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Performance of electrical discharge
textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey
McMaster University
Canada
Lubrication in cutting
lubricant

chip

chip
tool

sliding

tool

chip

sticking

tool

Infiltration of lubricant
is controlled by
capillary action and
chip velocity-induced
shear flow
Retention of the
lubricant in the
interface is as critical
as its ingress
Lubrication may be
enhanced through
texturing the tool rake
face surface
2/18

Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Femtosecond laser texturing

Texture is to be
preferably oriented
normal to the chip
flow direction
Enomoto & Sugihara (2010)
micro

nano

Kawasegi et al (2009)
3/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Electrochemical texturing
metal layer
(cathode)
insulation layer

dimpled texture

anode (workpiece)

Zhu et al (2009)
4/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Electrical discharge texturing
Surfaces generated in electrical discharge machining
(EDM) are isotropic and entail a positive skewness,
which predisposes them towards effectively entraining
lubricant

frequency

+ve skew

surface height
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

5/18
61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Objective of this work
To prove the concept of ED-textured cutting tools
Identify the envelope of EDM and cutting parameters in
which such textures are effective

cutting edge

areal texture machined
with a block electrode

rake face

linear texture machined
with shim stock tooling
6/18

Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Experimental - EDM
copper electrodes with positive polarity
oil based dielectric
average gap voltage 100 V; duty factor 50%
Pulse current <72 A; pulse on-time <133 µs

Pulse current and
on-time were varied to
alter the geometry of the
characteristic crater

7/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Experimental - Cutting
In comparison to surface roughness
and tool life, machining force is a
better indicator of lubrication
effectiveness, in terms of repeatability
and resolution De Chiffre & Belluco (2000)
chip

tool

continuous & intermittent orthogonal cutting
Fc

AISI T-15 High Speed Steel ground inserts

Ff

friction angle

SPG 432 geometry with 0 rake angle
annealed 1045 steel & 6061 Al workpieces
cutting speed 2−75 m/min; feed 0.025−0.1 mm
cutting width 3 mm; oil lubricant
8/18

Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Texture parameters
relief on the
rake face to
restrict tool
chip contact

restricted rake tool

de

Texture depth was limited to
prevent the tool from functioning
as a restricted rake tool
Distance de is to be optimized
with respect to the uncut chip
thickness
Maximum force reduction
referred to the texture with a
roughness of 12 µm Ra,
generated at a current of 39 A
and an on-time of 42 µs
Texturing time is ~10 seconds
9/18

Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Effectiveness of ED-texture
lubricant application
32

textured tool
Friction angle ( )

Friction angle ( )

ground tool

28
24
20
16

32
28
24
20
16

0

30 60 90 120 150 180
Time (s)

0

30 60 90 120 150 180
Time (s)

10/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Force reduction in continuous cutting
Texturing decreases the forces and the variability, with
the effect more pronounced in the feed direction

0

8
6
4
2

textured

1.5

textured

3.0

10

non-textured

4.5

Cutting force (x102 N)

12

non-textured

Feed force (x102 N)

6.0

0

11/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Feed force (x102 N)

6

Cutting force (x102 N)

Force reduction in intermittent cutting
non-textured

5

4
3
2
1

textured

0
0

1

2

3

Time (s)

4

5

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

1

2

3

4

5

Time (s)

Feed force reduction is higher in intermittent cutting as
the lubricant is directly replenished on the tool rake face
during the non-cutting interval
12/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
% reduction in feed force

Effect of cutting parameters on force reduction
30

50

25

40

20
15

25 µm feed

30
20

10
5

intermittent

50 µm

0

continuous

10
0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

0

5

10 15 20 25

Cutting speed (m/min)

Cutting speed (m/min)

Texturing is more effective at the low end of typical
cutting speeds, at fine feeds and in intermittent cutting
13/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
2.5

2.0
1.5
1.0

textured

non-textured

0.5
0.0

Cutting force (x102 N)

Feed force (x102 N)

Force reduction in cutting of aluminum
5

4
3
2
1
0

0

5

10

15

Time (s)

20

25

0

5

10

15

20

25

Time (s)

Forces and the associated variability were significantly
lower as the lubricant used was specifically formulated for
cutting aluminum
14/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Effect of texture location
Friction angle ( )

26

de

24

h = 25 µm

100 µm 50 µm

22
20

chip

18

tool

h
0

3

6

9

12

15

18

(de/h)

Force reduction is maximized when (de/h) is ~2−3
As the tool chip contact length is typically 4−6 times the
feed h, this implies that texturing needs to correspond to
just the sliding region
15/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
% reduction in force

Comparison of linear and areal textures
30

25

feed force

20

areal

15

cutting force

10
5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

% area textured
linear

Textured area was varied by altering the
pitch in the linear texture
Results confirm that the areal texture is to
be preferred over a linear one
16/18

Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Role of texture parameters on force reduction
% reduction in force

35
30

35

feed force

30

25

25

20

20

cutting force

15

15

10

10

5

5

0

0
0.0

0.2

0.4

Skewness

0.6

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Kurtosis

Force reduction showed no systematic trends with respect
to either the Ra roughness or the pulse parameters
Force reduction exhibited defined maxima with respect to
skewness and kurtosis of the texture
17/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Conclusions
Electrical discharge texturing has been demonstrated to
bring about a significant (15−40%) reduction in machining
force through enhanced lubrication at the tool-chip
interface
The skewness and kurtosis of the texture are good
indicators of the extent of force reduction
The concept is attractive for application in broaches, taps,
gear cutting tools and possibly forming tools
Mechanical imprinting of said texture during the
compaction phase of tool inserts (as opposed to EDM of
inserts) may be explored
18/18
Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools
P. Koshy, J. Tovey

61st CIRP General Assembly
Budapest, August 24, 2011
Canadian Network of Centers of Excellence

Natural Sciences & Engineering Research
Council of Canada

Thank you
for your kind attention!

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Textured Cutting Tools

  • 1. Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey McMaster University Canada
  • 2. Lubrication in cutting lubricant chip chip tool sliding tool chip sticking tool Infiltration of lubricant is controlled by capillary action and chip velocity-induced shear flow Retention of the lubricant in the interface is as critical as its ingress Lubrication may be enhanced through texturing the tool rake face surface 2/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 3. Femtosecond laser texturing Texture is to be preferably oriented normal to the chip flow direction Enomoto & Sugihara (2010) micro nano Kawasegi et al (2009) 3/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 4. Electrochemical texturing metal layer (cathode) insulation layer dimpled texture anode (workpiece) Zhu et al (2009) 4/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 5. Electrical discharge texturing Surfaces generated in electrical discharge machining (EDM) are isotropic and entail a positive skewness, which predisposes them towards effectively entraining lubricant frequency +ve skew surface height Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 5/18 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 6. Objective of this work To prove the concept of ED-textured cutting tools Identify the envelope of EDM and cutting parameters in which such textures are effective cutting edge areal texture machined with a block electrode rake face linear texture machined with shim stock tooling 6/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 7. Experimental - EDM copper electrodes with positive polarity oil based dielectric average gap voltage 100 V; duty factor 50% Pulse current <72 A; pulse on-time <133 µs Pulse current and on-time were varied to alter the geometry of the characteristic crater 7/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 8. Experimental - Cutting In comparison to surface roughness and tool life, machining force is a better indicator of lubrication effectiveness, in terms of repeatability and resolution De Chiffre & Belluco (2000) chip tool continuous & intermittent orthogonal cutting Fc AISI T-15 High Speed Steel ground inserts Ff friction angle SPG 432 geometry with 0 rake angle annealed 1045 steel & 6061 Al workpieces cutting speed 2−75 m/min; feed 0.025−0.1 mm cutting width 3 mm; oil lubricant 8/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 9. Texture parameters relief on the rake face to restrict tool chip contact restricted rake tool de Texture depth was limited to prevent the tool from functioning as a restricted rake tool Distance de is to be optimized with respect to the uncut chip thickness Maximum force reduction referred to the texture with a roughness of 12 µm Ra, generated at a current of 39 A and an on-time of 42 µs Texturing time is ~10 seconds 9/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 10. Effectiveness of ED-texture lubricant application 32 textured tool Friction angle ( ) Friction angle ( ) ground tool 28 24 20 16 32 28 24 20 16 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Time (s) 10/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 11. Force reduction in continuous cutting Texturing decreases the forces and the variability, with the effect more pronounced in the feed direction 0 8 6 4 2 textured 1.5 textured 3.0 10 non-textured 4.5 Cutting force (x102 N) 12 non-textured Feed force (x102 N) 6.0 0 11/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 12. Feed force (x102 N) 6 Cutting force (x102 N) Force reduction in intermittent cutting non-textured 5 4 3 2 1 textured 0 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (s) Feed force reduction is higher in intermittent cutting as the lubricant is directly replenished on the tool rake face during the non-cutting interval 12/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 13. % reduction in feed force Effect of cutting parameters on force reduction 30 50 25 40 20 15 25 µm feed 30 20 10 5 intermittent 50 µm 0 continuous 10 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 Cutting speed (m/min) Cutting speed (m/min) Texturing is more effective at the low end of typical cutting speeds, at fine feeds and in intermittent cutting 13/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 14. 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 textured non-textured 0.5 0.0 Cutting force (x102 N) Feed force (x102 N) Force reduction in cutting of aluminum 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) Forces and the associated variability were significantly lower as the lubricant used was specifically formulated for cutting aluminum 14/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 15. Effect of texture location Friction angle ( ) 26 de 24 h = 25 µm 100 µm 50 µm 22 20 chip 18 tool h 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 (de/h) Force reduction is maximized when (de/h) is ~2−3 As the tool chip contact length is typically 4−6 times the feed h, this implies that texturing needs to correspond to just the sliding region 15/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 16. % reduction in force Comparison of linear and areal textures 30 25 feed force 20 areal 15 cutting force 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 % area textured linear Textured area was varied by altering the pitch in the linear texture Results confirm that the areal texture is to be preferred over a linear one 16/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 17. Role of texture parameters on force reduction % reduction in force 35 30 35 feed force 30 25 25 20 20 cutting force 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 Skewness 0.6 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Kurtosis Force reduction showed no systematic trends with respect to either the Ra roughness or the pulse parameters Force reduction exhibited defined maxima with respect to skewness and kurtosis of the texture 17/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 18. Conclusions Electrical discharge texturing has been demonstrated to bring about a significant (15−40%) reduction in machining force through enhanced lubrication at the tool-chip interface The skewness and kurtosis of the texture are good indicators of the extent of force reduction The concept is attractive for application in broaches, taps, gear cutting tools and possibly forming tools Mechanical imprinting of said texture during the compaction phase of tool inserts (as opposed to EDM of inserts) may be explored 18/18 Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools P. Koshy, J. Tovey 61st CIRP General Assembly Budapest, August 24, 2011
  • 19. Canadian Network of Centers of Excellence Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada Thank you for your kind attention!