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THE CONE OF EXPERIENCE
Educational Technology I
The Cone of Experience
• Developed by Edgar Dale
• Visual model;
• Pictorial device
that presents bands of experience
arranged according to degree of
abstraction and not degree of
difficulty.
The Cone of Experience
The Cone of Experience
• First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book,
Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching
• Designed to “show the progression of
learning experiences” (Dale (1969) p. 108) from
the concrete to the abstract
The Authentic
Cone
• 1946, 1st Edition of
Audiovisual Methods in
Teaching
• 1954, 2nd Edition of
Audiovisual Methods in
Teaching
• 1969, 3rd Edition of
Audiovisual Methods in
Teaching
Concrete vs. Abstract Learning
Concrete Learning Abstract Learning
• First-hand experiences
• Learner has some
control over the
outcome
• Incorporates the use of
all five senses
• APPLICATION
• Difficulty when not
enough previous
experience or exposure
to a concept
• Every level of the Cone
uses abstract thinking in
some way
• THEORY
Edgar Dale further explains…
• Individual bands of the Cone of
Experience stand for experiences that
are fluid, extensive and continually
interact”.
• Different kinds of sensory aid often
overlap and sometimes blend into one
another.
Misconceptions of the Cone
• All teaching/learning must move from
the bottom to the top of the Cone.
• One kind of experience on the Cone is
more useful than another
Misconceptions of the Cone
• More emphasis should be put on the
bottom levels of the Cone
• The upper level of the Cone is for older
students while the lower levels are for
younger students
• It overemphasizes the use of
instructional media
The Bands of Experience
DIRECT PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES
• Concrete, first hand experiences
• Have direct participation in the
outcome
• Use of all our senses
DIRECT PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES
Examples:
• preparing meals
• making a piece of furniture
• doing presentation
• performing laboratory experiment
• delivering speech
• taking a trip
PURPOSEFUL because….
• Experiences are not purely mechanical
• Undergone in relation to a purpose, i.e.
learning
The Cone of Experience
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES
• “Edited” copies of reality
• Used as substitute for real things
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES
Examples:
• Model
• Mock-ups
• Specimen
• Simulation and
• Games
PURPOSES
• Overcome limitations of space and
time
• To “edit” reality
• Overcome difficulties of size
• Understand the inaccessible
• Help learners understand
abstractions.
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d…
• MODELS
– Reproduction of a real thing in:
 small scale
 large scale or
 exact size
but made of synthetic materials
Examples: planetarium, atom
MODEL
Planetarium
MODEL
MODEL
MODEL
3D atom model
Plant cell model
globe
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d…
• MOCK UP
–a special model where the parts of a
model are singled out, heightened and
magnified in order to focus on a part or
process under study.
–Substitute for a real thing which may
be or not be operational. (Brown, et.al,
1969)
MOCK UP
Examples:
–Planetarium
–mock up of an auto plant to
show the auto making process
MOCK UP
Planetarium
MOCK UP
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d…
• SPECIMEN
–any individual or item considered typical of
a group, class or a whole.
• OBJECTS
–may also includes artifacts displayed in a
museum.
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d…
• SIMULATION
– Representation of a manageable real event in
in which the learner is an active participant
engaged in learning a behavior or in applying
previously acquired skills or knowledge.
Examples:
– Fire and earthquake drill
SIMULATIONS
SIMULATIONS
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d…
• GAMES
–Are used to practice and/or refine
knowledge /skills already acquired
–Identify gaps or weaknesses in knowledge
or skills
–Serve as a summation or review
–Develop new relationships among concepts
and principles
Games and Simulation
Games
are played
to win
Simulations
need not a
winner
Contrived
Experiences
TEACHING WITH DRAMATIZED
EXPERIENCES
• Reconstructed experiences
• Can be used to simplify an event or idea to
its most important parts
Divided into two categories:
• Acting – actual participation (more concrete)
• Observing – watching a dramatization take
place (more abstract)
The Cone of Experience
TEACHING WITH DRAMATIZED
EXPERIENCES
Examples:
• Formal
–plays
–pageants
• Less Formal
–tableau
–pantomime
–Puppets
–Role-playing
DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES
cont’d…
• Plays
–Depicts life, character, or culture or a
combination of all three
• Pageants
–Are community dramas that are based on
local history, presented by local actors.
Example: a historical pageant that traces the
growth of a school
DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES
cont’d…
• Pantomime
–The art of conveying a story through bodily
movements only
• Tableau (French word meaning picture)
– A picture-like scene composed of people
against a background
Often used to celebrate Independence Day,
Christmas Day and United Nations Day
DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES
cont’d…
• Puppets
–Can present ideas with extreme simplicity
• Types of Puppet
–Shadow puppets
–Rod puppets
–Hand puppets
–Gove-and-finger puppets
–Marionettes
The Cone of Experience
DEMONSTRATION IN TEACHING
• Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or
process
• Shows how certain things are done
Examples:
• How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich
• How to play the piano
• How to lift a fingerprint
Demonstrations
www.ttr.com/model1.html
Flame Salt Test Demonstration- You Tube (right click to open link)
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFqq1rL8PjQ
Study Trips
 Watch people do things
in real situations
 Observe an event that is
unavailable in the
classroom
 Examples:
 Civil War Re-enactment
 Old World Wisconsin
 Class trip to Washington
D.C.
Exhibits
 Something seen by a
spectator
 Two types
 Ready made
○ Museum
○ Career fair
 Home-made
○ Classroom project
○ National History Day
competition
Educational Television and
Motion Pictures
Television Motion Pictures
 Bring immediate interaction
with events from around the
world
 Edit an event to create
clearer understanding than if
experienced actual event first
hand
 Example:
 TV coverage of 9/11
 Can omit unnecessary or
unimportant material
 Used to slow down a fast
process
 Viewing, seeing and hearing
experience
 Can re-create events with
simplistic drama that even
slower students can grasp
Recordings, Radio, and Still Pictures
 Can often be understood
by those who cannot
read
 Helpful to students who
cannot deal with the
motion or pace of a real
event or television
 Examples:
 Time Life Magazine
 Listening to old radio
broadcasts
 Listening to period music
copyservices.tamu.edu/clipart/clip09/index.html
Symbolic Experiences
Very little immediate physical action
Difficult only if one doesn’t have enough
direct experience to support the symbol
Used at all levels of the Cone in varying
importance
Involves:
– Visual symbols
– Verbal symbols
Visual Symbols
No longer involves
reproducing real situations
Chalkboard and overhead
projector the most widely
used media
Help students see an idea,
event, or process
Examples:
Chalkboard
Flat maps
Diagrams
charts
http://pro.corbis.com
http://419.bittenus.com/6/6ballgameslottery/geography.gif
Verbal Symbols
• Two types
– Written words – more
abstract
– Spoken words – less
abstract
• Examples:
– Discussion
– Explanation/lecture
Concrete or Abstract Learning?
How could Dale’s Cone of Experience have changed this lesson for Calvin?
What instructional media could his teacher have used to have helped Calvin
find meaning in this lesson?
What does the Cone mean for
instruction?
 Dale (1938) taught teachers
that they should help their
students learn how the
media affects us, and to
critically evaluate it.
 Teachers must evaluate the
benefit of the learning vs.
the amount of time required
in the lesson
 How to effectively use
instructional media to
helping students move from
concrete to abstract thought
http://elzeeyed.com/ydome/wpcontent/uploads/2007/08/teacher_cartoon.gif
Other Instructional Technology
Learning Theories
 Anchored Instruction
◦ Developed by John Bransford at Vanderbilt University
◦ Principles:
 1. Learning and teaching activities should be anchored around
a case-study or problem
 2. Curriculum materials should allow students to explore a
lesson through instructional media
 Elaboration Theory
◦ Charles Reigeluth (Indiana University) and his colleagues in the late
1970s
◦ Elaboration theory is an instructional design theory that emphasizes
the creation of a learning sequence from simple to more complex
content in order to create deeper understanding.
Questions to Ponder:
• How do you use technology in your instruction?
• Does the use of technology enhance learning?
• Do today’s technology savvy students require greater
usage of technology than in the past?
• How can you use technology to create learning
experiences?
Conclusion:
•The Cone of Experience is a
visual device to aid teachers in
the selection of instructional
media
•The Cone is based on the
movement from concrete
experiences to abstract
experiences
•The literal interpretation of the
Cone has resulted in
misconceptions of its use
•The Cone has practical
applications in classroom
instruction
 Cisco Systems, Incorporated. (2008). Multimodal learning through media: What the research says.
Fadel, C., & Lemke, C. Retrieved from
http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf on
February 10, 2009.
 Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden Press
 Dooley, K. (2005). Advanced methods in distance education: Applications and practices for
educators, administrators and learners. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
 Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russell, J. D. (1989). Instructional media and the new technologies of
instruction. New York: Macmillan.
 Molenda, M. (2003). Cone of Experience. In Kovalchick, A., & Dawson, K. (Eds.). Education and
technology: An encyclopedia (p. 161-164). Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
 Seels, B. (1997). The relationship of media and ISD theory: The unrealized promise of Dale’s cone of
experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology. Albuquerque, New Mexico. (ERIC Document Reproducation
Service No. ED409869)
 Turner, G. (2000). Teaching young adults: A handbook for teachers in further education. Florence, KY:
Routledge.
 Elaboration Theory - http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theory-reigeluth.html
 Anchored Instruction - http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html
References
References:
• www.pinterest.com
• www.balancedandbarefoot.com
• www.semesteratsea.org
• www.123rf.com
• en.wikipedia.org
• www.mos.org
• www.ebay.co.uk
• www.123rf.com
• www.ratiomodels.com
• www.hamleys.com
• www.realdinosaur.com
• www.doncapone.org

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[Template] 5_TTL1_UNIT 5_Lesson 1_Cone of Experience.pptx

  • 1. THE CONE OF EXPERIENCE Educational Technology I
  • 2. The Cone of Experience • Developed by Edgar Dale • Visual model; • Pictorial device that presents bands of experience arranged according to degree of abstraction and not degree of difficulty.
  • 3. The Cone of Experience
  • 4. The Cone of Experience • First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching • Designed to “show the progression of learning experiences” (Dale (1969) p. 108) from the concrete to the abstract
  • 5. The Authentic Cone • 1946, 1st Edition of Audiovisual Methods in Teaching • 1954, 2nd Edition of Audiovisual Methods in Teaching • 1969, 3rd Edition of Audiovisual Methods in Teaching
  • 6. Concrete vs. Abstract Learning Concrete Learning Abstract Learning • First-hand experiences • Learner has some control over the outcome • Incorporates the use of all five senses • APPLICATION • Difficulty when not enough previous experience or exposure to a concept • Every level of the Cone uses abstract thinking in some way • THEORY
  • 7. Edgar Dale further explains… • Individual bands of the Cone of Experience stand for experiences that are fluid, extensive and continually interact”. • Different kinds of sensory aid often overlap and sometimes blend into one another.
  • 8.
  • 9. Misconceptions of the Cone • All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone. • One kind of experience on the Cone is more useful than another
  • 10. Misconceptions of the Cone • More emphasis should be put on the bottom levels of the Cone • The upper level of the Cone is for older students while the lower levels are for younger students • It overemphasizes the use of instructional media
  • 11. The Bands of Experience
  • 12. DIRECT PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES • Concrete, first hand experiences • Have direct participation in the outcome • Use of all our senses
  • 13. DIRECT PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES Examples: • preparing meals • making a piece of furniture • doing presentation • performing laboratory experiment • delivering speech • taking a trip
  • 14. PURPOSEFUL because…. • Experiences are not purely mechanical • Undergone in relation to a purpose, i.e. learning
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. The Cone of Experience
  • 20. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES • “Edited” copies of reality • Used as substitute for real things
  • 21. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES Examples: • Model • Mock-ups • Specimen • Simulation and • Games
  • 22. PURPOSES • Overcome limitations of space and time • To “edit” reality • Overcome difficulties of size • Understand the inaccessible • Help learners understand abstractions.
  • 23. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • MODELS – Reproduction of a real thing in:  small scale  large scale or  exact size but made of synthetic materials Examples: planetarium, atom
  • 25. MODEL
  • 26. MODEL
  • 27. MODEL 3D atom model Plant cell model globe
  • 28. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • MOCK UP –a special model where the parts of a model are singled out, heightened and magnified in order to focus on a part or process under study. –Substitute for a real thing which may be or not be operational. (Brown, et.al, 1969)
  • 29. MOCK UP Examples: –Planetarium –mock up of an auto plant to show the auto making process
  • 32. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • SPECIMEN –any individual or item considered typical of a group, class or a whole. • OBJECTS –may also includes artifacts displayed in a museum.
  • 33. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • SIMULATION – Representation of a manageable real event in in which the learner is an active participant engaged in learning a behavior or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge. Examples: – Fire and earthquake drill
  • 36. CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • GAMES –Are used to practice and/or refine knowledge /skills already acquired –Identify gaps or weaknesses in knowledge or skills –Serve as a summation or review –Develop new relationships among concepts and principles
  • 37. Games and Simulation Games are played to win Simulations need not a winner Contrived Experiences
  • 38. TEACHING WITH DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES • Reconstructed experiences • Can be used to simplify an event or idea to its most important parts Divided into two categories: • Acting – actual participation (more concrete) • Observing – watching a dramatization take place (more abstract)
  • 39. The Cone of Experience
  • 40. TEACHING WITH DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES Examples: • Formal –plays –pageants • Less Formal –tableau –pantomime –Puppets –Role-playing
  • 41. DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • Plays –Depicts life, character, or culture or a combination of all three • Pageants –Are community dramas that are based on local history, presented by local actors. Example: a historical pageant that traces the growth of a school
  • 42. DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • Pantomime –The art of conveying a story through bodily movements only • Tableau (French word meaning picture) – A picture-like scene composed of people against a background Often used to celebrate Independence Day, Christmas Day and United Nations Day
  • 43. DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES cont’d… • Puppets –Can present ideas with extreme simplicity • Types of Puppet –Shadow puppets –Rod puppets –Hand puppets –Gove-and-finger puppets –Marionettes
  • 44. The Cone of Experience
  • 45. DEMONSTRATION IN TEACHING • Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or process • Shows how certain things are done Examples: • How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich • How to play the piano • How to lift a fingerprint
  • 46. Demonstrations www.ttr.com/model1.html Flame Salt Test Demonstration- You Tube (right click to open link) •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFqq1rL8PjQ
  • 47. Study Trips  Watch people do things in real situations  Observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom  Examples:  Civil War Re-enactment  Old World Wisconsin  Class trip to Washington D.C.
  • 48. Exhibits  Something seen by a spectator  Two types  Ready made ○ Museum ○ Career fair  Home-made ○ Classroom project ○ National History Day competition
  • 49. Educational Television and Motion Pictures Television Motion Pictures  Bring immediate interaction with events from around the world  Edit an event to create clearer understanding than if experienced actual event first hand  Example:  TV coverage of 9/11  Can omit unnecessary or unimportant material  Used to slow down a fast process  Viewing, seeing and hearing experience  Can re-create events with simplistic drama that even slower students can grasp
  • 50. Recordings, Radio, and Still Pictures  Can often be understood by those who cannot read  Helpful to students who cannot deal with the motion or pace of a real event or television  Examples:  Time Life Magazine  Listening to old radio broadcasts  Listening to period music copyservices.tamu.edu/clipart/clip09/index.html
  • 51. Symbolic Experiences Very little immediate physical action Difficult only if one doesn’t have enough direct experience to support the symbol Used at all levels of the Cone in varying importance Involves: – Visual symbols – Verbal symbols
  • 52. Visual Symbols No longer involves reproducing real situations Chalkboard and overhead projector the most widely used media Help students see an idea, event, or process Examples: Chalkboard Flat maps Diagrams charts http://pro.corbis.com http://419.bittenus.com/6/6ballgameslottery/geography.gif
  • 53. Verbal Symbols • Two types – Written words – more abstract – Spoken words – less abstract • Examples: – Discussion – Explanation/lecture
  • 54. Concrete or Abstract Learning? How could Dale’s Cone of Experience have changed this lesson for Calvin? What instructional media could his teacher have used to have helped Calvin find meaning in this lesson?
  • 55. What does the Cone mean for instruction?  Dale (1938) taught teachers that they should help their students learn how the media affects us, and to critically evaluate it.  Teachers must evaluate the benefit of the learning vs. the amount of time required in the lesson  How to effectively use instructional media to helping students move from concrete to abstract thought http://elzeeyed.com/ydome/wpcontent/uploads/2007/08/teacher_cartoon.gif
  • 56. Other Instructional Technology Learning Theories  Anchored Instruction ◦ Developed by John Bransford at Vanderbilt University ◦ Principles:  1. Learning and teaching activities should be anchored around a case-study or problem  2. Curriculum materials should allow students to explore a lesson through instructional media  Elaboration Theory ◦ Charles Reigeluth (Indiana University) and his colleagues in the late 1970s ◦ Elaboration theory is an instructional design theory that emphasizes the creation of a learning sequence from simple to more complex content in order to create deeper understanding.
  • 57. Questions to Ponder: • How do you use technology in your instruction? • Does the use of technology enhance learning? • Do today’s technology savvy students require greater usage of technology than in the past? • How can you use technology to create learning experiences?
  • 58. Conclusion: •The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media •The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences •The literal interpretation of the Cone has resulted in misconceptions of its use •The Cone has practical applications in classroom instruction
  • 59.  Cisco Systems, Incorporated. (2008). Multimodal learning through media: What the research says. Fadel, C., & Lemke, C. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf on February 10, 2009.  Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden Press  Dooley, K. (2005). Advanced methods in distance education: Applications and practices for educators, administrators and learners. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.  Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russell, J. D. (1989). Instructional media and the new technologies of instruction. New York: Macmillan.  Molenda, M. (2003). Cone of Experience. In Kovalchick, A., & Dawson, K. (Eds.). Education and technology: An encyclopedia (p. 161-164). Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.  Seels, B. (1997). The relationship of media and ISD theory: The unrealized promise of Dale’s cone of experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Albuquerque, New Mexico. (ERIC Document Reproducation Service No. ED409869)  Turner, G. (2000). Teaching young adults: A handbook for teachers in further education. Florence, KY: Routledge.  Elaboration Theory - http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theory-reigeluth.html  Anchored Instruction - http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html References
  • 60. References: • www.pinterest.com • www.balancedandbarefoot.com • www.semesteratsea.org • www.123rf.com • en.wikipedia.org • www.mos.org • www.ebay.co.uk • www.123rf.com • www.ratiomodels.com • www.hamleys.com • www.realdinosaur.com • www.doncapone.org

Editor's Notes

  1. Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  2. Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  3. Concrete and Abstract learning are key concepts in the visual layout of the Cone. (Read slide aloud) Although Dale points out that every level of the Cone contains some form of abstractedness, such as words, he emphasizes that the lower levels of the Cone rely more on concrete experiences as foundations for later abstract exploration.
  4. Dale’s Cone of Experience is often mis-interpreted and more recently mis-represented. In Dale’s 1969 version of his Audio Visual text, he dedicates an entire section to refuting these mis-conceptions, which include (read slide aloud).
  5. Dale’s Cone of Experience is often mis-interpreted and more recently mis-represented. In Dale’s 1969 version of his Audio Visual text, he dedicates an entire section to refuting these mis-conceptions, which include (read slide aloud).
  6. concrete, first hand experiences which makes up the foundation of learning
  7. concrete, first hand experiences which makes up the foundation of learning
  8. They are not a matter of going through the motion. These are experiences that are internalized in the sense that these experiences involve the asking of questions that have significance in the life of the person undergoing the direct experience.
  9. Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  10. for us to be able focus on parts or a process of a system that we intend to study
  11. Organizers of earthquake and fire drills create a situation high similar to the real situation when a building is on fire or when an earthquake happens
  12. Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  13. Pantomime – effect on the audience depends on the movement of the actors
  14. Pantomime – effect on the audience depends on the movement of the actors
  15. Dale’s Cone first appeared in his 1946 textbook titled “ Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. This text is the grail for any educator wanting to successfully integrate AV materials into instruction. Dale intentions were not for the Cone to represent all ways of learning but instead to create a visual with which to categorize the progression of AV material usage, from the concrete to abstract experience.
  16. concrete, first hand experiences which makes up the foundation of learning
  17. Demonstrations are a great mixture of concrete hands-on application and more abstract verbal explanation. Demonstrations can (read slide out loud). If you don’t have the room or materials to perform certain demonstrations, the Internet provides many options for demonstration viewing. (watch hyperlink). Although this creates a greater abstraction to the demonstration, I use this video in my own classroom during our forensic science unit because my room is not equipped to handle open flames. Even though this is not “hands on” the students love to watch this colorful demonstration.
  18. Study trips are another great way to mix concrete and abstract concepts of learning. Study trips allow students to (read slide aloud). This photograph is of my students on our bi-annual trip to Washington, D.C.. This year will be our fifth trip to D.C since 2001 and I have found that students have gained a much deeper content knowledge through this experience. They are able to take seemingly abstract textbook concepts and view them at work in real life. It gives them a chance to view and touch the knowledge previously presented to them.
  19. The next category on the Cone are exhibits. At first most people think of museum when they hear the work exhibits but Dale envisioned the use of exhibits as much more. Exhibits are (read the slide out loud).
  20. This category is probably one of the most used in traditional education, today. With the advent of “live” television, students can become more intimately involved in real events as they are happening. Motion pictures can also take epic events and condense them into usable packages for lesson planning. Both however are nearing the top of the Cone as students are limited in their physical involvement. Television can (read slide aloud). Motion pictures can (read slide out loud).
  21. Finally, the most abstract of the iconic category Dale places recordings, radio and still pictures. This category (read slide out loud).
  22. The final two categories on the Cone involve symbolic experiences. Although considered the most abstract by Dale, symbolic experiences are the most used in traditional education, today. Symbolic experiences encompass (read slide out loud).
  23. We all are inundated with visual symbols every day and most of the time we pay little attention to them. On the Cone, Dale describes visual symbols as (read slide aloud).
  24. Finally, at the top of the Cone of Experience are verbal symbols. This category represents the most abstract band of the Cone in which concepts don’t look like the things they represent. If I said the word “K-i-t-e” the letters look nothing like a kite yet we have learned to understand what those letters together mean. Visual symbols offer (read slide aloud). Now that we have a better understanding of each category in the Cone of Experience, lets explore how to apply this knowledge to the classroom.
  25. Here we have Calvin, a typical adolescent student, who struggles to find meaning in his test question.(Read slide aloud) (Have the group brainstorm ideas on how to help Calvin’s teacher. Write some of the suggestions on a whiteboard). Now think about your subject area. Choose a typical unit of study in your field and design a curriculum outline for AV use in that unit. What AV technologies could you use to enhance learning for students? Are your choices more concrete or abstract? (Give the group time to devise their plans and talk with group members. Share a few examples with the whole group).
  26. (Read the slide aloud)
  27. Although Dale’s Cone remains the central starting point for research on instructional technology, I have chosen two other theories that relate well to the Cone. (Read the slide aloud).
  28. As we conclude our session together, let me leave you with a few questions to ponder. (read slide out loud).
  29. Whew, that was a lot of information to remember! Let’s recap the most important aspects of this presentation. (read the slide aloud) Are there any questions? (take a few moments to answer any question the group may have). Thank you all for joining me today and have a great rest of the school year!