reexamined, and the amount of
viewing time given each element.
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Another consideration that
designers typically overlook is the
“pay-to-play” nature of marketing
on store shelves. In its most basic
form (and there are many, many
iterations of how products get
placed and how much it costs) a
company will pay by the linear foot
for premium shelf placement. Small,
outward-facing packages with
increased depth tend to fare very
well in paid environments. The soft
drink twelve-pack is a prime
example of how to take advantage
of shelf depth while minimizing
linear feet.
Unique form factors are also critical
for differentiation among
commodity products. Even saying
“bag of Pringles” sounds wrong. In
fact, that package is so unique to
the category that most people
reference it only by product name
without mention of the carrier.
Rather than spread throughout the
chip section, they tend to be
stocked in their own area, further
reinforcing how a package can
establish a brand.
Now we have arrived at the
moment of truth: the package is
designed, production run complete,
the pick, pack, ship, and stock have
all gone down. There on the shelf
sits your finest work. But will
anyone buy it? A best practice we
regularly employ prior to this
moment is to comp and—we can’t
officially recommend this— either
through professional channels,
friends who own stores, or just
guerrilla style, stock a shelf with
fake product.
Why go through all this? Because
the psychology of purchasing is very
complex and nothing beats having a
little ethnographic research,
however small the sample size. Do
people stop?
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WORKING WITH A BUDGET
BUDGET ABOUT IT. We have all heard the pitch. It goes
something like this: “We really want to work with you guys on
this, but it cost so much just to get to this point that we just
don’t have the budget for expensive packaging.” Sound
familiar? There was a time that this type of project would
seriously grate on our creative mojo. After a while, however,
we learned to embrace the limitations of constrictive
production budgets and instead push the boundaries of what is
possible with fewer colors, pre-produced boxes, and
nontraditional or repurposed packaging vehicles.
Today, when we see someone
create meaningful packaging
with very little cost, we are
envious. It is easy to
appreciate a custom glass
bottle with twelve-color
printing, but a standard stock
bottle with amazing
typography on a simple label
can be just as effective, and
beautiful.
This brings us to the single
most important aspect of
budget design: typography.
Type is necessary, type is
cheap, and type can convey
legions about the product
positioning. We have done
one-color case design with
nothing more than a small
illustration of a map and loads
of carefully set type. To this
day, that design stands out in
the market, and we continue our relationship with the
company.
One of our favorite budget tricks is to look for neutral, mid tone
base materials for package design. A great mid tone allows two-
TIP
No matter your client’s
budget, always invoice new
clients 50 percent before
any work begins—no matter
how nice they may be. As a
company you need to retain
some leverage (e.g., holding
on to final files) until the bill
is paid. The law is not on the
side of the designer when it
comes to getting paid. This
is particularly important for
packaging projects, because
you often buy samples
during the design phase, as
well as materials and
supplies before and during
the production process.
Those costs shouldn’t be out
of pocket for the design
firm.
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color jobs to appear as three colors and allows
simple black and white to have enough contrast
to remain legible.
In some cases, such as clear glass or plastic
packaging, the product itself should be
considered a color to be worked with and taken
advantage of. Of course, this at times may also
be a detriment. We have seen all-natural blood
orange soda packaged in clear plastic bottles
only to have sunlight degrade the color of the
contents to something that would graciously be
described as deep tan, but in reality was more
akin to a bottle of turds. Even budget packages
need to take into account the requirements of
the product. One final thought about budgets:
Amazing work has been created with next to no
money, and complete crap has been created
with enormous resources. The sole difference is
the amount of thought the designer put into the
process, and last we checked, thinking was free.
By now we are all familiar with the “not intended for individual sale” that often
accompanies case-packed products. This little bit of lawyer copy is liberating to
designers who, ultimately, must satisfy the need for a product to be displayed
in an environment as personal as a home or office. Everything from hand soap
to honey on some level becomes part of the décor of the room or space they
occupy. When considered as “objects d’art,” there is not a lot of room for
ingredient lists, usage instructions, or lawsuit-protecting legalese. Dial soap
made an ease-of-use breakthrough with their foaming hand soap line, but just
as important was their decision to let a cardboard sleeve do the heavy lifting of
information dissemination while the container itself was kept, pun intended,
clean enough to display in a bathroom.
At the end of the day, the most refined environments would prefer to have
less branded clutter and more personal attention to detail, and combining the
functionality of the foaming soap with an austere form factor was a great way
to push design-o-philes into purchasing a disposable product for a room as
intimate as a bathroom.
TIP
For clients with smaller budgets,
the production budget should
form part of the initial brief. The
solution for The People’s
Supermarket was to create
branded sleeves and stickers
that could be used in
conjunction with existing
generic packaging. This provided
a low-cost solution for branding
and packaging. clients with
smaller budgets, the production
budget should form part of the
initial brief. The solution for The
People’s Supermarket was to
create branded sleeves and
stickers that could be used in
conjunction with existing
generic packaging. This provided
a low-cost solution for branding
and packaging.
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We recognize that creating a cardboard sleeve is not exactly
primo portfolio material, but in this instance the solution
was more about understanding at what point information
needs to be conveyed versus how the product will live in an
environment.
It is also important to note that providing a disposable
vehicle for the required information frees a package
designer to highlight interesting techniques in the product
itself. Yes, we are blurring the lines between what is a
product and what is a package, but the next few years will
be defined in part by those “package” designers that can
design a package to be as environmentally sensitive as
TIP
Doing an off-the-shelf
box for a conservative
market is challenging
because they aren’t
created very often, if at
all anymore. The design
team had to create a
memorable package
that was as cost-
effective as possible. To
do this, they met early
and often with the
manufacturers and
vendors to create
prototypes until they
found the most effective
use of the paper stock
and the production
costs.
53
possible. Sometimes this will take the form of adaptive reuse, ease of recycling,
as well as minimal material requirements. Designers will be able to take a seat
at the table of both product form factor and also the required “wrapping” that
works to satisfy the overly litigious environment we must consider when
making room available for large amounts of text. After years of attempting to
battle with attorneys whose sole function is to achieve absurd levels of legal
buffering at the expense of beautiful design, we have learned to accept the
ridiculousness of their requests and instead design around the unavoidable
onslaught of copy. If you are able to make the mental shift away from their
requests ruining your design, and instead provide an easily
recyclable/disposable option, the end result can be liberating, beautiful, and an
honest expression of your aesthetic intent.
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BRAND REFRSH
Command-R, Command Cash. When the
economic implosion sapped all of the R&D
money out of most companies, we noticed a
peculiar trend: repackaging and refreshing of
legacy brands. Over time we came to
understand that, in lieu of spending large sums
to launch products, companies were retooling
their packages to promote what was currently
moving product in a down economy.
Some companies even took advantage of
reduced competition to secure more shelf space and worked their packaging
systems to accommodate merchandising in multiples. Other firms moved to
address value propositions by noting (or inflating) the sense of scale with
packaged consumables. At the very least, this trend recognized that changing
the single most important conversion mechanism, the package, would be a
worthwhile investment. This goes double for those companies relying on fewer
products for the majority of their sales. This comes from the Pareto Principle, a
common rule of thumb in business where 80 percent of effects come from 20
percent of the causes—in this case 80 percent of the revenue comes from 20
percent of the products.
Just as ties and pant legs go from skinny to wide, so too, packaging needs to
maintain a sense of timeliness to retain consumer confidence. While retro
packaging has its occasional appeal, it is best kept occasional. Shoppers today
are influenced by an unprecedented amount of information hurled at them
through many different outlets. To stand out from the crowd, consider
consistency among brand offerings of the same category. A consumer
whipping through the beer aisle, inundated with countless craft beer brands, is
more likely to notice a company if there is some consistency of tone, color,
illustration, and typography. Perhaps that alone will be cause for pause, versus
the almost certain flyover of the overwrought, over described, text-heavy
design that seems to plague most craft beers. Without sounding curt, we
promise not to make a brewer drink our bathtub beer if they promise not to
make us use their bad-pun beer name and 2,500-word description of what
went into the bottle. It’s a good deal for everyone.
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Making a difference has become essential to building a brand. Consumers are
shopping their values, and businesses are rethinking their value proposition.
The triple bottom line—people, planet, profit—is a new business model that
represents a fundamental shift in how businesses measure success.
Sustainability touchpoints: where businesses can make a difference
Historically, the purpose of business has been to create shareholder value. The
new imperative integrates economic prosperity with protecting the
environment, and demonstrating care for communities and employees. For
many, sustainability will require radical innovation: retooling what they make,
how they make it, and how it is distributed. A new generation of companies
envisions sustainability as the core purpose of their brand promise.
Authenticity is critical. Social networks quickly broadcast brands that don’t
stand true to their promise.
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Compelling brand identity presents any company, any size, anywhere with an
immediately recognizable, distinctive professional image that positions it for
success. An identity helps manage the perception of a company and
differentiates it from its competitors. A smart system conveys respect for the
customer and makes it easy to understand features and benefits. A new
product design or a better environment can delight a customer and create
loyalty. An effective identity encompasses such elements as a name that is
easy to remember or a distinctive package design for a product.
GIFTED CHILDREN. Just like with children, we’re not supposed to have favorite
projects (or clients). But what designer doesn’t love the project that comes
along with that extra budget for special printing and production? Often these
projects fall into the “giftable” category—those packages that get extra-special
treatment because they are likely to be given as gifts.
The packaging becomes even more critical in these cases, and it’s often an
opportunity to use unique printing techniques or unusual substrates. And
consider this: gift package projects are also likely to carry a lot of emotional
baggage for the purchaser.
Does emotional baggage sound like too heavy a term? Consider this: in
essence, a gift represents the gift giver and creates an environment
whereupon the recipient will judge the giver based on what was given. Years
ago we worked with a theater company to help determine the appropriateness
of specific media types— stay with us, this is going somewhere. What we
accidentally discovered is that rarely do people go to the theater by
themselves, and the act of inviting another couple as guests (consider this the
“gift” of tickets) allowed those guests to judge their friends based on the
quality of the show they were invited to see. The interesting element to this is
that a negative experience discouraged further interaction not just with the
offending gift givers, but with theater itself. The lesson to be learned is that
while the surface of gift giving is goodwill, the quality of the gift, or at least the
perceived quality, is roughly equivalent to the relationship between giver and
receiver. Emotional baggage, indeed. So how do you create memorable, high-
quality, and emotional packaging decisions? Of course, the usual suspects
apply here: great typography, personality in messaging, and contemporary
color palettes. But there is one element that conveys so much more, and that
element is tactility. By tactility we mean more than just surface treatments,
but also weight and shape.
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging
The art and science of packaging

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The art and science of packaging

  • 1. Designing.Packaging.Branding. THE ART & SCIENCE OF PACKAGING mini encyclopedia Bright Media Corporation SCAN ME
  • 2. © 2021 by Bright Media Corp. Digital Edition published in 2021 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned, and no responsibility is accepted by producer, publisher, or printer for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately comply with information supplied. We apologize for any inaccuracies that may have occurred and will resolve inaccurate or missing information in a subsequent reprinting of the book. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. First Digital published in the www.creativeprintpack.com/resouces by Bright Media Corp Plot No. 106 & 107, Sri Rama Layout, Subash Nagar, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad - 500055 Telephone: (+91) 040 - 42210199 Phone: (+91) 91333 95 810
  • 3. Another book on package design? This one is different, we promise. This book is about all the lessons we’ve learned in over a decade of experience designing a wide variety of packages. But this is also about our peers, the designers and strategists who create thoughtful packaging solutions with style, panache, and ingenuity in engineering. We wrote this book because we’re passionate about this part of our CPP studio practice and we’re continually inspired by the work being done in this sector of our industry. We see this book as a resource for young packaging designers or for veterans looking to expand their expertise. And, of course, we are thrilled to feature some of our favorite clients and many of our admired colleagues. Package design is perhaps the most evolutionary corner of the entire design industry. While most disciplines swing to the ebb and flow of trending color, type, styles, etc., package design has a literal and figurative z-axis that is the physical form itself. Combined with rapid advancements in materials, and a greater understanding of the psychology of purchasing, we could argue that packaging is the most engaging and challenging work out there for designers. On the following pages you will find curated project case studies with behind the- scenes anecdotes, technical details, perspectives from different packaging designers and vendors, and lessons learned. (Ahem, there’s also a lot be learned from packaging mishaps or unforeseen obstacles in manufacturing. We’ve included these stories as well, with a few words of advice, in hopes that you will avoid the same costly mistakes.) While we certainly won’t claim this to be the definitive guide for package design, this book intends to put some real case studies before you that solve real-world problems. We hope you find the book resourceful, entertaining, inspiring and, duh, well-designed. Let’s get started!
  • 4. Expert Words Packaging, the only brand medium experienced 100 percent by consumers, provides a higher ROI than any other branding strategy. - Kondaiah Chowdary P Managing Director, CPP Group, India
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.  ANCIENT PACKAGING – 01  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PACKAGING – 03  THE FIRST CARDBOARD BOX – 06  PACKAGING IN THE LATE 1800S : EARLY 1900S – 07  THE FIRST CARTON – 08  THE FIRST CEREAL BOX – 08  MODERN PACKAGING – 10  1890s, 1900s, 1910s BUILDING BRAND IDENTITY – 11  PACKAGING SHAPE AS AN IDENTITY – 12  1920s, 1930s, 1940s: THE ERA OF “SILENT SALESMAN” – 12  SHIFTING SHOPPING BEHAVIOR : PIGGLY WIGGLY – 13  INCREASING VISUAL APPEAL : FLEXOGRAPHY – 14  1950s, 1960s, 1970s: Convenience As The Motivation – 15  MEDICINES IN BLISTER PACKS : ENOVID – 17  Explosion of the Toxins : Plastics -17  1980s, 1990s, 2000s: The Rise of Digital – 18  HISTORY SECTION CONCLUSION – 19 ……………………………………………………………………………………GOOD WORDs Packages are brands that you trust enough to take into your home. We are continually comforted and cajoled by packaging shapes, graphics, colors, messages, and containers. The shelf is probably the most competitive marketing environment that exists. From new brands to extending or revitalizing existing product lines, considerations of brand equity, cost, time, and competition are often complex. Packaging design is a specialty, and it routinely involves collaboration with industrial designers, packaging engineers, and manufacturers. In the food and pharmaceutical industry, it is regulated by the government. Package design is only one part of the puzzle involved in a product launch. Timetables include packaging approval and production, sales force meetings, manufacturing and distribution, and advertising.
  • 8. 1 THE HISTORY OF PACKAGING The need to contain, store, and transport materials has been around since the early days of humanity. However, overtime, packaging has transformed from simply fulfilling a need to becoming integral to a brand’s messaging as well as consumer experience. Let’s take a moment to step back in time and observe the major technological advancements throughout history that shaped the packaging industry into what it is today. Early Packaging Packaging, as a concept, grew out of the basic need for early humanity to store and transport their food from place to place. While there is no record of when the first packaging materials were used, historians believe that during the nomadic hunter/gatherer days, materials such as leaves, animal skins, nuts or gourds were used to store and transport items.
  • 9. 2 Ancient Egyptian Packaging Techniques In Ancient Egypt, glass was costly and regarded as a precious stone typically reserved for royalty. However, it was this obsession with glass that eventually lead the Egyptians to discover glass blowing technology of which could mold glass into containers for food and water storage. This ancient glass was not transparent however -- that wouldn’t be discovered for another 500 years. Ancient Chinese Packaging Techniques Ancient China is credited for inventing flexible packaging due to their innovations in developing paper – i.e. the oldest example of flexible packaging. Historians believe that in the first or second centuries, the Chinese began to use treated mulberry bark to wrap foods. In later centuries, when the Chinese perfected their paper-making techniques, paper also began to be used for packaging items such as medicine and parcels of tea.
  • 10. 3 Medieval Packaging The middle ages saw a rise in popularity in using wooden barrels and wood boxes as storage and transportation devices. Barrels were typically used for travelling across oceans to store items such as rum, dried food, and fresh water. Fast forward to the Industrial Revolution: this era (starting from about 1760- 1840) gave way to major technological advancements, as the demand for better quality packaging increased. This demand for quality was fueled by a sudden surge in new products that were now available for the masses to consume. However, it should be noted that many of the packaging materials that arose in this era were expensive; meaning that the use of these materials were typically reserved for storing and transporting luxury goods. Industrial revolution created a sudden demand for better products as trade flourished and more goods became available to consumer. Since materials were expensive, packaging was limited to luxury goods only. The period during and after WWI saw a remarkable number of packaging innovations like molded glass, cardboard boxes, metal cans, and cellophane that made packaging commonplace. This pushed manufacturers to establish an identity to sell to consumers. The Great Depression marked the rise of supermarket culture and it drastically changed distribution and consumption patterns worldwide. This behavioral
  • 11. 4 change of self-service model called for packaging to assume the role of a ‘silent-salesman’.Post WWII consumerism enjoyed the conveniences offered by the single use-and-throw materials that heralded with the discovery of aluminium foil, and plastics. The rise of digital technologies in later half of 20th century allowed businesses to scale rapidly and become global. With unprecedented competition, packaging came to be the way of differentiating product on the shelf. As much as packaging has become essential to the business, it is also recognized as a threat to the environment. And hence much research continues not just to find new materials, but also to find optimal and sustainable solutions. In last couple of decades, advances in personal computing, and mobiles have significantly transformed consumer behavior and thus their expectations. With access to information every time, everywhere, they value engaging experiences that provide a utility or novelty. Since the birth of barcodes, many digital technologies have continually been tested to bring reforms to retail experiences. And once again product packaging is at the center of these developments. With the rising notion of the Internet of Things, coupled with advances in mobile computing, RFID, Augmented Reality, and Biosensors, we are at the tipping point where delightful digital experiences will position product packaging as an ESP or Emotional Selling Point. Here are some of the more notable packaging advancements that occurred during this era:
  • 12. 5 Napoleon’s Food Preservation Prize (1795) In 1795, Napoleon offered a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who could invent better methods of food preservation. This push for innovation was due to Napoleon needing to find a way to feed his army who was in the midst of a war. However, it wouldn’t be another 15 years until this prize was claimed by a man named Nicolas Appert. Nicolas Appert, also known as the father of canning, invented a method to preserve food for an extended period of time by boiling then sealing food in airtight glass containers. We still use this method today with canned foods! The Rise of Tin (1810) In 1810, Peter Durand, an Englishman, patented the use of tin-coated iron cans instead of bottles to preserve food. Over the next 20 years, tin would become one of the most popular packaging materials for packaging things like cookies and tobacco.
  • 13. 6  In 1690, first paper mill in the U.S. was built near Philadelphia. At that time paper was hand-made out of parchment and rags, both of which were expensive and limited in supply.  In 1796, Lithography was invented Alois Senfelder in Munich. This enabled printing of black-and-white illustrations on printed labels. One- color lithographed or letterpress labels were widely used on glass bottles, metal boxes and early paperboard boxes. Color printing or chromolithography was invented in 1837 and became popular soon after manufacturers realized its potential.  First paper making cylinder machine was installed in 1817 by Thomas Gilpin in Delaware used to make paperboards and other forms of paper used in packaging. This gave birth to ‘flexible packaging’. Mechanization made paper plentiful but cost limited its use until paper could be made commercially from wooden pulp in 1850s. The invention of paper bag making machine in by Francis Wolle in 1852 further pushed use of paper in packaging. Though cardboard itself had been invented several hundred years earlier in China, the cardboard box wasn’t created until 1817 by Sir Malcolm Thornhill. Note: these boxes weren’t corrugated yet, that wouldn’t be
  • 14. 7 invented until 1871. Cardboard boxes were popular among silk manufacturers to transport moths and eggs from Japan to Europe. The First Paper Bag-Making Machine (1852) Several years after the first commercial paper bags were created in 1852, an American inventor Francis Wolle invented a machine capable of mass-producing paper bags. He spent a lot of time in his father’s grocery store to help customers carry stuffs from their shop. Note: the paper bags back then didn’t exactly look like what we’d think of as paper bags today – they resembled large mailing envelopes. In 1871, an American, Margaret E. Knight designed another machine that can produce flat-bottom paper bags. The machine eliminates the envelope and V- shape-bottom-making machine, and we can put many things into the paper bag in our arms or hands. In 1883, an American, Charles Stilwell invented a machine that can produce square-bottom paper bags with pleated sides making them easier to fold and store. In 1912, an American, Walter Deubener used cord to reinforce paper bags and add carrying handles.We can slip the bags over our arms with much more stuff and get better shopping experience. The normal Kraft paper bag, it can hold even up to 8kgs , easily to be folded and stocked, and the paper bag handle allow us to slip the bags over our arms. Now we can find this kraft paper bag everywhere, like many shopping bag and take-out bag, but do you know the evolution of it? Most inventions are refined over time by myriad people, and these four people play the most important roles in the paper bag machine’s evolution. Thanks for these four inventors, We can enjoy the convenient and happy shopping, we can use the biodegradable, environmental and recycled paper bag instead of
  • 15. 8 the plastic bag. As we know, the plastic bag will cause irreparable white pollution. They contribute the protection of the world and the convenient of our daily life. Francis Wolle, Margaret E. Knight, Charles Stilwell, Walter Deubener play very important part in the evolution of paper bag machine. The paper bag machines they made contribute the protection of the world and the convenient of our daily life. Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Boxes. Photograph courtesy Alison Oswald. Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer developed the first carton by accident! Gair was the owner of a paper bag company. One day, one of Gair’s machines malfunctioned by slicing through (rather than creasing) a stack of paper bags. It was then that Gair realized that cutting and creasing cartons in one operation could make prefabricated cartons. The Kellogg brothers, known for the invention of Corn Flake cereal in 1877, began using cardboard to distribute and market their cereal as early as 1906. Initially, the cereal box was wrapped in a heat-sealed bag, with the cereal loose on the inside of the box. Eventually, however, a plastic bag was placed inside of the cereal box to contain and protect the cereal.
  • 16. 9 The Invention of Cellophane (1908) Jacques E. Brandenberger, a Swiss Chemist, is credited for the invention of cellophane after he decided to create a cloth that wouldn’t absorb liquids. His original formula was created using wood cellulose. In 1912, Brandenberger built a machine to manufacture cellophane film. Cellophane had a major impact on the packaging industry as its transparency made it the material of choice for wrapping in the 1950s and 1960s. Cellophane also laid the foundations for plastic packaging in the following years.
  • 17. 10 The Invention of Saran Wrap (1933) The discovery of polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), what saran resins and films are made of, was discovered accidentally by Ralph Wiley in 1933. Wiley was a lab worker at Dow Chemical who was responsible for cleaning the lab’s glassware. One night, Wiley came across a vial he couldn’t scrub clean. He originally called the substance “eonite”, but the name was changed to Saran by Dow Chemical’s researchers who then remade this substance into a dark green film. This early iteration of saran was sprayed onto military planes in order to protect them from the elements. Later, researchers were able to remove saran’s green colour, which allowed it to be approved as a food packaging material following World War II. The Invention of Bubble Wrap (1957) Bubble wrap was invented in 1957 by Sealed Air’s founders Al Fielding and Marc Cavannes, but it was not first utilized as the protective packaging material we know it as today. Initially, Fielding and Cavannes were trying to create textured wallpaper by sealing two shower curtains together to make air bubbles -- however, this interior decor trend didn’t take off. They later decided to market the material as greenhouse insulation, though this proved to be an unsuccessful endeavor as well. Three years after bubble wrap was invented, Frederick W. Bowers (a Sealed Air marketer), made a pitch to IBM to use bubble wrap as a protective packaging material for their computers. The pitch went well and IBM began purchasing bubble wrap for all of their fragile products. The Invention of the Pop Tab (1959) The pop tab was invented by Ermal Fraze, founder of DRT Manufacturing Company. After forgetting a can opener at a picnic (also known as a church key), Fraze embarked on a quest to design a can that didn’t need a separate opener. In the following years, after some trial and error, Fraze had finally developed a can where the user only needed to pull a removeable tab to access the drink. By 1965, over 75% of brewers in the U.S. were using Fraze’s can.
  • 18. 11 In 1977, after pop tab waste began to increase, Fraze patented the pop tab we use today – a push-in and fold-back tab. The Invention of PET Plastic Bottles (1973) Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles were first patented in 1973 by chemist Nathaniel Wyeth. At the time, these were the first plastic bottles capable of containing carbonated drinks and they soon became the material of choice for manufacturers who wanted a cheaper alternative to glass. Packaging Today With sustainability having become a major concern in recent years, today’s packaging innovators are continuously coming up with new ways to reduce the packaging industry’s impact on the environment. Recent eco-friendly innovations such as biodegradable and edible packaging not only reflect the state of our society today, but it also demonstrates the packaging industry’s ability to adapt to the ever-changing needs and concerns of consumers. With rising trade, the phrase “let the buyer beware” became popular since inferior and impure quality products were disguised and sold to uninformed customers by counterfeits. This posed serious threat to original manufacturers and they began to mark their product with their identification to alert potential buyers. But that was not sufficient, so manufacturers turned to use packaging in innovative ways to establish their brand identity. Branded Packaging — Uneeda Biscuit In 1896, National Biscuit Company invested $1 Million in creating an identity for Uneeda Biscuits to take on its rival Cracker Jacks. Uneeda Biscuits were wrapped inside a waxed paper liner inside a tray-style paper carton, and the colorful brand-printed wrapper featured a boy in a raincoat to emphasize the moisture barrier. This allowed preserving biscuits for longer periods and they can now be transported easily in a clean unit- size package. | Nabisco used a boy in yellow raincoat in its advertisements and packaging cover of tin boxes to emphasize the moisture barrier. Ever since 1896, the boy in a yellow raincoat has become synonymous with Uneeda Biscuits. |
  • 19. 12 The Uneeda Biscuit package is often cited as the birth of consumer packaging because of its widespread distribution and the dramatic effect that folding cartons were to have on retailing business in the century to come. The carton packaging also represented the power of brand advertising that relied on packaging as a sales tool tied to an easily recognizable identity advertised in magazines, and on the billboards. In early 1900s, Coca Cola found that a straight-sided bottle wasn't distinctive enough and that Coca-Cola was becoming easily confused with ‘copycat’ brands. Glass manufacturers were approached to come up with a unique bottle design for Coca-Cola. The Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, designed with the famous contour shape, which won enthusiastic approval from Coca-Cola in 1915 and was introduced in 1916. The new bottle design instantly became an integral part of the brand identity and is today one of the most recognized icons in the world — even in the dark. | Coca-Cola ad featuring the unique bottle design to promote the drink. The bottle was an integral part of the brand identity until 1970s. Even today, the shape of the bottle is synonymous with the brand. Source: Adflip | More innovations during this period:  1890 — Michael Owens invented first automatic rotary bottle-making machine. Suddenly, glass containers of all shapes and sizes became economically attractive for consumer products, and from the early 1900s until the late 1960s glass containers dominated the market for liquid products.  1894 — Thompson and Norris produced the first double-faced corrugated boxes that prevented material from stretching during transportation. Corrugated boxes played an essential role in developing mass distribution throughout the 20th century. In the early part of the 19th century, retailers played an important role in making a trade happen. Food items were sold in loose, and needed wrapping and weighing. This meant that consumer had to wait while their orders were made up. But the rise of cheap and clean packaging solutions had solved this problem to a large extent and retailer’s role in facilitating a trade started to
  • 20. 13 marginalize. This allowed for huge retail chains to come in where products were displayed on the shelf, and consumer themselves had to make a purchase choice. The big chains had a price advantage, and were slowly gaining momentum. But immediately after The Great Depression, supermarkets became a dominant force and marked a major shift in the consumer behavior. Manufacturers once again turned to product packaging to be the silent salesman — differentiating from competition and affecting a sale. | Interiors of a Piggly Wiggly store in Kentucky in 1920s. Piggly Wiggly was the first true self-service grocery store founded in Memphis, Tennessee in 1916. Source: Ipernity.com | Shifting Shopping Behavior — Piggly Wiggly Clarence Saunders’ Piggly Wiggly stores are widely credited with introducing self-service shopping chain in U.S. in early 1920s. Consumers were given shopping baskets and asked to pick what they needed. This was a little bewildering, but the 4.5%-14% price advantage made it an immediate success. The rise of automobiles fueled its growth further as housewives could now travel miles to get the deals.
  • 21. 14 After the Depression hit U.S. economy in 1929, a sharp demand for low prices encouraged chains like Kroger, A&P, Safeway and others to open giant superstores that offered everything under single roof at very prices up to 14% lower than most chains. | Print ads in magazines promoted the idea of Self-service as the modern way of shopping. | Increasing Visual Appeal — Flexography Most packaging till this period leaned on distinct typographic treatments to create a visual identity. Due to limitations of letterpress printing, product packaging could only be embraced with illustrative painted imagery to define the contents, it was not truly an interpretation or an honest impression of the product contents. It was after the invention of aniline printing technology in late 1920s that packaging materials afforded visual information with a higher degree of accuracy, reproducing impressions of actuality realistically. The aniline printing used aniline dye on rubber blocks and the technique allowed printing on any kind of substrate including corrugated boards, milk cartons, paper bags, folding cartons and metallic films. This technique later on came to be known as Flexography, and is now the default for package printing.
  • 22. 15 More innovations during this period: 1920s — Nutritional value of canned foods gradually approached that of the fresh product. For consumers, the choice between fresh or canned food increasingly became a question of taste, preference, and convenience. 1924 — DuPont bought licensed exclusive rights to make and sell Cellophane in U.S. The cellophane sheet was a clear, transparent protective layer wrapped over primary packaging, to prevent product from moisture and extend its shelf life. 1931—Aluminum foil was packaged in appropriate sizes and thicknesses, in both rolls and sheets a decade after first aluminium foil laminated carton was produced. It started being used as an institutional wrap primarily for use by hotel, restaurant, and hospital kitchens. 1930s and 1940s — The years preceding World War II, amidst a climate of escalating industry consolidation, were also a time of tremendous innovations for synthetics like vinyl, ethylene, and acrylic. U.S. government massively invested in building industrial infrastructure for this new sector. And these innovations lead to discovery of PVC, Nylon, Teflon, Polystyrene, Polyethylene, each of which transformed several industries and heralded the rise of Plastic Age in years to follow. 1950s, 1960s, 1970s: Convenience As The Motivation Post World War II, U.S. experienced massive economic growth over next three decades as its gross national product grew more than nine times the value of $100 billion in 1940. During the time, even the poorest Americans were affluent compared to world standards. As a result of this, everyone was able to afford most luxuries available at the time. This lead to an exuberant growth in consumerism, and everyone wanting to have a modern and convenient lifestyle. Most development of the moldable metals and plastics, happened much earlier than this period, but its exploits were primarily limited to military use. But after WWII, the consumer market exploded with the continuous innovations in aluminium and plastics. Owing to mega efforts of giants like DuPont, Dow Chemicals, and the likes — shinier, sturdier, cleaner, more flexible, and modern looking materials were available at cheaper price compared to traditional materials. This provided impetus to re-invent existing packaging solutions and plastics and metal cans took over majority of consumer packaging, while paper was limited in use and glass reserved for high value products only.
  • 23. 16 | Many see the TV Dinner as an icon of American culture. It represents a moment when pre-processed, pre- cooked food was still novel. It also symbolizes shifting definitions of “meal time,” and our nation’s enthusiastic embrace of the television. | Convenient Lifestyles — Swanson TV Dinners Soon after invention of aluminium foil in 1954, Swanson introduced TV Dinners that offered busy consumers, the conveniences of pre-processed foods requiring minimal preparation. The original dinner tray was made out of aluminium, carved into three compartments to neatly house frozen foods. The frozen dinner could be heated in an oven and easily consumed. TV Dinners
  • 24. 17 fulfilled two post-war trends: fascination with television, and lure of time-saving modern appliances. While these trends encouraged buying behavior, disposable or use-and-throw packaging materials became increasingly acceptable. Medicines in blister packs — Enovid In 1957, when Enovid was introduced to treat menstrual disorders and infertility, the idea of medicine pills was born. In 1960, the same pills were rebranded and repackaged in blister packs as oral contraceptive pills. The unique blister pack was conceived initially as an aid to patient compliance. The popularity of “the Pill” created a new market for pharmaceutical companies. For the first time, healthy women would be taking medication for an extended period of time. The advanced Enovid-E Compack packaging from 1976, had 20 pills in a blister pack with days of the week written around the rim of a plastic case as a ‘memory-aid’ to assist women in tracking their daily pill regimen. The styled cases also allowed pills to be discreetly carried in bags and purses. Continuing the trend, pharmaceutical companies developed unique packaging in order to distinguish their product from those of their competitors and build brand loyalty. Explosion of the Toxins — Plastics DuPont and Dow Chemicals heralded the rapid rise of plastics as they were used for textiles, tires, toys, paints, electronics, and as packaging material, affecting all aspects of life. Alan Pendry captured the versatility of plastics in his award winning short film The Shape of Plastics, in 1962. | G. D. Searle and Company of Chicago, Illinois, produced this Enovid-E brand oral contraceptive in 1976. The 20-pill blister pack is in a trademarked Compack plastic case. The days of the week are written in gold around the rim of the Compack, with three pills descending to the center under each day except Friday, which has only two pills |
  • 25. 18 While the widespread use of plastics made a lot of economic sense, its environmental effects were soon apparent. In absence of regulations, it was difficult to keep a check on manufacturers. U.S. government passed National Environmental Protection Act in 1970 and form EPA as an authority to tackle environmental issues and form necessary regulations. More innovations during this period: 1950 — Polyethylene was invented to be used as cable shielding material, but soon it outgrew its original use and was used to make products such as food and garbage bags, packaging films, and milk containers. In less than a decade, the demand for PE grew from 5 million pounds to 1.2 billion pounds at the end of 1960. 1960 — Reynolds and Alcoa made all-aluminium cans out of one piece of metal. This solved the problem of weights of cans, now only a lid needed to be attached. This provided impetus for invention of rip-off closure and the pop-top lids on aluminium cans. 1977 — Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE) invented as material for beverage packaging is today one of the most commonly used plastics. 1980s, 1990s, 2000s: The Rise of Digital This era was marked by the rise in computing abilities and the evolution of printing technologies as a result. Digital printing technologies, coupled with innovative transactional capabilities provided an unprecedented speed of execution and rapid scaling of business became possible. | This hideous advertising from DuPont reflects consumer aspirations at the time and the deep impact of Cellophane.|
  • 26. 19 While the growing fascination with plastics lead to innovation in packaging shapes and materials, it meant other materials like paper and glass found themselves limited in its use for packaging. This widespread adoption of plastics paved way for use- and-throw behavior, and non- decomposable packaging waste became primary constituent of landfills as a result. In early 2000's, EPA created stringent laws for businesses to control and reduce environmental impacts. As a result, finding sustainable materials and optimizing waste became a prime agenda, heavily influencing the package design. Now a days, it is a business imperative to reduce the amount of packaging for products not just for its financial benefits, but the emotional connect it offers for consumers — making them feel good about their choice. Rise of Barcodes Barcodes have existed since 1950s, but the first commercial U.P.C. scanner was installed in 1974 at a Marsh’s supermarket in Troy, Ohio and the first product to have a bar code included on packaging was a packet of Wrigley’s Gum. Since then, barcodes have become the default checkout processing technology and have revolutionized the retail industry. While barcodes made supermarkets a convenient place to be in, they also hastened the demise of public markets and independent grocery stores. History Section Conclusion by CPPian Aaron L. Dennison (1812-1895), a Boston watchmaker and jeweler, and his brother Eliphalet Whorf (E.W.) Dennison (1819-1886) were early contributors to the manufacturing of set-up boxes in America for jewelry items. The Dennison’s sought to mechanize the process of set-up boxes and, “worked out the first paper-box machine, which was promptly set to work.” (Minson, page 25). Their company, Dennison Manufacturing Company, founded in 1844, expanded under the leadership of E.W. Dennison to include other paper goods such as merchandise tags, crepe paper, and wrapping paper. By 1860 more box-making plants were emerging in America and those manufacturers | Cover of Mad Magazine April’78 issue highlighting the emergence of UPC Barcodes|
  • 27. 20 developed specialized equipment to speed production and reduce costs. Mechanization only increased the demand for boxes and the folding carton, a more efficient type of box for packing and shipping goods emerged on the market. Advertisement, Robert Gair Company, undated. Warshaw Collection of Business American, Series: Paper Products (AC0060-0003110) Attributed to a factory mistake, the folding carton came on the scene in 1879, courtesy of the Robert Gair Company of Brooklyn, New York. Founded by Robert Gair (1839-1927), an inventor, printer, and paper manufacturer, Gair’s folding box, “would be the ‘fit survivor’ to the set-up box” (Bonner, page 595) and was enthusiastically received by the paper industry and consumer. According to an issue of Gair Today, in 1879, a machinist working for Gair, “allowed a rule on his printing press to stand up a little too high. It cut neat, but ruinous slits through several thousand paper seed bags before the mistake was discovered. Gair deliberately and experimentally raised the whole pattern of metal strips too high and saw his press cut out the perfect pattern of a folding box.” There is no evidence that the process was patented in 1879, but this observation by Gair and his implementation of the process helped the packaging and merchandising industries by ushering in a box cut from a single piece of paper. In 1891, Matthew Vierengel, a “practical machinist, inventor and draughtsman” in New York assigned his patent (US 463,849) for a machine for making plaited boxes or similar articles to the Robert Gair Company. Viergenel’s intention was, “first, to form a blank into a box, cup, cap, or similar article and fold or gather the sides of the same into plaits by one operation; secondly, to transfer the article after being formed and platted to edging, pressing, and embossing dies, so that the successive operations shall be performed on the article automatically.” Using less paper, the folding carton was shipped in its folded state, saving on shipping and storage costs. Items formerly packed in tin or wood could now be packed in paper that offered similar strength and protection. Gair held several utility and design patents for boxes. | Advertisement, Robert Gair Company, undated. Warshaw Collection of Business American, Series: Paper Products (AC0060-0003110) |
  • 28. 21 In 1893, he patented a sample box (US 493,921) “usually made from a blank cut-out of a single piece of paper, card board or other material and folded up and secured by glue, cement or other adhesive.” In 1894 his paper box (US 519,451), “related to that class of boxes, which are formed from a blank cut in a single piece from paper, card or straw board and like materials and arranged to be set up and secured by causing the end flaps to engage slots in the turned- in portions of the sides.” | Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Boxes. (AC0060- 0003103-06) | | Paper box of Charles E. Bolchini, 1879. Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Boxes. Photograph courtesy Alison Oswald. |
  • 29. 22 After seeing the prototype, we felt compelled to make Bolchini’s prism-shaped box. Following his pattern of folds, and with some minor adjustments, we succeeded. We’ll gladly share our boxed up collections. | Souvenir coal box, undated. Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records. Photograph courtesy Alison Oswald.|
  • 30.
  • 31.  THE ART OF PACKAGING – 23  PACKAGING EVOLUTION – 24  THE POWER OF PACKAGING FOR THE BRAND – 26  BRAND IMAGE PARADIGM – 26  PACKAGING'S ROLE KEEPS CHANGING – 27  MEASURING PACKAGE DESIGN'S RETURN ON INVESTMENT – 29  THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PACKAGE DESIGN – 35  CREATING THE RATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL CONNECTION - 36  BRAND STORY – 38  CREATING REAL AND LASTING CLIENT-TO-CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS – 39  PACKAGING DESIGN TEAM JOURNEY – 41  THE VALUE OF PACKAGE DESIGN – 43  WORKING WITH….. BIG BRANDS VS. SMALL BRANDS – 46  SHELVING, DESIGNED TO SELL – 48  WORKING WITH A BUDGET – 50  PRIMARY + SECONDARY PACKAGING – 51  BRAND REFRSH – 54  BRAND FORCE – 55  MAKE IT GIFTABLE -56  PACKAGING - METRICS FOR ISOLATED TOUCHPOINTS – 57  PROCESS: PACKAGING DESIGN - 57  PACKAGING TRENDS – 58  THE SIX KEYS TO SUCCESS– 60  SIX PURPOSES OF PACKAGING – 62  PACKAGING PROJECT KICKOFF MEETING QUESTIONS – 64  CREATING EFFECTIVE SHOPPING SYSTEMS – 66
  • 32.  PACKAGE PRODUCTION: LOOKING BACK AND LOOKING AHEAD – 66  HOW TO READ A DIELINE – 69  QUALITY CONTROL OF PRODUCTION ART/FINISHED FILE – 70  PRINTING PROCESSES – 73  PACKAGING BASICS -76
  • 33. 23 ICONIC ASSETS OF THE BRAND We at guide and train strategical packaging concepts for our designers that is also informative to the many other professionals involved in the process, providing understanding and value for all. Packaging requires the expertise of many disciplines: marketing, strategic planning, research, psychology, art, industrial design, graphic design, logistics, engineering, production, manufacturing, distribution, and retailing to name just a few. This complexity means package design doesn’t happen in a vacuum. Many factors influence a final piece, and our strategical packaging concepts reflect that truth as we take you on the creative journey to successful packaging. With the fragmentation of traditional advertising, due mainly to the overwhelming number of media delivery options, more companies are looking to a product's package to deliver the brand message to consumers directly. After all, every package is seen by 100 percent of a brand's consumers. As a result, the retail experience is in a constant state of evolution as brands and products are continually positioning themselves in new and innovative ways. As cultures evolve, so does the visual language that expresses this moment in time. As concept- oriented packaging designers, we are creators and adopters of new aesthetic paradigms, shaping and molding human information. It has been proven in case study after case study in product categories from computers to soda that great design sells. If you look at these success stories closely, as we do in this book, you'll see that design is always founded on innovative positioning and solid, consistent Now more than ever, packaging has a huge opportunity to prove itself as a brand's most valuable consumer touch point. For designers, it's a time of newfound awareness of the power of design. This attention brings with it responsibilities for each of us to present and represent our talents in ways that build and establish permanence to design's valued role in business.
  • 34. 24 brand strategy. This is what we mean by art plus science in packaging: the ability to take sophisticated research and analysis and convert it to visually stimulating design. This collaboration of opposite’s rational science with emotional, artistic thinking-can and does make for unpredictable situations and solutions. How we manage them, and who is in charge of the process, can seriously affect the product outcome. We analyze the steps and processes needed for success-from the preparation of strategic briefs through creative development to prepress and completion- every step has its purpose and value. During the creative journey, we give examples that provide inspiration as well as templates for your own triumphs. Companies assessing package design firms look beyond creative talent; they seek designers with a real ability to understand human behavior and target consumers in a compelling, fresh, and entertaining way. -. Kacharagadla, Packaging Expert | Sr.CPPian CREATIVE PRINT AND PACK In today's market, we could broaden our definition of packaging to include the packaging of entire brands, not just specific products. Leading companies such as Target, Nike, Whole Foods, and Starbucks are brands whose packaging extends to the entire retail experience. For them, the idea of packaging goes beyond the container to the total package of the store. This is a real brand experience. And it is the packaging of this brand experience that allows us to become enchanted and entertained. Consumers connect on a whole new level with the complete concept of packaging. What we consider a package something that holds, protects, and stores its contents-occurs naturally, as in the protective covering of a banana, the cocoon of a butterfly, and an oyster, with its hidden treasure. These all perform the functions of a package. Humankind's creative curiosity has led to the adoption of many of nature's examples. In 100 B.C., the Chinese used sheets of treated mulberry bark to wrap food. Containers made from clay, shells, animal skins, and leaves functioned as they did in nature. As societies and cultures grew, communication and clarity became important; therefore, icons and words began to grace the surface of containers. Evolving over time from basic utility to marketing vehicle, the simple
  • 35. 25 package has become complex. It still functions, of course, but now it's made from a host of high-tech materials and has taken on unconventional forms and shapes. It features delivery systems such as pull tops, self-cooling devices, biodegradable inks, and date codes that change color when expired. All of these innovations improve and expand on the functionality of the package while giving the manufacturer an edge over its competition. Even the term packaging has evolved, from package (a container) to packaging (a container that has written communication about its specific contents). This transformation occurred in the nineteenth century and segued into the development of brands. Branding has grown to become the most important marketing tool, with packaging as its most ardent companion. The evolution of packaging has played an important role in the advancement of humankind. Today many of us take for granted how products are brought to the shelf and how they are manufactured and packaged to protect against damage or spoilage. We now live in a society that looks beyond the functional aspects of packaging to how it makes one feel, look, and speak. Image has become the driving force behind packaging and branding. From utilitarian function to emotional billboard, the package now serves two masters: It hosts the brand, and it entices the potential buyer through inviting graphics and entertaining visuals. The functional qualities of packaging are seen through distinctive delivery systems of convenience and portability. Packages must keep up with consumers' changing lifestyles.
  • 36. 26 In the mid-1900s, manufacturers saw the value in developing marketing strategies for their products. Many changed their focus and developed brands and packages with such effectiveness that consumers saw them as one and the same. What was Coke without its bottle? Or ketchup without the Heinz label? Or Campbell's soup without the red label? Some products became so synonymous with their brand names that their names were the very words used to describe the entire category of competitors-Thermos, Kleenex, Band Aid, and Pop-Tarts, to name a few. Increased Competition Brand image was developed in the early 1960s as a way to further differentiate products from their increasing competition. Packaging was, and still is, the perfect communication vehicle to showcase brand image. In today's cluttered marketplace, packaging continues to evolve and become even more sophisticated. Research shows that different brand images delivered via packaging appeal to different consumer demographic segments. Market research into consumer behaviors, along with demographic and psychographic analysis, is all used to position brands and refine product packaging. The resulting designs catch consumers' eyes. Packaging can be so strong that it makes a brand instantly recognizable. Does the package live up to the brand image? CONSIDER THIS: a) 75 percent of a purchase decision is made at the shelf. b) 100 percent of your buyers see the package. No other form of communication can claim such impact.
  • 37. 27 Packaging design is an exciting field that continues to evolve. More than just devices those enclose and protect products for distribution, storage, sale, and use, packages work hard to attract and convince consumers to purchase. The role of packaging continues to grow and change. New innovations in materials, manufacturing, and printing are developed as technology advances in the marketplace in response to changing consumer needs and lifestyles. Watch for packaging to take on additional responsibility in marketing to consumers. More and more brand managers and marketers are recognizing the strong effect great packaging can have on purchase intent. Not surprisingly, we see store brands or private-label products embracing new trends and taking risks Packaging Preferences Let’s face it, consumers today are a moving target. Marketers get only a few seconds to attract them, hold their attention, and tum casual browsers into serious buyers. Many factors contribute to maneuvering consumers into a retail environment, but once they are there, ifs the job of packaging to prompt sales. A package not only delivers the product to the consumer, it brings the consumer to the brand. Here are ways design can affect consumer's preferences: • Attract the eye with greater impact on the shelf. • Cause the belief that a product is better than its competitors. • Provide clear and relevant information. • Appeal directly to the senses. • Link consumers to communities.
  • 38. 28 more readily than the large global brands. This has given rise to consumers involving themselves with store brands more often, as they feel the packaging is entertaining and engaging. Knowing that design has made the difference is something all designers can use to argue in favor of using package design as an effective tool that can help boost the bottom line. Because corporations have seen how creative packaging and brand identity have positively impacted the sales and growth of certain products, design is now being considered a real player in marketing. Designers must step up and articulate their designs' results, not just talk about the wonderful aesthetics, in order to capture these new opportunities. Advertising Advertising is public communication, paid for and controlled by a brand that is distributed via a variety of media delivery methods, including television, radio, movies, the Internet, newspapers and magazines, and outdoor vehicles like billboards and bus shelters. Its primary role is to draw attention, spark awareness, and create desire. Promotions With a primary goal of furthering a brand's popularity, promotions can be "above the line," by communicating paid messages through the media, or "below the line," by means of sponsorship, product placement, endorsements, and public relations. Promotions also work to increase sales, boost acceptance, enhance brand image, and create trial. Packaging Packaging is primarily the containing device for products, but it also works as part of the marketing mix of tools by delivering graphic communications and brand messages along with the product itself directly into the hands of the buyer. It delivers the brand idea.
  • 39. 29 An interview with , Managing Director of Creative Print and Pack (CPP), Hyderabad, Telangana. India. BRANDING, PAPER PACKAGING DESIGNS RELATED Q Shall we discuss about branding, paper packaging designs? A. Yes. We will… Q. What is your and your company background? A. We have over 25 years’ experience in package industry, and I'm the Managing Director of Creative Print and Pack, a concept-oriented print and packaging firm. We are the world’s first concept-oriented print and packaging company, started in 2007. We do manufacturing Paper Hang Tags, Barcode Tags, Mono Cartons, Corrugated Boxes, Rigid Boxes, PP/PET Boxes, Paper Shopping Boxes and other branded packaging materials Q. What do you focus on in your ideology about package design and patterns? A. With our concept-oriented package pattern’s play preeminent role in communicating the brand's core identity, its emotional essence, and its primary connection to consumers. We've shown that, if brought into the strategic marketing process early and given the chance to set the visual platform for all brand communications, our package patterns can affect unprecedented results. Q. Hasn't it always been advertising that leads the way, not packaging? A. We believe package design and patterns are the single most sales-effective and cost-efficient marketing tool. Many corporations have elevated the term package design to brand identity design. Smart corporations are taking advantage of the increased role packaging can play in their brand's success. Good packaging can promote a fantastic level of interest in a product. It can go beyond loyalty; great packages can create brand advocates. It is the single most compelling vehicle a marketer can use to connect with consumers- 100 percent of a product's buyers interact with its package. Q. Are corporations recognizing the power of package design and patterns? A. Many corporations still don't engage in brand identity until well after brand strategy has been established, and only a precious few actually validate results that brand identity generates. Because packaging designers have talked to their clients' executive management in terms of creativity and not process,
  • 40. 30 they are not addressing an audience that believes, "If you can't measure it, you can't manage it." As designers, we need to start speaking about return on investment (ROI) when we talk about packaging. Q. Is packaging ROI possible? A. Yes, We are confident that ROI is real and measurable. We've done it at our Creative Corrugated Box LLC in conjunction with statisticians from CPP Lab for some of our clients. Unfortunately the results are confidential, so I can't share specifics, but we have been able to obtain empirical proof of a design's direct impact on the bottom line. Handled properly, this information points directly to design's value. We are working on bringing our methodologies into industry wide practice. Q. What are some of the ways packaging designers can talk about a quantifiable ROI? A. Talk about efficacy. Research shows that well over two-thirds of consumer product purchase decisions are made at point of sale. In some categories , impulse purchasing at shelf accounts for 85 percent of sales. It is quite evident that brand identity and package design drive this all-important dynamic. In terms of recall, also known as "brand equity" cross-category studies show that in unaided awareness tests consumers remember more about the package than they do about advertising or promotions. Hundreds of equity studies confirm that consumers recall the color of a package first, the shape or structure second, and the style of a brand's logo third. This proves the most recognized components are design-related. Also address impressions. One hundred percent of a brand's current and potential audience is exposed to a product at retail when encountering its package. A package's influence continues well after purchase is made. Q. Can packaging ROI really be measured? A. It's an evolving concept. In the past, measurements have been largely subjective. As we move forward, technology will allow corporations to track data from all aspects of a product's lifecycle. We will be able to look at various data from inventory through sales and analyze the impact of whole brand communication programs to evaluate ROI. It's definitely something creatives and brand experts agree would be very useful in the fight for the budgets and resources needed to optimize the brand identity process. Q. What does the future hold for brand identity and ROI? A. In the end, it's all about brand identity being involved in the first five minutes of marketing, not as an afterthought. Packaging Designers need to understand the marketing process and how their decisions affect their client's
  • 41. 31 business. Clients need to understand that brand identity design belongs as the cornerstone of all their marketing efforts. Q Shall we discuss about your firm procedure, you know like pricing, processing and dispatches? A. Yes. Q. How do we receive a quote? A. The best and quickest way to get a quote, you should accurately provide the following details: 1) Product Specifications 2) Box Dimensions 3) Type of Material (Folding Carton, Corrugated, Rigid or tag) 4) Quantity of boxes 5) Location 6) Image reference link or attachment (helpful but not necessary) 7) Other details (if needed) You will typically receive your quote within 1-2 business days after submission. Q. Do you have price breaks? A. Generally higher quantities will always result in lower cost per unit pricing. Please submit a quote or consult one of our Product Specialists for more details. Q. What is the process of getting my boxes made? A. Our general custom box process typically consists of: Specification & Project Consultation 1) Quotation 2) Payment 3) Pre-press 4) Sampling and/or Production 5) Shipping & Fulfillment. STRUCTURE RELATED Q. What types of boxes do you manufacture? A. We offer a wide range of box options such as paperboard (folding carton), corrugated and rigid boxes with fully customizable options. Q. How are dimensions measured? A. Generally, measuring a box for packaging is based on the inner dimensions of the structure. This guarantees your product will fit properly
  • 42. 32 within the box regardless of stock thickness. If you are looking to duplicate a box and provide outer dimensions. Q. What is a dieline and why is it important? A. A dieline is the template/outline needed for the design/artwork of the box. It is essential to the cutting and creasing process giving the appropriate information to our machines to precisely cut and fold areas where needed. Q. Can we order multiple artworks with the same type of box simultaneously? A. Yes! This is typical in many packaging production projects. PRINTING RELATED Q. What is CMYK and why is it important for printing? A. CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta Yellow and Black. These colors are used for generating print outputs. Before boxes are sent for printing, it is important that the artwork (on illustrator) is converted from RGB to CMYK Not converting the color mode will result in color variance between what you see on your display compared to the final product Q. How do I place my artwork in the dieline? A. You can check out Creative Print and Pack's Step-by-Step Artwork Preparation Guide on how to place your artwork onto our dieline templates. Q. What is the requirement for the artwork before production? A. You can refer to the General Artwork Guidelines for the required instruction needed for box printing. Q. Can I print on both sides of the box? A. Definitely! We are able to print on the outside (1-side) and the inside of boxes (2-side). Extra fees apply. Q. What is PMS and does it require extra cost? A. The PMS (Pantone Matching Color) is a standardized color matching system that ensures accuracy according to a specific type of color and is coded through a numbering system (also known as Pantone). It widely used in packaging, printing, fashion, graphics and interior design. Yes , PMS colors do add to the cost of printing. Q. What are additional processes? A. Additional Processes refers to elements you can add to give your packaging even more brand personality. We Offer:  Window Patching,  Embossing,  Foil Stamping,  Special Diecut,
  • 43. 33  Drpp off UV  Spot UV Q. What print coatings do you offer? A. We provide several types of coating from AQ & UV to Lamination. Speak with one of our Product Specialists to learn more! PRODUCTION RELATED Q. How can I save on shipping with very large orders? A. There are two ways you can save on shipping: 1) Minimize the size of your packaging and/or use standard structures 2) Consider sea shipping. It can take up to 40-60 business days. Q. Where can you ship to? A. We ship internationally, with minimal restrictions. To find out if your country is eligible, please contact one of our Product Specialists. Q. How do I get started with getting my boxes produced? A. You can request a quote and get started by doing the following: 1) Providing your specifications in one of the product page 2) Sending us an email regarding your project 3) Giving us a call and speak to one of our product specialist Q. What is the turnaround time for the project? A. After artwork approval, we started further procedure.  For custom sampling (New Product Development) Processing lead time- from 5 to 7 business days.  For folding carton & corrugated boxes processing lead time from 10 to 15 business days  For rigid boxes processing lead time from 25 to 35 business days Q. How can I get a sample? A. We offer both existing and custom samples. For existing samples, you can contact one of our Product Specialist to check if we have a similar box style in- stock to send you as a sample. For custom sampling, you will need to provide all the specifications needed, along with a dieline with the artwork and then a product specialist will help you get your sample produced. Production and delivery times will differ based on the type of sample you require. Please contact one of our Product Specialists for more details! Q. Can I order separate artworks in one order? A. Yes you can! More than one artwork in one production work is subject to additional charges.
  • 44. 34 Q. What is the minimum order? A.  Our minimum order for paperboard (folding carton) and corrugated is 10000 units.  Rigid boxes have a minimum of 10000 units.  To take advantage of our lowest price, the suggestive minimum for paperboard and corrugated are 10000 units & 15000 units respectively  For special requests, please check with marketing executive. Q. How much is shipping? A. Since all orders are custom, shipping costs will vary depending on many factors. Q. Do you offer rush order? A. Rush orders may or may not be available for certain periods of time in the year. Please speak to a Product Specialist for more information. Q. What is the approval process before production? A. The approval process before production consists of artwork approval by our designer, by the client, CTP approval from production and 3D rendering (if necessary) Q. Where are you located? A. Our Production units are located in Hyderabad; Marketing offices are located in all metro cities in India and Agency offices located in North America and Canada. Q. What is prepress? A. The prepress is the stage (or process) in which digital files are prepared for the printing press. Prepress turnaround time typically varies depending on the complexity of the project. It can take as quickly as several hours or several days. Q. How are boxes shipped? A. Most of our boxes are shipped flat. Special structures, typically rigid box styles, usually need to be shipped as they are.
  • 45. 35 SCIEN AGE SIGN Bridging the gap between business strategy and design There are two different ways to look at the packaging design process. Packaging can be an afterthought as a means to an end: getting a product from Point A to Point B. Packaging can also be an integral part of the new product development cycle. One of these methods simply checks a box, while the other brings about opportunities for massive cost savings and a transformational customer experience. When packaging is built into the foundation of the new product development cycle, changes can be made to the product itself early on in its composition to be compatible with the package. These changes can help reduce the cost of the package after the product is in production. For example, by adding extra braces to a product, such as a computer, it may not break as easily when dropped. This means the product needs less protection during distribution. Rather than considering packaging in a one-dimensional light, try thinking of packaging as an integral part of the product. This can lead to great innovation and success. However, when considered too late, it may no longer be possible to increase the durability of the product, causing the price of packaging to skyrocket unnecessarily. Therefore, it is obligatory to incorporate package design early and often in the product design phase. While thinking of package design early can help save costs, the mission of a designer is multi-faceted. Once a product makes it safely from the manufacturing site to the store, there is a great need for the package to be attractive to possible consumers. A company can have the most efficient packaging system in the world but be completely unsuccessful due to aesthetic deficiencies. Any given grocery store has roughly 10,000 items on the shelves. Of those 10,000, the average consumer notices only 100. As if the odds weren’t stacked against the producer as is, consumers spend less than seven seconds examining a package before making a purchasing decision. Quite clearly, it is imperative that the design of the package encompass protective
  • 46. 36 features, but also look appealing to the target consumer. In order to accomplish this goal, much like a scientist, a designer must analyze the trends and wants of the perceived consumer and craft a design that will cause this consumer to initiate a purchase. It is incredibly tempting to look at packaging design from one angle. However, any veteran packager will tell you the science of design and the aesthetics of design are dependent variables. One cannot survive without the other, thus, the importance of understanding packaging design as a whole. If you eliminate the emotional guiding factors, it's impossible for people to make decisions in daily life." Every day, we are faced with making both rational and emotional decisions. People are drawn to the rational because it is explainable, measurable, and finite. However, rational thinking does not always play into consumer behavior. Sometimes it's all about emotions. Whether you are a package designer or a product marketer, it's critical to understand both the emotional and the rational drivers that affect product success in the marketplace. To do this, you must examine the influences of both the left and the right brain. Right- or Left-Brain Thinking Although the two sides of the brain are similar in appearance, the function of each cerebral hemisphere is different. The left side governs linear reasoning, rational and analytical thoughts, while the right side deals with holistic reasoning, the emotional, and the artistic. This is a broad generalization, but research does support the notion of specialized areas of brain function.
  • 47. 37 Apparently individuals do have a preferred method of approaching the world- rationally or emotionally, using left- or right-brain thinking. By recognizing the existence of "right-brained people" and "left-brained people," theory becomes practice when objectives to satisfy both or either are woven into the design process. This is especially significant in the early planning and strategy phases of development. Packaging Calls for Both Design taps into both modes of thinking to make lasting connections with consumers. Successful package design plays both sides of the fence by integrating left-brain strategies with right-brain creative vision. Although these two forces often seem at odds, in the hands of a skilled team, design provides a balance that motivates purchase. A package can be pleasing to the eye while offering precise product information, for example. Effective design is a vital ingredient for building successful brands. Here, again, the impact of both right-brain and left-brain factors is seen. All too often, strategic issues, operational concerns, logistical tactics, and entrenched marketing attitudes can overshadow design, cutting off its full potential to
  • 48. 38 contribute to the bottom line. Design can be a powerful emotional language, but it's also a highly effective means of clarifying and organizing messages. That is why it is key to translate scientific knowledge, marketing research, and other left-brained pursuits into unique right-brain solutions. The services of a skilled package designer are not purely about creating a beautiful design; they're about an intuitive understanding of what motivates consumers to purchase a product or service. “LET THE BRAND DO THE TALKING” The brand story in 2021 will be an essential aspect, and it acts as the backbone of the entire brand identity through packaging design. An excellent brand story will focus on the central message in every visual piece of business branding. Make sure of the brand positioning before building the brand story. Include values, culture, what brand stands for and emotions which will evoke customer desires. The un-boxing experience is also an upcoming trend which is part of the brand story. The brand story will drive by data in 2021, which will include customer’s preferences, desires and beliefs. Human brain processes image 60,000 times faster than data; text hence visualizes your brand story in the mind of the audience through images as visually compelling stories will cut through the clutter. Example: The Maggi brand of nestle have successfully built their niche in the storytelling and conveyed brand messaging through various campaigns such as “Me and Meri Maggi” focusing on everyday routine storytelling.
  • 49. 39 The coming year will not restrict un-boxing experience up to e-commerce. Even offline brands will focus on this as it’s the best way to surprise and create a memorable experience with consumers. The online retailers have a fewer point of contact to provide pleasure compared to physical retailers; hence, they will focus more on providing incredible, memorable un-boxing experience and get profit also. The year 2021 will break the myth of associating the experience with only luxurious and premium products; in fact, sometimes a simple note is enough to thank or to bring a smile on the face of consumers. The un-boxing experience will be a boom because all companies are providing the same product with the same quality, quantity what will differentiate your brand over others includes “un-boxing experience”. Examples: Brand can include a discount coupon, and in passing, you favour the recurring purchase and loyalty to the user. You can even offer an additional discount to the user who uploads their unboxing. Using the Art and Science of Package Design People are bombarded with countless marketing messages every day. With the average retailer stocking 40,000 products, it's no wonder consumers have learned to tune out and filter. Product parity and price competition have led marketers to seek new directions for differentiation. Designers and their clients are seeking new ways of communicating with and ultimately connecting to consumers.
  • 50. 40 Packaging keeps evolving, and so do the people who create and market the products. Technology has changed how we work while retailing has changed the way we buy packaging. Lifestyle and value shifts will always influence the face of packaging. It is a reflection of our culture; it defines us, just as we define it. Brand Authenticity Consumers are hypersensitive and overexposed to design, so much so that they are critical of its manifestation. They involve themselves with what keeps them interested and entertained. Today companies must be honest in their endeavors because consumers are skepti- 34 PACKAGE DESIGN WORKBOOK cal. Issues of obesity, health, nutrition, origin, sustainability, freshness, and safety are all critical concerns . While packaging designers often want to go simple to avoid visual clutter, consumers want to learn more from the package. Inherent to all companies that produce a product is the constant quest to innovate for a competitive edge. To add value and convenience, many companies launch new brands or extend established brands into an already confusing marketplace. Once introduced into the market, these often fail to interest the consumer. Was the product a bad idea? Or was it poorly presented to the consumer? Consumer Behavior Understanding how consumers experience a brand and its products is the secret to successful marketing. After all, the brand is more than a well-designed logo. It has personality and an inherent level of approachability. People gravitate toward brands like they choose their friends. This connection requires more than a pleasing aesthetic. A brand designed to connect hits the consumer on an emotional level. The package may be silent, but through design it triggers senses and an emotional buying decision. Packaging also must appeal to the rational and factual requirements consumers have, proving the product is also the logical choice. These connections are necessary when launching a new brand or invigorating one with a legacy. Product Differentiation Designers and marketers need to realize they are not just selling products; they are telling stories through packaging. Package design is the visual expression of the brand's soul. Used effectively, packaging can define, build, and entertain consumers. However, to develop effective packaging that lives up to its potential, both art and science must be considered.
  • 51. 41 he team is the heart of any project. If the heart is not pumping correctly, the body loses energy, becomes fatigued and sluggish, and can die. Having the smartest and most talented people on your team is no guarantee of success. Collaborative Discovery Relationship is an ever-present word in our industry, and for good reason. The packaging design process is highly collaborative. Designers and clients are on a journey of discovery together. For clients, the creative journey is just as important as the final destination or design solution. If they have a bad experience with your team, even if they have a fantastic end product, chances are you won't be hired again. Just as we speak about brand experience within retail setting, our own brand is viewed and evaluated the same way. Client Designer Team Whether you are a sole proprietor working with a small client, a large design firm working with a Fortune 500 company, or an in-house design department working with an internal marketing department, the relationship between you and the client grows and is nurtured through mutual respect. In each of these working arrangements, team synergy is essential. First and foremost, roles and responsibilities, along with team objectives, must be set to form the foundation for ultimate success. All too T User Experience The integration of graphic user interface design and physical product design is converging more than ever. The successful products create a seamless integration between the screen and the device. Human interaction is now embedded in many products, and interface design bridges the physical and virtual divide. Clients are requesting user interface design at every turn, and our designers excel in understanding the user experience. At Creative Print and Pack, our packaging experts are concerned with the end user experience, which guides the overall look and feel of the package. They work to maximize the opportunity available on major retailer shelf space and improve the billboard side of the package for consumer convenience. They defend your brand by ensuring all graphics have exceptional print quality for better marketability and
  • 52. 42 often, projects are started without these basic principles. Creative briefs are lacking in ownable content, positioning is not unique, or the objectives are not clear-all of which lead package design teams down blind paths. With mutual goals intact, teams can work together to achieve great solutions. Having bright talent that can look at problems from a variety of viewpoints is imperative, but even more important is how well team members work together. Improving the Odds If you have a dysfunctional team, it is virtually impossible to reach success. In these situations, you need to look for ways to improve the team's dynamics. Is the problem bad chemistry? Personality clashes? Understand that conflict can be a good thing, as long as it's achieved with respect for others. Conflict can lead to new creative ideas. Within any given team situation, each person must understand the game plan for the project. Who is making the decisions? How far do they want to push the project? This should be in the brief. The larger the group, the more room there is for watering down a good idea. Designers must keep the team on track by reviewing and clearly communicating objectives in relation to the creative. Large or small, teams need good leaders with focused goals.
  • 53. 43 A broad array of talent, skill, and knowledge is required for the development of any package. Many people and factors contribute to a product's success. The chart, (left), identifies many of them. Marketers occupy a central role and ultimately are held responsible for the success of a brand or product. They must have a keen sense of timing, consumer insight, and intuition to launch or revitalize products for their respective brands. Within a design firm, the creative director plays a key role in fully understanding the brand and the products it represents. He or she is the leader, guiding both client and design teams to targeted solutions. The creative director must possess an innate ability to evaluate consumer behavior, project goals, as well as applicable aesthetic and cultural trends and the further ability to turn this knowledge into creative solutions that are stimulating and effective for the market. An Interview with Bheemesh Chowdary Kacharagadla, Director of Brand Design, Creative Print and Pack (CPP), Hyderabad, Telangana. India. Q. As the Senior Director of Brand Design, what is your role at CPP? A. My role is two·fold. First, it is my responsibility to create or have the vision for how design can influence the success of our clients brands. Secondly, for each brand, my team and I are asked to identify what opportunities exist for a specific marketing and design problem on a project-by-project basis. Q. How do you view branding in its relationship to packaging? A. Branding is the expression of a brand -how it appears and is expressed across all the customer and consumer communication channels. One application of that brand expression is on the package. Q. In the marketing mix, what value does packaging play? A. Every part of the marketing mix has value and is important. But the package is the only vehicle that is considered alongside its competitors and is evaluated by the consumer at the point when they use and experience the brand. It most closely reflects the brand and what it stands for or promises. Q. What makes a successful package design? A. We believe there are four criteria that help to make a package successful: First, it must be consistent with the brand positioning and what the brand stands for-the design should express the brand story accurately. The second aspect of a successful package is that the design is relevant to the specific consumer the brand is targeting. Third, the package has to be clearly differentiated from the other options available to the consumer. And lastly, the design has to be well-integrated with the other communication vehicles. The
  • 54. 44 brand will be expressed online, in advertising, in-store, etc, so a package is only successful if it works effectively with these other communication vehicles in a unified way. Q. What do you see as the biggest challenge for designers? A. The dynamics inside a corporate environment are very complex. There are many priorities and a constantly shifting balance of demands. This dynamic is the most difficult for us to communicate to our agencies and for the agencies to truly understand. The result of this is agencies periodically have a hard time adjusting to those shifting demands, leading the creative process in the context of those challenges, and coming out the other end with a design solution that meets the demands of the business. Q. If you could change one thing within the branding and packaging industry what would it be? A. If I had that kind of influence, I'd like to see greater integration of what happens on the package with the other customer and consumer communication elements. I'd like to see the design for our brands be more holistic and unified. When a brand is well integrated, then all elements are more effective (including packaging) and the brand benefits more. Some of our brands do an outstanding job of that. Others can do better. Q. What is the single biggest obstacle you see with package design? A. I think the environment that our brands compete in is very complex and therefore filled with a variety of challenges. But one problem that we consistently see is a lack of a strong creative vision. That vision must come from the brand team, (my staff, marketing, R&D, etc), in order to stimulate the creative process. When that doesn't happen, the effectiveness of the final solution can suffer. On a more executional level, another challenge is the desire and request to put too much information on our packaging. We typically want to say many more things than the consumer is interested in hearing. The result is the information that could influence their decision to buy a brand is more difficult to find and, in fact, may not be seen. It is a classic example of less is more. Q. What is the biggest challenge facing your clients? A. The need to understand the role of design and harness its power. Brands are all about meaning that transcends mere commercial transactions. Clients need to create products that are riveting, compelling, and instantly appealing. They need design to help achieve this. The role of design is to tell rich stories, to go beyond the decorative, enliven the senses, and captivate us all.
  • 55. 45 Q. What role does research play in developing branding and packaging? A. The right research is every designer's friend. Research that is more symbolic and projective engages consumers, and they really tell you stuff. By activating consumers' imaginations, we get research that is exciting, new, and highly reflective. It tells us where a brand could go. It helps us see potential. Traditional research tells us all about the familiar. Really new concepts seem like crazy ideas and never gain acceptance or validation through old research methods. The old protocols are definitely risk averse. In any case, research should be used as a gut check and not dictate the final decision. Q. In the marketing mix, what is the value of packaging? A. Packaging is totemic. It encapsulates the essence of the brand and lets people hold it in their hands. If branding is a story, packaging is the consumer experience of that story. For many, the package is the product. They are totally connected. Thus, I think package design should be more respected and valued. Advertising casts a wide net to attract and appeal, but packaging closes the deal. Design is in a transitional phase. More corporations are aware of design, but they aren't all sure what to do with it yet. Q. What makes a successful package design? A. It is an object that is intriguing and compelling. It makes people love it and pull it off a shelf. Good design reconnects us to our humanity by giving us excitement and pleasure. Q. What do you see as the biggest challenge for designers? A. Designers need to keep talking about the power of design, how it is of cultural significance; they should not just exist to support a functional, transactional purpose. Designers should also be the ambassadors of green thinking. They should address sustainability in a serious fashion for the good of the planet and all humanity. Business, with the help of designers, should solve the problem and be our salvation. It's a big challenge. Q . What do you see as the biggest challenge for marketers? A. Companies have got to transcend their concern for the bottom line. Q. Being a forecaster, where do you see branding and packaging going in the next five years? A. We need to look at a longer time horizon and take a wider view. It's up to us to embolden and push our clients. We need to encourage change and resist fear.
  • 56. 46 "You now have to decide what image you want for your brand. Image means personality. Products, like people, have personalities, and they can make or break them in the marketplace." he fundamentals are the same, whether working for a large brand or a small brand, but the complexity and risk associated with large brands can alter the design development process. Large brands have established equities and brand loyalties that represent a huge part of their income. More Complexity Understanding consumers' behavior, and how a particular brand integrates into their life, is key to designing or identifying graphic changes for a design revitalization, especially in a big brand. Once the proper evaluation and observations have been done, a strategy can be developed. Working under these analytical conditions is not for every designer. Different skill sets and expertise are required when working on large brands. Specifically, designers need to have a deep knowledge of branding and its effect on consumer buying habits. To serve a megabrand, a design firm needs a team of experts dedicated to evaluating trends and changes in the marketplace. These firms typically offer services outside of design, including strategic planning, market research, and brand analysis. As a result of the added complexity of large brand design programs, design firms typically charge higher fees. More Flexibility Conversely, small brands, if not owned by large companies, are much more adaptable, allowing them to reposition more quickly, and with less risk. Design, in these situations, is used as a strategic tool. Small brands are more easily able to capture new trends in the marketplace. Also, innovations in structure and printing processes can be launched faster due to smaller volumes. Layers within these organizations are much flatter, resulting in faster approval processes, typically with fewer changes. The downside to working on a smaller brand is often more limited budgets and lower compensation to the designer. We see private-label or store brands taking advantage of big brands' weaknesses through innovative design. Because of this phenomenon, we see consumers becoming more engaged with their new fresh looks. The successful T
  • 57. 47 use of design as a point of differentiation is working to convince the big brands that design is, indeed, a valuable tool. Small Brand Issues  Nimble, able to make changes readily  May be an upstart in a category, having the ability to shake things up  Less risk because of less brand equity, typically  Low-volume manufacturing means high-unit cost per package Big Brand Issues  Often large, multinational corporations therefore, move more slowly  May be the first in a product category, having considerable market share  High risk due to considerable brand equity  High-volume manufacturing means low-unit cost per package
  • 58. 48 It is easy to kick back in the rarified air at your computer screen and dream up fantastic package designs. Then it happens. The product goes to production, gets loaded onto pallets, and somewhere an underpaid kid grabs your hard work and throws it onto a shelf. Sideways. Of course, it doesn’t always happen like this, but accommodating imperfect circumstances is one of the most important considerations when designing for the shelf. Target is well known for a process known as “merchandising in multiples” and the psychology behind it. Essentially, a large rack with many of the same item conveys not only newness (freshness in the case of giant stacks of produce), but also provides a giant billboard for the product. Increasing the ease of quick purchasing decisions is one key to improving sales. Think about how many times you have been reminded that you are out of detergent when faced with a large display, conveniently located at whatever height you are because the entire shelf is a single product. Target has the luxury of large amounts of real estate that most other retailers do not, unfortunately. What you design needs to convey the brand promise and function quickly, and with a single unit. No small task. Eye movement recorders examine how an individual views packaging or shelf displays by tracking eye movements. These devices show when the subject starts to view a picture, the order in which the elements of the image were examined and reexamined, and the amount of viewing time given each element.
  • 59. 49 Another consideration that designers typically overlook is the “pay-to-play” nature of marketing on store shelves. In its most basic form (and there are many, many iterations of how products get placed and how much it costs) a company will pay by the linear foot for premium shelf placement. Small, outward-facing packages with increased depth tend to fare very well in paid environments. The soft drink twelve-pack is a prime example of how to take advantage of shelf depth while minimizing linear feet. Unique form factors are also critical for differentiation among commodity products. Even saying “bag of Pringles” sounds wrong. In fact, that package is so unique to the category that most people reference it only by product name without mention of the carrier. Rather than spread throughout the chip section, they tend to be stocked in their own area, further reinforcing how a package can establish a brand. Now we have arrived at the moment of truth: the package is designed, production run complete, the pick, pack, ship, and stock have all gone down. There on the shelf sits your finest work. But will anyone buy it? A best practice we regularly employ prior to this moment is to comp and—we can’t officially recommend this— either through professional channels, friends who own stores, or just guerrilla style, stock a shelf with fake product. Why go through all this? Because the psychology of purchasing is very complex and nothing beats having a little ethnographic research, however small the sample size. Do people stop?
  • 60. 50 WORKING WITH A BUDGET BUDGET ABOUT IT. We have all heard the pitch. It goes something like this: “We really want to work with you guys on this, but it cost so much just to get to this point that we just don’t have the budget for expensive packaging.” Sound familiar? There was a time that this type of project would seriously grate on our creative mojo. After a while, however, we learned to embrace the limitations of constrictive production budgets and instead push the boundaries of what is possible with fewer colors, pre-produced boxes, and nontraditional or repurposed packaging vehicles. Today, when we see someone create meaningful packaging with very little cost, we are envious. It is easy to appreciate a custom glass bottle with twelve-color printing, but a standard stock bottle with amazing typography on a simple label can be just as effective, and beautiful. This brings us to the single most important aspect of budget design: typography. Type is necessary, type is cheap, and type can convey legions about the product positioning. We have done one-color case design with nothing more than a small illustration of a map and loads of carefully set type. To this day, that design stands out in the market, and we continue our relationship with the company. One of our favorite budget tricks is to look for neutral, mid tone base materials for package design. A great mid tone allows two- TIP No matter your client’s budget, always invoice new clients 50 percent before any work begins—no matter how nice they may be. As a company you need to retain some leverage (e.g., holding on to final files) until the bill is paid. The law is not on the side of the designer when it comes to getting paid. This is particularly important for packaging projects, because you often buy samples during the design phase, as well as materials and supplies before and during the production process. Those costs shouldn’t be out of pocket for the design firm.
  • 61. 51 color jobs to appear as three colors and allows simple black and white to have enough contrast to remain legible. In some cases, such as clear glass or plastic packaging, the product itself should be considered a color to be worked with and taken advantage of. Of course, this at times may also be a detriment. We have seen all-natural blood orange soda packaged in clear plastic bottles only to have sunlight degrade the color of the contents to something that would graciously be described as deep tan, but in reality was more akin to a bottle of turds. Even budget packages need to take into account the requirements of the product. One final thought about budgets: Amazing work has been created with next to no money, and complete crap has been created with enormous resources. The sole difference is the amount of thought the designer put into the process, and last we checked, thinking was free. By now we are all familiar with the “not intended for individual sale” that often accompanies case-packed products. This little bit of lawyer copy is liberating to designers who, ultimately, must satisfy the need for a product to be displayed in an environment as personal as a home or office. Everything from hand soap to honey on some level becomes part of the décor of the room or space they occupy. When considered as “objects d’art,” there is not a lot of room for ingredient lists, usage instructions, or lawsuit-protecting legalese. Dial soap made an ease-of-use breakthrough with their foaming hand soap line, but just as important was their decision to let a cardboard sleeve do the heavy lifting of information dissemination while the container itself was kept, pun intended, clean enough to display in a bathroom. At the end of the day, the most refined environments would prefer to have less branded clutter and more personal attention to detail, and combining the functionality of the foaming soap with an austere form factor was a great way to push design-o-philes into purchasing a disposable product for a room as intimate as a bathroom. TIP For clients with smaller budgets, the production budget should form part of the initial brief. The solution for The People’s Supermarket was to create branded sleeves and stickers that could be used in conjunction with existing generic packaging. This provided a low-cost solution for branding and packaging. clients with smaller budgets, the production budget should form part of the initial brief. The solution for The People’s Supermarket was to create branded sleeves and stickers that could be used in conjunction with existing generic packaging. This provided a low-cost solution for branding and packaging.
  • 62. 52 We recognize that creating a cardboard sleeve is not exactly primo portfolio material, but in this instance the solution was more about understanding at what point information needs to be conveyed versus how the product will live in an environment. It is also important to note that providing a disposable vehicle for the required information frees a package designer to highlight interesting techniques in the product itself. Yes, we are blurring the lines between what is a product and what is a package, but the next few years will be defined in part by those “package” designers that can design a package to be as environmentally sensitive as TIP Doing an off-the-shelf box for a conservative market is challenging because they aren’t created very often, if at all anymore. The design team had to create a memorable package that was as cost- effective as possible. To do this, they met early and often with the manufacturers and vendors to create prototypes until they found the most effective use of the paper stock and the production costs.
  • 63. 53 possible. Sometimes this will take the form of adaptive reuse, ease of recycling, as well as minimal material requirements. Designers will be able to take a seat at the table of both product form factor and also the required “wrapping” that works to satisfy the overly litigious environment we must consider when making room available for large amounts of text. After years of attempting to battle with attorneys whose sole function is to achieve absurd levels of legal buffering at the expense of beautiful design, we have learned to accept the ridiculousness of their requests and instead design around the unavoidable onslaught of copy. If you are able to make the mental shift away from their requests ruining your design, and instead provide an easily recyclable/disposable option, the end result can be liberating, beautiful, and an honest expression of your aesthetic intent.
  • 64. 54 BRAND REFRSH Command-R, Command Cash. When the economic implosion sapped all of the R&D money out of most companies, we noticed a peculiar trend: repackaging and refreshing of legacy brands. Over time we came to understand that, in lieu of spending large sums to launch products, companies were retooling their packages to promote what was currently moving product in a down economy. Some companies even took advantage of reduced competition to secure more shelf space and worked their packaging systems to accommodate merchandising in multiples. Other firms moved to address value propositions by noting (or inflating) the sense of scale with packaged consumables. At the very least, this trend recognized that changing the single most important conversion mechanism, the package, would be a worthwhile investment. This goes double for those companies relying on fewer products for the majority of their sales. This comes from the Pareto Principle, a common rule of thumb in business where 80 percent of effects come from 20 percent of the causes—in this case 80 percent of the revenue comes from 20 percent of the products. Just as ties and pant legs go from skinny to wide, so too, packaging needs to maintain a sense of timeliness to retain consumer confidence. While retro packaging has its occasional appeal, it is best kept occasional. Shoppers today are influenced by an unprecedented amount of information hurled at them through many different outlets. To stand out from the crowd, consider consistency among brand offerings of the same category. A consumer whipping through the beer aisle, inundated with countless craft beer brands, is more likely to notice a company if there is some consistency of tone, color, illustration, and typography. Perhaps that alone will be cause for pause, versus the almost certain flyover of the overwrought, over described, text-heavy design that seems to plague most craft beers. Without sounding curt, we promise not to make a brewer drink our bathtub beer if they promise not to make us use their bad-pun beer name and 2,500-word description of what went into the bottle. It’s a good deal for everyone.
  • 65. 55 Making a difference has become essential to building a brand. Consumers are shopping their values, and businesses are rethinking their value proposition. The triple bottom line—people, planet, profit—is a new business model that represents a fundamental shift in how businesses measure success. Sustainability touchpoints: where businesses can make a difference Historically, the purpose of business has been to create shareholder value. The new imperative integrates economic prosperity with protecting the environment, and demonstrating care for communities and employees. For many, sustainability will require radical innovation: retooling what they make, how they make it, and how it is distributed. A new generation of companies envisions sustainability as the core purpose of their brand promise. Authenticity is critical. Social networks quickly broadcast brands that don’t stand true to their promise.
  • 66. 56 Compelling brand identity presents any company, any size, anywhere with an immediately recognizable, distinctive professional image that positions it for success. An identity helps manage the perception of a company and differentiates it from its competitors. A smart system conveys respect for the customer and makes it easy to understand features and benefits. A new product design or a better environment can delight a customer and create loyalty. An effective identity encompasses such elements as a name that is easy to remember or a distinctive package design for a product. GIFTED CHILDREN. Just like with children, we’re not supposed to have favorite projects (or clients). But what designer doesn’t love the project that comes along with that extra budget for special printing and production? Often these projects fall into the “giftable” category—those packages that get extra-special treatment because they are likely to be given as gifts. The packaging becomes even more critical in these cases, and it’s often an opportunity to use unique printing techniques or unusual substrates. And consider this: gift package projects are also likely to carry a lot of emotional baggage for the purchaser. Does emotional baggage sound like too heavy a term? Consider this: in essence, a gift represents the gift giver and creates an environment whereupon the recipient will judge the giver based on what was given. Years ago we worked with a theater company to help determine the appropriateness of specific media types— stay with us, this is going somewhere. What we accidentally discovered is that rarely do people go to the theater by themselves, and the act of inviting another couple as guests (consider this the “gift” of tickets) allowed those guests to judge their friends based on the quality of the show they were invited to see. The interesting element to this is that a negative experience discouraged further interaction not just with the offending gift givers, but with theater itself. The lesson to be learned is that while the surface of gift giving is goodwill, the quality of the gift, or at least the perceived quality, is roughly equivalent to the relationship between giver and receiver. Emotional baggage, indeed. So how do you create memorable, high- quality, and emotional packaging decisions? Of course, the usual suspects apply here: great typography, personality in messaging, and contemporary color palettes. But there is one element that conveys so much more, and that element is tactility. By tactility we mean more than just surface treatments, but also weight and shape.