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CherylWoelk
TESOL 2014
Portland,OR, USA
Language Education
• Language acquisition
• Linguistics
• Methodologies
• Assessments
• Language planning &
policy
• Multilingualism
• Translation
• Etc
Peace Education
• Conflict resolution skills
• Mediation & negotiation
• Trauma healing
• Restorative justice
• Nonviolence
• International
development
• Organizational change
• Etc
Language Education Peace Education
• Global issues
• Intercultural communication
• Coaching & facilitation skills
• Community & relationships
•Value-based teacher education
• Identity transformation
• Narratives & social discourse
• Etc
Language Education Peace Education
Teacher
Resilience
Protects against teacher “burnout”:
 Stems from “prolonged, constant, intensive
interaction with people in an emotionally
charged atmosphere”
(Schwab, 1983)
Depersonalization
(Maslach et al., 2014)
Protects against teacher “burnout”:
 Possible causes include…
 Chronic work stress (Steinhardt et al., 2011)
 Need for mentors (Fore, Martin & Bender, 2002)
 Lack of significance in teaching (Pines, 2002)
 Perception of behaviour issues and classroom
conflict (Fernet et al., 2012)
 Teachers’ emotional, physical, or social needs
not being met (Gold & Roth, 2013)
Emotional exhaustion
Disconnection from students
Feeling discouraged
Chronic work stress Taking time away from it all
Need for mentors  Mutual mentoring
Lack of significance  Meaningful content
Perceptions of conflict  Building skills
Needs not being met  Space for emotional
expression, social connection,
interpersonal support
Teaching for Peace, Renewing the Spirit - TESOL 2014
Constructivism Ethic of care
Appreciative
inquiry
Reflective
practice
 Focus points
 Essential questions
 Searching for answers
 Sharing our learning
 Making connections
 Suggested resources
Exploring our
identities
Creating
space
Knowing our
spirituality
Caring for
health needs
Transforming
conflict
Nurturing
justice
Encouraging
trauma
healing
Finding our
security
Renewing our
education
Sustaining our
leadership
Teaching for Peace, Renewing the Spirit - TESOL 2014
1. What do we know about our spirituality?
2. How does our spirituality support our rest
and renewal?
3. What resources of resiliency do we have from
our spirituality?
4. How do our spiritual communities sustain us
in our work and life?
5. What goals do we have for nurturing our
spirituality?
Gather a group together
Use the guide or create a group framework
Meet regularly
Ongoing feedback and follow-up
Renewal extending to classroom and
curriculum
 Language for Peace Project – broadening and
continuing the conversation
 More opportunities for reflection
 Sharing in communities of educators
 language4peace.org
Teaching for
Peace
Renewing
the Spirit
Fernet, C., Guay, F., Senécal, C., Austin, S. (2012). Predicting intraindividual changes
in teacher burnout:The role of perceived school environment and motivational
factors. Teaching andTeacher Education, 28(4), 514-525.
Fore, C., Martin, C., & Bender,W.N. (2002).Teacher burnout In special education:The
causes and the recommended solutions. The High School Journal, 86(1), 36-44.
doi: 10.1353/hsj.2002.0017
Gold,Y. R., R.A. (2013). Teachers managing stress & preventing burnout. NewYork, NY:
Routledge.
MacNair, R. M. (2003). The psychology of peace: An introduction.Westport, CT:
Praeger.
Marlowe, B.A., & Page, M. L. (2005). Creating and sustaining the constructivist
classroom.Thousand Oaks,CA:Corwin Press.
Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., Leiter, M.P., Schaufeli,W.B. & Schwab, R.L. (2014).
Maslach Burnout Inventory. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from
http://www.mindgarden.com/products/mbi.htm
Menkhaus, K. (2013). Making sense of resilience in peacebuilding contexts:
Approaches, applications, implications Geneva Peacebuilding Platform (Vol. 6).
Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to
education. NewYork, NY:Teachers College Press.
Noddings, N. (2008). Caring and peace education. Encylcopedia of Peace Education:
Teachers College Columbia University. Retrieved from
http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/
Phillips, G. (2008). Resilience in practice interventions. Child Care in Practice, 45-54.
Pines, A. M. (2002).Teacher burnout: A psychodynamic existential perspective.
Teachers andTeaching:Theory and Practice, 8(2), 121-140. doi:
10.1080/13540600220127331
Ramsey, M., Knight, R.A., Knight, M.L., &Verdon,T. (2011).Telic state teaching:
Understanding the relationships among classroom conflict strategies, humor,
and teacher burnout of university faculty. Florida Communication Journal, 39(1), 1-
15.
Schwab, R. L. (1983).Teacher burnout: Moving beyond "pyschobabble". Theory Into
Practice, 22(1), 21-26. doi: 10.1080/00405848309543033
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and
relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher
burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611-625.
Steinhardt, M. A., Smith Jaggars, S.E., Faulk, K.E., & Gloria, C.T. (2011). Chronic work
stress and depressive symptoms:Assessing the mediating role of teacher
burnout. Stress and Health, 27(5), 420-429. doi: 10.1002/smi.1394
Vandenburghe, R., & Huberman, A. M. (1999). Understanding and preventing teacher
burnout: a sourcebook of international research and practice. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.

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Teaching for Peace, Renewing the Spirit - TESOL 2014

  • 2. Language Education • Language acquisition • Linguistics • Methodologies • Assessments • Language planning & policy • Multilingualism • Translation • Etc Peace Education • Conflict resolution skills • Mediation & negotiation • Trauma healing • Restorative justice • Nonviolence • International development • Organizational change • Etc
  • 3. Language Education Peace Education • Global issues • Intercultural communication • Coaching & facilitation skills • Community & relationships •Value-based teacher education • Identity transformation • Narratives & social discourse • Etc
  • 4. Language Education Peace Education Teacher Resilience
  • 5. Protects against teacher “burnout”:  Stems from “prolonged, constant, intensive interaction with people in an emotionally charged atmosphere” (Schwab, 1983)
  • 7. Protects against teacher “burnout”:  Possible causes include…  Chronic work stress (Steinhardt et al., 2011)  Need for mentors (Fore, Martin & Bender, 2002)  Lack of significance in teaching (Pines, 2002)  Perception of behaviour issues and classroom conflict (Fernet et al., 2012)  Teachers’ emotional, physical, or social needs not being met (Gold & Roth, 2013)
  • 8. Emotional exhaustion Disconnection from students Feeling discouraged
  • 9. Chronic work stress Taking time away from it all Need for mentors  Mutual mentoring Lack of significance  Meaningful content Perceptions of conflict  Building skills Needs not being met  Space for emotional expression, social connection, interpersonal support
  • 11. Constructivism Ethic of care Appreciative inquiry Reflective practice
  • 12.  Focus points  Essential questions  Searching for answers  Sharing our learning  Making connections  Suggested resources
  • 13. Exploring our identities Creating space Knowing our spirituality Caring for health needs Transforming conflict Nurturing justice Encouraging trauma healing Finding our security Renewing our education Sustaining our leadership
  • 15. 1. What do we know about our spirituality? 2. How does our spirituality support our rest and renewal? 3. What resources of resiliency do we have from our spirituality? 4. How do our spiritual communities sustain us in our work and life? 5. What goals do we have for nurturing our spirituality?
  • 16. Gather a group together Use the guide or create a group framework Meet regularly Ongoing feedback and follow-up Renewal extending to classroom and curriculum
  • 17.  Language for Peace Project – broadening and continuing the conversation  More opportunities for reflection  Sharing in communities of educators  language4peace.org
  • 19. Fernet, C., Guay, F., Senécal, C., Austin, S. (2012). Predicting intraindividual changes in teacher burnout:The role of perceived school environment and motivational factors. Teaching andTeacher Education, 28(4), 514-525. Fore, C., Martin, C., & Bender,W.N. (2002).Teacher burnout In special education:The causes and the recommended solutions. The High School Journal, 86(1), 36-44. doi: 10.1353/hsj.2002.0017 Gold,Y. R., R.A. (2013). Teachers managing stress & preventing burnout. NewYork, NY: Routledge. MacNair, R. M. (2003). The psychology of peace: An introduction.Westport, CT: Praeger. Marlowe, B.A., & Page, M. L. (2005). Creating and sustaining the constructivist classroom.Thousand Oaks,CA:Corwin Press. Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., Leiter, M.P., Schaufeli,W.B. & Schwab, R.L. (2014). Maslach Burnout Inventory. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from http://www.mindgarden.com/products/mbi.htm
  • 20. Menkhaus, K. (2013). Making sense of resilience in peacebuilding contexts: Approaches, applications, implications Geneva Peacebuilding Platform (Vol. 6). Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. NewYork, NY:Teachers College Press. Noddings, N. (2008). Caring and peace education. Encylcopedia of Peace Education: Teachers College Columbia University. Retrieved from http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/ Phillips, G. (2008). Resilience in practice interventions. Child Care in Practice, 45-54. Pines, A. M. (2002).Teacher burnout: A psychodynamic existential perspective. Teachers andTeaching:Theory and Practice, 8(2), 121-140. doi: 10.1080/13540600220127331 Ramsey, M., Knight, R.A., Knight, M.L., &Verdon,T. (2011).Telic state teaching: Understanding the relationships among classroom conflict strategies, humor, and teacher burnout of university faculty. Florida Communication Journal, 39(1), 1- 15.
  • 21. Schwab, R. L. (1983).Teacher burnout: Moving beyond "pyschobabble". Theory Into Practice, 22(1), 21-26. doi: 10.1080/00405848309543033 Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611-625. Steinhardt, M. A., Smith Jaggars, S.E., Faulk, K.E., & Gloria, C.T. (2011). Chronic work stress and depressive symptoms:Assessing the mediating role of teacher burnout. Stress and Health, 27(5), 420-429. doi: 10.1002/smi.1394 Vandenburghe, R., & Huberman, A. M. (1999). Understanding and preventing teacher burnout: a sourcebook of international research and practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Editor's Notes

  1. Tried to develop a simple framework, helpful guides and ideas, but not too prescriptive – something to work with, but not limiting creativity of the group FOCUS POINTS - a general theme for the gathering. Participants can use these as a guide, an initiative for brainstorming other ideas, or just a conversation starter. Groups may wish to define objectives for each gathering, or may loosely focus around the points suggested and follow the natural path of participant sharing. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS - Participants are encouraged to create their own gathering questions. These questions form the center of inquiry around the topic and create the structure and content for the meeting. Questions should reflect interests and needs of the participants at this time. The suggested questions may or may not be used, but questions from an appreciative inquiry perspective will set a stage for further appreciative approaches. SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS - In this section, participants engage in self-directed activities which will enable them to discover something about their essential questions. These activities may be done during the meeting as a group or as part of the preparation for the gathering, depending on the time and needs of the participants. The suggested activities may stimulate ideas for participants and may be used or adapted accordingly. SHARING OUR LEARNING - Whether the search for answers occurs together or individually, participants are encouraged to share their learning with each other. This may be a summary at the end of a searching activity, or the focus of the gathering if the questions and searching have been done prior to meeting. The purpose of this section is to define discoveries, learning, and further questions and share as much as comfortable with others in the group. MAKING CONNECTIONS - The final section connects the group learning experience to life outside of the gathering. Each participant makes a specific plan to apply their learning to their contexts, through which they can reflect and bring back insights at the next gathering. SUGGESTED RESOURCES - The suggested resources come mainly from a limited source of materials related to educational contexts in the U.S. and Canada. Participants are encouraged to use these as a starting point and to search for materials most closely relevant to their contexts.
  2. Some of the themes to prompt discussion – of course each group can create their own, but this is just a helpful to frame peacebuilding thinking for language educators who may not have had the peace education background – included in the study guide
  3. As an example, let’s look at one section on “Knowing our spirituality” – connecting with the spiritual work of both peace education and language education. When dealing with issues such as worldviews, identity, conflict, and communities in both language learning and peacebuilding, it connects deeply with our spiritual selves. Awareness of this can help us to find more grounding both in our ways of teaching and relationships as applied from peace education perspectives, and our own work in building our resilience. In our group in Korea, we were all coming from a Christian perspective which gave us a common ground for speaking of our spirituality – not always the case in all teaching communities of course – experience of sharing differences and commonalities in this setting can be a great model for peacebuilding and provide opportunities to learn more deeply about others (connect to Morgan’s Values-Based Instruction presentation)
  4. Reflect on the essential questions (#3), take a few notes of your ideas Spend a few minutes (as time allows: or just personally) – introduce yourself to a colleague (also relationship building), share some of your thoughts
  5. Further ideas for implementation Start with identifying those you already have somewhat “mentoring” relationships with (1-2 people) Keep things informal and focused on what you want / need – this is for you! Bring in the practical – regular meetings help to engage in the reflective practice. What happened this week? How does that look from a peace perspective? What questions arise from that experience? Be open to changing as you go – curriculum development process we worked with kept things more structured, but to continue after that things shifted a bit – depends on the people in the group and their experiences Integrate your learning into teaching and broader curriculum work when possible – results of the curriculum we’ve developed, ongoing development and reflective groups
  6. Dialogue and support continues through Language for Peace Project - broadening the conversation, and more opportunities for renewal through reflection and sharing in communities of educators Coming out of a realization of the work in Mennonite communities of these discussions and integration of peace perspectives in language education Appreciative inquiry – this is something people are doing, sharing about it will build not only skills and abilities, but also provide opportunities for renewal and building resilience for those who feel isolated and at risk of burnout If you’d like to be part of this, follow the website, fill out the contact form on the site
  7. Renewal as essential for building teacher resilience - like the group of educators in South Korea who met to engage in reflection and research on peacebuilding, the process itself can provide much needed encouragement and energy, integrating peacebuilding theory and practice in ELT can help find renewed purpose and significance in teaching that will sustain the spirit of educators as they continue their journey.