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Techniques of performance appraisal
In this file, you can ref useful information about techniques of performance appraisal such as
techniques of performance appraisal methods, techniques of performance appraisal tips,
techniques of performance appraisal forms, techniques of performance appraisal phrases … If
you need more assistant for techniques of performance appraisal, please leave your comment at
the end of file.
Other useful material for you:
• performanceappraisal123.com/1125-free-performance-review-phrases
• performanceappraisal123.com/free-28-performance-appraisal-forms
• performanceappraisal123.com/free-ebook-11-methods-for-performance-appraisal
I. Contents of getting techniques of performance appraisal
==================
The techniques of appraisal have been divided into two categories: The modern and the
traditional techniques. While the traditional methods base their findings on the personality trades
of an individual like creativity, responsibility, and leadership, the modern techniques laid more
stress on the evaluation of work results. The traditional methods or techniques are:
1. Confidential report: It is used for promotion and transfer of an employee and is prepared by
the immediate superior who describes in detail the strength and weaknesses along with major
achievements and failures of the employee. The personality and behavior of the employee also
find mention in this report.
2. Essay or free form method: As the name suggests the appraiser write a short essay detailing
the performance of the employee. It is a very time consuming method and is prone to buys also
as specific performance dimensions are not considered. The quality of appraisal also depends on
the writing skills of the appraiser. It is also difficult to compare two Essay appraisals as there is
no common criterion for the appraiser.
3. Strayed ranking method: This is the old and simplest method of performance appraisal. In this
method ranks are assigned relatively to all the employees working in the same unit and doing the
same job without analyzing their performance. The method biased as the ranking is not based on
the specific performance measures of a job. It can be cumbersome if the number of employees is
very large. The other limitations of this method are that it only tells how an employee stands in
comparison with other employees.
4. Forced distribution method: In this method the evaluator is required to distribute his rating in
the form of normal frequency distribution. Employees are shown in categories that range from
poor to excellent by the evaluator. This method was evolved by Joseph Tiffin but it also suffers
from certain limitations as the performance criteria related to a job are not used and the reasons
for assigning a category to particular employee are not clear.
5. Graphic or linear rating scale: In this method a numerical scale is used which indicates
different degrees to a particular trait. These traits can be initiative dependability creativity
attitude loyalty emotional stability and co-ordination. The evaluator gives a particular ranking on
each trait to every employee. Two types of rating scales are used: Continuous and discontinues.
In first type degree of a trait is measure along a continuum like 0 1 2 3. IN discontinues rating
scale boxes are used to show the different degrees of the traits like (I) no interest (II) indifferent
(III) Interesting (IV) enthusiastic (V) very enthusiastic.
6. Critical incident method: This method was developed after a research by the armed forces of
United States of the 2nd world war. It is based on a principal that there are some significant acts
in the behavior and performance of every employee which can lead to the success of failure on
the job. The supervisor keeps a record of these events which can be good or bad and also records
the behavior of the employee during such an event. The ratings of the employee depend on the
positive or negative behavior during these events. This method also has certain limitations like it
is cumbersome and time consuming and a lot of important information is lost while coating the
incident after a considerable gap of time. Continues record keeping is also not possible as such
events keep on happening frequently. The bios by the supervisor in reporting these incidents can
also not be ruled out completely.
7. Group appraisal method: Employees are rated by a group of people comprising the immediate
supervisor of the employee and other supervisor who have the knowledge of the employee work
along with the concerned head of the department and a personnel expert. This group determines
the standards and then measures the actual performance of the employee. It suggests creative
measures after analyzing the causes of poor performance. Though it is a time consuming method,
it is free from bias.
==================
III. Performance appraisal methods
1.Ranking Method
The ranking system requires the rater to rank his
subordinates on overall performance. This consists in
simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method,
the ranking of an employee in a work group is done
against that of another employee. The relative position of
each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It
may also be done by ranking a person on his job
performance against another member of the competitive
group.
Advantages of Ranking Method
i. Employees are ranked according to their performance
levels.
ii. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee.
Limitations of Ranking Method
i. The “whole man” is compared with another “whole man”
in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare
individuals possessing various individual traits.
ii. This method speaks only of the position where an
employee stands in his group. It does not test anything
about how much better or how much worse an employee
is when compared to another employee.
iii. When a large number of employees are working, ranking
of individuals become a difficult issue.
iv. There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals
in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate
the possibility of snap judgements.
2. Rating Scale
Rating scales consists of several numerical scales
representing job related performance criterions such as
dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc.
Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total
numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are
derived. Advantages – Adaptability, easy to use, low cost,
every type of job can be evaluated, large number of
employees covered, no formal training required.
Disadvantages – Rater’s biases
3. Checklist method
Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of
employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is
prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or
checking and HR department does the actual evaluation.
Advantages – economy, ease of administration, limited
training required, standardization. Disadvantages – Raters
biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow
rater to give relative ratings
4. Critical Incidents Method
The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of
employee that makes all the difference in the
performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record
such incidents. Advantages – Evaluations are based on
actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by
descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases,
chances of subordinate improvement are high.
Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized,
forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback
may be too much and may appear to be punishment.
5. Essay Method
In this method the rater writes down the employee
description in detail within a number of broad categories
like, overall impression of performance, promoteability
of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of
performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training
needs of the employee. Advantage – It is extremely
useful in filing information gaps about the employees
that often occur in a better-structured checklist.
Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing
skills of rater and most of them are not good writers.
They may get confused success depends on the memory
power of raters.
6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
statements of effective and ineffective behaviors
determine the points. They are said to be
behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to
say, which behavior describes the employee
performance. Advantages – helps overcome rating
errors. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions
inherent in most rating techniques.
III. Other topics related to Techniques of performance appraisal (pdf
download)
• Top 28 performance appraisal forms
• performance appraisal comments
• 11 performance appraisal methods
• 25 performance appraisal examples
• performance appraisal phrases
• performance appraisal process
• performance appraisal template
• performance appraisal system
• performance appraisal answers
• performance appraisal questions
• performance appraisal techniques
• performance appraisal format
• performance appraisal templates
• performance appraisal questionnaire
• performance appraisal software
• performance appraisal tools
• performance appraisal interview
• performance appraisal phrases examples
• performance appraisal objectives
• performance appraisal policy
• performance appraisal letter
• performance appraisal types
• performance appraisal quotes
• performance appraisal articles

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Techniques of performance appraisal

  • 1. Techniques of performance appraisal In this file, you can ref useful information about techniques of performance appraisal such as techniques of performance appraisal methods, techniques of performance appraisal tips, techniques of performance appraisal forms, techniques of performance appraisal phrases … If you need more assistant for techniques of performance appraisal, please leave your comment at the end of file. Other useful material for you: • performanceappraisal123.com/1125-free-performance-review-phrases • performanceappraisal123.com/free-28-performance-appraisal-forms • performanceappraisal123.com/free-ebook-11-methods-for-performance-appraisal I. Contents of getting techniques of performance appraisal ================== The techniques of appraisal have been divided into two categories: The modern and the traditional techniques. While the traditional methods base their findings on the personality trades of an individual like creativity, responsibility, and leadership, the modern techniques laid more stress on the evaluation of work results. The traditional methods or techniques are: 1. Confidential report: It is used for promotion and transfer of an employee and is prepared by the immediate superior who describes in detail the strength and weaknesses along with major achievements and failures of the employee. The personality and behavior of the employee also find mention in this report. 2. Essay or free form method: As the name suggests the appraiser write a short essay detailing the performance of the employee. It is a very time consuming method and is prone to buys also as specific performance dimensions are not considered. The quality of appraisal also depends on the writing skills of the appraiser. It is also difficult to compare two Essay appraisals as there is no common criterion for the appraiser. 3. Strayed ranking method: This is the old and simplest method of performance appraisal. In this method ranks are assigned relatively to all the employees working in the same unit and doing the same job without analyzing their performance. The method biased as the ranking is not based on the specific performance measures of a job. It can be cumbersome if the number of employees is
  • 2. very large. The other limitations of this method are that it only tells how an employee stands in comparison with other employees. 4. Forced distribution method: In this method the evaluator is required to distribute his rating in the form of normal frequency distribution. Employees are shown in categories that range from poor to excellent by the evaluator. This method was evolved by Joseph Tiffin but it also suffers from certain limitations as the performance criteria related to a job are not used and the reasons for assigning a category to particular employee are not clear. 5. Graphic or linear rating scale: In this method a numerical scale is used which indicates different degrees to a particular trait. These traits can be initiative dependability creativity attitude loyalty emotional stability and co-ordination. The evaluator gives a particular ranking on each trait to every employee. Two types of rating scales are used: Continuous and discontinues. In first type degree of a trait is measure along a continuum like 0 1 2 3. IN discontinues rating scale boxes are used to show the different degrees of the traits like (I) no interest (II) indifferent (III) Interesting (IV) enthusiastic (V) very enthusiastic. 6. Critical incident method: This method was developed after a research by the armed forces of United States of the 2nd world war. It is based on a principal that there are some significant acts in the behavior and performance of every employee which can lead to the success of failure on the job. The supervisor keeps a record of these events which can be good or bad and also records the behavior of the employee during such an event. The ratings of the employee depend on the positive or negative behavior during these events. This method also has certain limitations like it is cumbersome and time consuming and a lot of important information is lost while coating the incident after a considerable gap of time. Continues record keeping is also not possible as such events keep on happening frequently. The bios by the supervisor in reporting these incidents can also not be ruled out completely. 7. Group appraisal method: Employees are rated by a group of people comprising the immediate supervisor of the employee and other supervisor who have the knowledge of the employee work along with the concerned head of the department and a personnel expert. This group determines the standards and then measures the actual performance of the employee. It suggests creative measures after analyzing the causes of poor performance. Though it is a time consuming method, it is free from bias. ================== III. Performance appraisal methods
  • 3. 1.Ranking Method The ranking system requires the rater to rank his subordinates on overall performance. This consists in simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method, the ranking of an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive group. Advantages of Ranking Method i. Employees are ranked according to their performance levels. ii. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee. Limitations of Ranking Method i. The “whole man” is compared with another “whole man” in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare individuals possessing various individual traits. ii. This method speaks only of the position where an employee stands in his group. It does not test anything about how much better or how much worse an employee is when compared to another employee. iii. When a large number of employees are working, ranking of individuals become a difficult issue. iv. There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate the possibility of snap judgements. 2. Rating Scale Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job related performance criterions such as dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are derived. Advantages – Adaptability, easy to use, low cost, every type of job can be evaluated, large number of employees covered, no formal training required. Disadvantages – Rater’s biases
  • 4. 3. Checklist method Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or checking and HR department does the actual evaluation. Advantages – economy, ease of administration, limited training required, standardization. Disadvantages – Raters biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow rater to give relative ratings 4. Critical Incidents Method The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of employee that makes all the difference in the performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record such incidents. Advantages – Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases, chances of subordinate improvement are high. Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized, forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback may be too much and may appear to be punishment. 5. Essay Method
  • 5. In this method the rater writes down the employee description in detail within a number of broad categories like, overall impression of performance, promoteability of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training needs of the employee. Advantage – It is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employees that often occur in a better-structured checklist. Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing skills of rater and most of them are not good writers. They may get confused success depends on the memory power of raters. 6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales statements of effective and ineffective behaviors determine the points. They are said to be behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to say, which behavior describes the employee performance. Advantages – helps overcome rating errors. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating techniques. III. Other topics related to Techniques of performance appraisal (pdf download) • Top 28 performance appraisal forms • performance appraisal comments • 11 performance appraisal methods • 25 performance appraisal examples • performance appraisal phrases • performance appraisal process • performance appraisal template • performance appraisal system • performance appraisal answers • performance appraisal questions • performance appraisal techniques • performance appraisal format
  • 6. • performance appraisal templates • performance appraisal questionnaire • performance appraisal software • performance appraisal tools • performance appraisal interview • performance appraisal phrases examples • performance appraisal objectives • performance appraisal policy • performance appraisal letter • performance appraisal types • performance appraisal quotes • performance appraisal articles