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TEAMWORK SKILLS


Table of contents                                    page


Introduction

Objectives                                           1

1.     Teamwork: an explanation                      2

       1.1     Co-operation skills                   2

       1.2     Roles and functions in co-operation   5


2.     Checklist                                     8


Literature                                           9


Annex 1: task oriented skills                        10

Annex 2: atmosphere oriented skills                  11

Annex 3: work styles and roles in co-operation       12

Annex 4: phases in team development                  13

Annex 5: Kolb’s learning styles                      14
00000000INTRODUCTION000000001

This reader is part of a series of readers concerning general professional skills. The
objective of these readers is, to provide information in a clear manner concerning subjects
such as project management, team work, meetings, presentations and such-like. The
information can be used for fulfilling assignments and projects in all kinds of professional
fields.

When we talk about team work, we mean a well aimed collective effort.
In the first place we will deal with skills, which are required when working together towards
an objective. Next we will go into a the roles co-operating people will take upon themselves
on the basis of their preference in working and learning. Finally we will treat the phases
passed through by group-development.

At the end of this reader a check list and 5 annexes have been added, which - we hope - will
enhance the usefulness of the offered information.




Drs. M.G. Altena
Drs. W.G. Bekkering
Ir. J.J. van Veldhuizen
Translation: K.M.L. Slot-Lim


Revised version: Brian Thompson 2009



                                              2
OBJECTIVES


General: The person can in a careful way co-operate in a team.


Objectives concerning knowledge:

*      the person knows which skills team members must have at their disposal for optimal
       functioning in a team.
*      the person knows the attention points which play a role in the formation of a team.
*      the person knows the phases a team passes through in her development.


Objectives concerning skills:

A.      With regard to the task:

The person
*     contributes constructive to the execution of a task
*     executes a (partial)task according to procedures, decided in collective deliberation
      and evaluates working-methods and makes corrections if required.

B.     With regard to the working atmosphere:

The person
*     listens actively to the contribution of others in the team.
*     acts assertively with regard to own contribution in the team.
*     handles carefully with stress and eventual conflicts and co-operates in solving these
      problems.
*     contributes to finding consensus and compromises.


C.     With regard to the group roles:

The person is able to:
*     characterise his own role in the team and that of others on the basis of the
      preferential styles mentioned in this reader.
*     make use of these insights when forming a team.


D.     With regard to group development

The person is able to:
*     act structurally and organisationally in the phase "formation"
*     create a atmosphere where feelings can be discussed and look for solutions doing
      justice to everybody, during the phase of "Storming".
*     protect the quality of the team work and act objective oriented during the phase of
      "Performing"




                                              3
1.     TEAMWORK, an explanation

It didn’t just happen that people work in a team to fulfil their tasks, as well in education as in
trade and industry. Research has shown, that people working in a team are often more
productive and perform better than individual workers. That is understandable, because in a
team often people with diverging knowledge and specific qualities are present. They
complement each other which enhances their performance.
This does not mean that each type of work is suitably done in team work, neither does it
mean that team work is a wonderful remedy for all problems. Work in a team proves efficient
and makes sense and is more satisfying for the members.

In the scope of team work the following questions are important:

*      what are the required skills in order to function within a team ?
*      which roles and functions determine functioning in a team?
*      which phases does a team pass through ?

This reader deals with these aspects.

1.1    Cooperation skills

The functioning of a team can be described with the catchwords task and atmosphere.
Both elements are of great importance for a group. Optimal functioning of a team is
enhanced if ream members own these task- and atmosphere oriented proficiencies.
Together they result in behaviour that makes a team function well. What does this mean?

Task oriented skills

The task of a team is mostly defined. There is a description of the desired result of the team
work. When a team has been formed, it must be determined how the task will be carried out
and the responsibilities have to be assigned. In view of the tasks it is logical that team
members possess certain skills. These skills are related to expertness in certain subjects
and know-how, but also to proficiencies in problem solving and project management.

Part of task oriented skills is also formed by effectively and efficiently dealing with available
time, organisation, quality control, collaboration in correctly providing information and
contribution to for instance a budget. Here the T.O.Q.I.F. aspects are recognisable which
were discussed in the reader project management.




                                                 4
In figure 1 the most important task oriented skills are once again enumerated:


 TASK ORIENTED SKILLS                                 THIS MEANS:
 Expertness related to the task and be                Active participation on the basis of
 involved in                                          knowledge

 Being able to solve problems / problem               Work on: forming a picture, design,
 assessment and formulation                           decision-making and execution

 Effective and efficient participation in work/       Help realize objectives, guard time and
 planning                                             tasks.
                                                      Proper recording of and observing
                                                      agreements.

 Possess organizational skills.                       Bring structure and order in tasks and
                                                      related activities. Lay down procedures.

 Be communicative                                     Provide or ask information and opinions as
                                                      well oral as in writing.

 Possess financial insight                            Help watch over the budget. Handle money
                                                      in a correct manner.

Figure 1



Atmosphere / group oriented skills

As important as fore mentioned skills are the atmosphere oriented faculties. These bear on
personal relations in a team. Atmosphere in the team relates to needs of team members,
and the way other team members handle these needs. These needs are for instance want of
recognition, influence and affection.

Every team member is co-responsible for a good atmosphere in the team.
Such atmosphere can be improved if team members don’t take themselves too seriously
and are open to discussions of conflicts, relate to each other with tact and are capable to
find the balance between strain and relaxation, serious work and time for a chat.
As atmosphere oriented skills we may also mention: active listening, bring one's own opinion
(being assertive); stimulate and motivate others is also good for the atmosphere in a team
and is as such an important skill of each of the team members.
If within a team such skills are not present, it is doubtful whether the task can be fulfilled.




                                                  5
Figure 2 summarises the most important atmosphere oriented skills:

 ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED SKILLS                      THIS MEANS:
 Active listening                                Nod, continue questioning, humming.
                                                 Show your interest in the story of your
                                                 partner.
 Be assertive                                     Dare clearly indicate your opinion or what
                                                 you want to be achieved.
 Tactical action.                                 Approach people in such a way that they
                                                 are not hurt. If need be look for
                                                 compromises which do not short-change
                                                 people.
  Bring balance between strain and                Be able to work hard without being fixed on
 relaxation.                                     the task. Give opportunity for informal
                                                 contact; humour.
 Be able to handle conflicts.                     Do not evade conflicts but talk them over
                                                 and try to solve them. Take also yourself a
                                                 vulnerable position !
 Be able to stimulate and motivate others.       By praising the other and show enthusiasm
                                                 over his activities.
 Figure 2


Of course nor every team member possesses the proficiencies required for a good
execution of the task and for good atmosphere. Therefore it is recommended to see to a
varied team composition.




                                             6
1.2    Roles and functions in co-operation

The effectiveness of a team is optimal, when the members complement each other. It makes
no sense to form a team with people who are strong in theory, without members who have
practical and organisational skills.

Though people with one-sided qualities are exceptional, from research it proves, that people
have their weak and strong sides. The American D.A. Kolb proposed a few years ago his
meanwhile well-known classification of people in so called preference styles. He made a
partitioning in 4 types, dreamers, thinkers, deciders and doers.

The dreamers are good in reflection on certain things in connection with a concrete
experience. They are creative persons with lots of ideas. This experience inspires
dreamers. The strong side of thinkers is the development of certain theories. They are
strong in analysis and research and in testing things. They try to place things in a theoretical
frame work and they are capable of handling abstract ideas. The deciders want to start the
job: there is a number of theories or ideas. It is time, in order to start the job, to select a
number of possibilities. Well, the deciders are good at cutting through the knots, after having
weighed the pros and cons of the given opportunities. Deciders have a great organisational
talent. The doers are eager to execute and let themselves be guided by strategies, passed
on to them by others. They have great practical skills.

The functioning of a team is enhanced, if at the time of its arrangement care is given to full
employment of its members' specific characteristics.

The classification in preference styles compares well to the problem solving model. From
this comparison it then becomes clear, that certain types of people are functioning at their
best in a certain phase of problem solving.

In figure 3 roles and functions are summarised.

       ROLES AND FUNCTIONS IN TEAM WORK
 PREFERENCE STYLES                  ROLES/FUNCT.                 ACTIVITIES
 DREAMER / REFLECT                  TIE TOGETHER
                                    SOURCE OF IDEAS,             IMAGE FORMING
   "FEELING"                        ADVISOR
 THINKER / THEORETICIAN             EXPERT
  "THINKING"                        ANALYZER                      DESIGN
                                    DEVELOPER
 DECIDER / PRAGMATIST               PLANNER
  "WILLING"                         ORGANISER                   DECISION-MAKING
                                    CHAIRMAN
 DOER / EXECUTOR                    CONTROLLER
                                    WORKER                        PERFORMANCE
   "DO"                             QUALITY CONTROL
Figure 3




                                               7
It goes too far to say that a team in which not all reference styles are proportionally
represented cannot function properly. In practice a varied composition of a team has shown
great advantages. Therefor it is of importance to be careful in the selection when composing
a team.

1.3    Phases in co-operation

A collection of people with varying strong points, does not automatically mean success. The
individuals must become a team.
The process of team formation follows a pattern, whether the members have elected to
become member or not, makes no difference. The following phases are discernible in the
process:

*      forming

       The team is formed. The team members get acquainted with each other and discuss
       the aim of the cooperation. They try to find out whether those who will form the team,
       are compatible with each other and the task.
       Very carefully many questions are posed in order to find out someone's skills and
       possibilities.
       Perhaps already a picture has been formed concerning preference styles
       represented in the team. In this phase there are no intense mutual confrontations yet:
       everyone is careful, because no-one wants to create problems in this stage.

*      storming

       The first civilities have been exchanged is time for business. The team members let
       go their prudence and show their true character. The procedure is laid down, tasks
       are distributed and procedures, the desired results and time path fixed. All this is
       often attended with uncertainties for the various team members. There are tensions
       because in the phase the distribution of roles or to say it differently: who will get most
       power and influence. There are often firm discussions before the team is strong.
       Sometimes it may prove in this phase that certain persons in the team did not find
       their proper place, which may have consequences.

*      performing

       Calm and clearness has returned to the ream. The distribution of roles is accepted
       and work has started. In this phase the result, the product is receiving its central
       place. Important skills in this phase are problem solving and capability to project
       management.

In each of the mentioned phase something may go wrong. This is especially the case in the
"storming" phase. But also in the other phases struggle for power, confusion and (unspoken)
displeasure may occur. If such symptoms get no attention, there is a great chance that the
team will remain very sensitive to conflicts.




                                               8
These aspects are also shown in the following summary, Figure 4:


     PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT
 PHASE                   DEVELOPMENT TASK
 FORMING                 * WHAT / WHY
                         * ACQUAINTANCE / ACCEPTATION
                          - what is our aim
                          - do I fit in ?
                          - do we take each other seriously?
 STORMING                * HOW
                         * INFLUENCE
                          - how do we work
                          - who is the boss
                          - how do we take decisions
 PERFORMING              * DO
                         * AFFECTION
                          - do we get things done
                          - is there a pleasant atmosphere
                          - do we work effective / efficient
                          - who does what in actual fact
Figure 4

It is important to realise that above described process of "forming, storming and performing"
is not linear, but cyclic. The phases are not one time phenomena, but they are repeated at
different level. As an example it may prove that the chairman does not function optimally, or
that certain team members are not happy in their assigned task. A reshuffle them has to be
organised, passing through the described phases again.




                                               9
2.     CHECKLIST4

 KNOWLEDGE                                                                    Yes   More   No
                                                                                    or
                                                                                    less
 •   the person knows and understands the various aspects of team work

 TASK ORIENTED

 With regard to content
 •   group members show initiative
 •   group members give and ask ideas and suggestions
 •   each others expertness is used
 •   assignments and agreements are checked
 •   ideas are well-considered, summaries are made, clarification is asked
     and evaluated

 With regard to procedures
 •   proposals are made and asked concerning work procedures.
 •   the model for problem solving and project management is followed.

 ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED


 •   the group members use actively their own influence, recognition and
     contribution
 •   they listen actively to the contribution by other members
 •   criticism and tensions are discussed with care and agreement is
     sought
 •   the group creates a relaxed atmosphere; there is space for humour.
 •   appreciation is shown and compliments are given.

 ROLES

 •   the group has with its composition looked into their supplementary
     roles and expertness
 •   the group members have sight on their own preference style and role
     in the cooperation.
 •   the tasks have been distributed on the basis of strong and weak points
     of persons.

 PHASES
 •   the group has paid attention to getting acquainted.
 •   the group honestly distributed influence over its members.
 •   the group, based on communal feelings, aiming at a qualitatively good
     product.




                                                 8
ANNEX 1 - SHEET: TASK ORIENTED SKILLS.




   TASK ORIENTED SKILLS / BEHAVIOUR



  SHOW INITIATIVE / ACTIVE PARTICIPATION



  SETTING OBJECTIVES / STANDARDS



  PROPOSE WORK PROCEDURES / QUESTIONS



  INFORMATION / GIVE OR ASK OPINIONS



  STRUCTURE / PROPOSE OR ASK FOR ARRANGEMENT



  REFLECT / TEST



  SUMMARISE



  EVALUATE




                                    9
ANNEX 2 - SHEET: ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED SKILLS




   ATMOSPHERE / TEAM ORIENTED SKILLS



  EXPRESS FEELINGS IN WORDS



  DEFEND OWN CONTRIBUTION



  STIMULATE / MOTIVATE



  SEE TO IT THAT EVERYBODY GETS ITS TURN /
     ACTIVE LISTENING



  CAREFULLY DEAL WITH CRITICISM / FEEDBACK



  MEDIATE / SEARCH FOR AGREEMENT



  RELAXATION / HUMOUR



  SHOW APPRECIATION / GIVE COMPLIMENTS




                                   10
ANNEX 3 - SHEET: WORK STYLES AND ROLES IN CO-OPERATION




       ROLES AND FUNCTIONS IN TEAM WORK




PREFERENCE STYLES        ROLES/FUNCT.        ACTIVITIES




                         TIE TOGETHER
DREAMER / REFLECT
                         SOURCE OF IDEAS,    IMAGE FORMING
"FEELING"
                         ADVISOR



                         EXPERT
THINKER / THEORETICIAN
                         ANALYZER            DESIGN
"THINKING"
                         DEVELOPER



                         PLANNER
DECIDER / PRAGMATIST
                         ORGANISER          DECISION-MAKING
"WILLING"
                         CHAIRMAN



                         CONTROLLER
DOER / EXECUTOR
                         WORKER              PERFORMANCE
"DO"
                         QUALITY CONTROL




                                    11
ANNEX 4 - SHEET: PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT




   PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT



 PHASE            DEVELOPMENT TASK




                  * WHAT/WHY

 FORMING
                  * ACQUAINTANCE / ACCEPTATION

                  - what is our aim
                  - do I fit in ?
                  - do we take each other seriously?




                  * HOW

 STORMING
                  * INFLUENCE

                  - how do we work
                  - who is the boss
                  - how do we take decisions




                  * DO

 PERFORMING
                  * AFFECTION

                  - do we get things done
                  - is there a pleasant atmosphere
                  - do we work effective / efficient
                  - who does what in actual fact




                                      12

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Teamwork Skills

  • 1. TEAMWORK SKILLS Table of contents page Introduction Objectives 1 1. Teamwork: an explanation 2 1.1 Co-operation skills 2 1.2 Roles and functions in co-operation 5 2. Checklist 8 Literature 9 Annex 1: task oriented skills 10 Annex 2: atmosphere oriented skills 11 Annex 3: work styles and roles in co-operation 12 Annex 4: phases in team development 13 Annex 5: Kolb’s learning styles 14
  • 2. 00000000INTRODUCTION000000001 This reader is part of a series of readers concerning general professional skills. The objective of these readers is, to provide information in a clear manner concerning subjects such as project management, team work, meetings, presentations and such-like. The information can be used for fulfilling assignments and projects in all kinds of professional fields. When we talk about team work, we mean a well aimed collective effort. In the first place we will deal with skills, which are required when working together towards an objective. Next we will go into a the roles co-operating people will take upon themselves on the basis of their preference in working and learning. Finally we will treat the phases passed through by group-development. At the end of this reader a check list and 5 annexes have been added, which - we hope - will enhance the usefulness of the offered information. Drs. M.G. Altena Drs. W.G. Bekkering Ir. J.J. van Veldhuizen Translation: K.M.L. Slot-Lim Revised version: Brian Thompson 2009 2
  • 3. OBJECTIVES General: The person can in a careful way co-operate in a team. Objectives concerning knowledge: * the person knows which skills team members must have at their disposal for optimal functioning in a team. * the person knows the attention points which play a role in the formation of a team. * the person knows the phases a team passes through in her development. Objectives concerning skills: A. With regard to the task: The person * contributes constructive to the execution of a task * executes a (partial)task according to procedures, decided in collective deliberation and evaluates working-methods and makes corrections if required. B. With regard to the working atmosphere: The person * listens actively to the contribution of others in the team. * acts assertively with regard to own contribution in the team. * handles carefully with stress and eventual conflicts and co-operates in solving these problems. * contributes to finding consensus and compromises. C. With regard to the group roles: The person is able to: * characterise his own role in the team and that of others on the basis of the preferential styles mentioned in this reader. * make use of these insights when forming a team. D. With regard to group development The person is able to: * act structurally and organisationally in the phase "formation" * create a atmosphere where feelings can be discussed and look for solutions doing justice to everybody, during the phase of "Storming". * protect the quality of the team work and act objective oriented during the phase of "Performing" 3
  • 4. 1. TEAMWORK, an explanation It didn’t just happen that people work in a team to fulfil their tasks, as well in education as in trade and industry. Research has shown, that people working in a team are often more productive and perform better than individual workers. That is understandable, because in a team often people with diverging knowledge and specific qualities are present. They complement each other which enhances their performance. This does not mean that each type of work is suitably done in team work, neither does it mean that team work is a wonderful remedy for all problems. Work in a team proves efficient and makes sense and is more satisfying for the members. In the scope of team work the following questions are important: * what are the required skills in order to function within a team ? * which roles and functions determine functioning in a team? * which phases does a team pass through ? This reader deals with these aspects. 1.1 Cooperation skills The functioning of a team can be described with the catchwords task and atmosphere. Both elements are of great importance for a group. Optimal functioning of a team is enhanced if ream members own these task- and atmosphere oriented proficiencies. Together they result in behaviour that makes a team function well. What does this mean? Task oriented skills The task of a team is mostly defined. There is a description of the desired result of the team work. When a team has been formed, it must be determined how the task will be carried out and the responsibilities have to be assigned. In view of the tasks it is logical that team members possess certain skills. These skills are related to expertness in certain subjects and know-how, but also to proficiencies in problem solving and project management. Part of task oriented skills is also formed by effectively and efficiently dealing with available time, organisation, quality control, collaboration in correctly providing information and contribution to for instance a budget. Here the T.O.Q.I.F. aspects are recognisable which were discussed in the reader project management. 4
  • 5. In figure 1 the most important task oriented skills are once again enumerated: TASK ORIENTED SKILLS THIS MEANS: Expertness related to the task and be Active participation on the basis of involved in knowledge Being able to solve problems / problem Work on: forming a picture, design, assessment and formulation decision-making and execution Effective and efficient participation in work/ Help realize objectives, guard time and planning tasks. Proper recording of and observing agreements. Possess organizational skills. Bring structure and order in tasks and related activities. Lay down procedures. Be communicative Provide or ask information and opinions as well oral as in writing. Possess financial insight Help watch over the budget. Handle money in a correct manner. Figure 1 Atmosphere / group oriented skills As important as fore mentioned skills are the atmosphere oriented faculties. These bear on personal relations in a team. Atmosphere in the team relates to needs of team members, and the way other team members handle these needs. These needs are for instance want of recognition, influence and affection. Every team member is co-responsible for a good atmosphere in the team. Such atmosphere can be improved if team members don’t take themselves too seriously and are open to discussions of conflicts, relate to each other with tact and are capable to find the balance between strain and relaxation, serious work and time for a chat. As atmosphere oriented skills we may also mention: active listening, bring one's own opinion (being assertive); stimulate and motivate others is also good for the atmosphere in a team and is as such an important skill of each of the team members. If within a team such skills are not present, it is doubtful whether the task can be fulfilled. 5
  • 6. Figure 2 summarises the most important atmosphere oriented skills: ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED SKILLS THIS MEANS: Active listening Nod, continue questioning, humming. Show your interest in the story of your partner. Be assertive Dare clearly indicate your opinion or what you want to be achieved. Tactical action. Approach people in such a way that they are not hurt. If need be look for compromises which do not short-change people. Bring balance between strain and Be able to work hard without being fixed on relaxation. the task. Give opportunity for informal contact; humour. Be able to handle conflicts. Do not evade conflicts but talk them over and try to solve them. Take also yourself a vulnerable position ! Be able to stimulate and motivate others. By praising the other and show enthusiasm over his activities. Figure 2 Of course nor every team member possesses the proficiencies required for a good execution of the task and for good atmosphere. Therefore it is recommended to see to a varied team composition. 6
  • 7. 1.2 Roles and functions in co-operation The effectiveness of a team is optimal, when the members complement each other. It makes no sense to form a team with people who are strong in theory, without members who have practical and organisational skills. Though people with one-sided qualities are exceptional, from research it proves, that people have their weak and strong sides. The American D.A. Kolb proposed a few years ago his meanwhile well-known classification of people in so called preference styles. He made a partitioning in 4 types, dreamers, thinkers, deciders and doers. The dreamers are good in reflection on certain things in connection with a concrete experience. They are creative persons with lots of ideas. This experience inspires dreamers. The strong side of thinkers is the development of certain theories. They are strong in analysis and research and in testing things. They try to place things in a theoretical frame work and they are capable of handling abstract ideas. The deciders want to start the job: there is a number of theories or ideas. It is time, in order to start the job, to select a number of possibilities. Well, the deciders are good at cutting through the knots, after having weighed the pros and cons of the given opportunities. Deciders have a great organisational talent. The doers are eager to execute and let themselves be guided by strategies, passed on to them by others. They have great practical skills. The functioning of a team is enhanced, if at the time of its arrangement care is given to full employment of its members' specific characteristics. The classification in preference styles compares well to the problem solving model. From this comparison it then becomes clear, that certain types of people are functioning at their best in a certain phase of problem solving. In figure 3 roles and functions are summarised. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS IN TEAM WORK PREFERENCE STYLES ROLES/FUNCT. ACTIVITIES DREAMER / REFLECT TIE TOGETHER SOURCE OF IDEAS, IMAGE FORMING "FEELING" ADVISOR THINKER / THEORETICIAN EXPERT "THINKING" ANALYZER DESIGN DEVELOPER DECIDER / PRAGMATIST PLANNER "WILLING" ORGANISER DECISION-MAKING CHAIRMAN DOER / EXECUTOR CONTROLLER WORKER PERFORMANCE "DO" QUALITY CONTROL Figure 3 7
  • 8. It goes too far to say that a team in which not all reference styles are proportionally represented cannot function properly. In practice a varied composition of a team has shown great advantages. Therefor it is of importance to be careful in the selection when composing a team. 1.3 Phases in co-operation A collection of people with varying strong points, does not automatically mean success. The individuals must become a team. The process of team formation follows a pattern, whether the members have elected to become member or not, makes no difference. The following phases are discernible in the process: * forming The team is formed. The team members get acquainted with each other and discuss the aim of the cooperation. They try to find out whether those who will form the team, are compatible with each other and the task. Very carefully many questions are posed in order to find out someone's skills and possibilities. Perhaps already a picture has been formed concerning preference styles represented in the team. In this phase there are no intense mutual confrontations yet: everyone is careful, because no-one wants to create problems in this stage. * storming The first civilities have been exchanged is time for business. The team members let go their prudence and show their true character. The procedure is laid down, tasks are distributed and procedures, the desired results and time path fixed. All this is often attended with uncertainties for the various team members. There are tensions because in the phase the distribution of roles or to say it differently: who will get most power and influence. There are often firm discussions before the team is strong. Sometimes it may prove in this phase that certain persons in the team did not find their proper place, which may have consequences. * performing Calm and clearness has returned to the ream. The distribution of roles is accepted and work has started. In this phase the result, the product is receiving its central place. Important skills in this phase are problem solving and capability to project management. In each of the mentioned phase something may go wrong. This is especially the case in the "storming" phase. But also in the other phases struggle for power, confusion and (unspoken) displeasure may occur. If such symptoms get no attention, there is a great chance that the team will remain very sensitive to conflicts. 8
  • 9. These aspects are also shown in the following summary, Figure 4: PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT PHASE DEVELOPMENT TASK FORMING * WHAT / WHY * ACQUAINTANCE / ACCEPTATION - what is our aim - do I fit in ? - do we take each other seriously? STORMING * HOW * INFLUENCE - how do we work - who is the boss - how do we take decisions PERFORMING * DO * AFFECTION - do we get things done - is there a pleasant atmosphere - do we work effective / efficient - who does what in actual fact Figure 4 It is important to realise that above described process of "forming, storming and performing" is not linear, but cyclic. The phases are not one time phenomena, but they are repeated at different level. As an example it may prove that the chairman does not function optimally, or that certain team members are not happy in their assigned task. A reshuffle them has to be organised, passing through the described phases again. 9
  • 10. 2. CHECKLIST4 KNOWLEDGE Yes More No or less • the person knows and understands the various aspects of team work TASK ORIENTED With regard to content • group members show initiative • group members give and ask ideas and suggestions • each others expertness is used • assignments and agreements are checked • ideas are well-considered, summaries are made, clarification is asked and evaluated With regard to procedures • proposals are made and asked concerning work procedures. • the model for problem solving and project management is followed. ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED • the group members use actively their own influence, recognition and contribution • they listen actively to the contribution by other members • criticism and tensions are discussed with care and agreement is sought • the group creates a relaxed atmosphere; there is space for humour. • appreciation is shown and compliments are given. ROLES • the group has with its composition looked into their supplementary roles and expertness • the group members have sight on their own preference style and role in the cooperation. • the tasks have been distributed on the basis of strong and weak points of persons. PHASES • the group has paid attention to getting acquainted. • the group honestly distributed influence over its members. • the group, based on communal feelings, aiming at a qualitatively good product. 8
  • 11. ANNEX 1 - SHEET: TASK ORIENTED SKILLS. TASK ORIENTED SKILLS / BEHAVIOUR SHOW INITIATIVE / ACTIVE PARTICIPATION SETTING OBJECTIVES / STANDARDS PROPOSE WORK PROCEDURES / QUESTIONS INFORMATION / GIVE OR ASK OPINIONS STRUCTURE / PROPOSE OR ASK FOR ARRANGEMENT REFLECT / TEST SUMMARISE EVALUATE 9
  • 12. ANNEX 2 - SHEET: ATMOSPHERE ORIENTED SKILLS ATMOSPHERE / TEAM ORIENTED SKILLS EXPRESS FEELINGS IN WORDS DEFEND OWN CONTRIBUTION STIMULATE / MOTIVATE SEE TO IT THAT EVERYBODY GETS ITS TURN / ACTIVE LISTENING CAREFULLY DEAL WITH CRITICISM / FEEDBACK MEDIATE / SEARCH FOR AGREEMENT RELAXATION / HUMOUR SHOW APPRECIATION / GIVE COMPLIMENTS 10
  • 13. ANNEX 3 - SHEET: WORK STYLES AND ROLES IN CO-OPERATION ROLES AND FUNCTIONS IN TEAM WORK PREFERENCE STYLES ROLES/FUNCT. ACTIVITIES TIE TOGETHER DREAMER / REFLECT SOURCE OF IDEAS, IMAGE FORMING "FEELING" ADVISOR EXPERT THINKER / THEORETICIAN ANALYZER DESIGN "THINKING" DEVELOPER PLANNER DECIDER / PRAGMATIST ORGANISER DECISION-MAKING "WILLING" CHAIRMAN CONTROLLER DOER / EXECUTOR WORKER PERFORMANCE "DO" QUALITY CONTROL 11
  • 14. ANNEX 4 - SHEET: PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT PHASES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT PHASE DEVELOPMENT TASK * WHAT/WHY FORMING * ACQUAINTANCE / ACCEPTATION - what is our aim - do I fit in ? - do we take each other seriously? * HOW STORMING * INFLUENCE - how do we work - who is the boss - how do we take decisions * DO PERFORMING * AFFECTION - do we get things done - is there a pleasant atmosphere - do we work effective / efficient - who does what in actual fact 12