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Developing and Testing a MongoDB
and Node.js REST API
Valeri Karpov
Node.js Engineer, MongoDB
www.thecodebarbarian.com
github.com/vkarpov15
@code_barbarian
*
What is this talk about?
•Briefly introduce MongoDB and Node.js
•MongoDB is great for storing web/mobile app data
•So let’s build a REST API using Node.js!
•+ learn a bit about test-driven dev with Node.js
•+ learn two MongoDB schema design principles
•Server-side only
•Upcoming EdX course
*
What is MongoDB?
•Document database - store objects, not columns
•Often better* performance
• Better data locality than RDBMS for 1 query vs 5 JOINs
*
What is MongoDB?
•Easier ops
• No need to set up databases, tables, schemas, etc.
• Run one executable, you now have a working db
• MongoDB Cloud Manager and Ops Manager
•Developer sanity
• In my experience, easiest database to get working
• Minimal data transformation between DB and server
• Company has dedicated “Developer Experience” team
*
Overview
•Part 1: Shopping Cart Application
• Search for products
• Add them to your cart
• Check out with Stripe
•Part 2: Using Node.js and the Mongoose ODM
•Part 3: Schema Design
•Part 4: Building an API with the Express framework
•Part 5: Testing with Mocha + Superagent
*
Part 1: What Does the App Do?
*
What Does the App Do?
*
What Does the App Do?
*
App Structure
•"Bad programmers worry about the code. Good
programmers worry about data structures and their
relationships." - Linus Torvalds
•3 schemas for 3 collections:
•Products
•Categories
•Users
*
Schema Relationships
•Product belongs to one or more categories
•Users can have multiple products in their cart
•Representing relationships in MongoDB is tricky
• MongoDB doesn’t have a JOIN equivalent
•But that’s what mongoose is for
• Mongoose provides pseudo-JOINs (separate queries)
*
Part 2: Using the Mongoose ODM
•“Object document mapper” (like ORM, but for
MongoDB)
•“MongoDB object modeling designed to work in an
asynchronous environment”
•Written for Node.js
•Provides schema validation, pseudo-JOINs, etc.
*
Brief Overview of Node.js
•require()
● Async I/O
*
What Does Async Mean?
Register event
handler
In node.js, you don’t execute I/O imperatively.
You register a callback to execute when the I/O is done
Single thread - handler can’t be interrupted
Prints before
“done reading”
*
Why Async?
•Most web app/mobile app backends are I/O bound
• Multi-threading doesn’t help if CPU is just waiting for I/O
• Mostly just waiting for database to respond
•Nowadays there’s a REST API for everything
• Analytics and tracking: Segment
• Transactional email: Vero
• Mailing lists: MailChimp
•Threads are cumbersome for I/O bound programs
*
Your First Mongoose Schema
matches X@Y.Z
*
Using Your Schema
Create User
Save user to MongoDB
Load user from MongoDB
Print user to stdout
*
Part 2 Takeaways
•Mongoose provides several neat features
• Model part of MVC
• Default values
• Schema validation and declarative schema design
*
Part 3: Schema Design
•3 schemas:
• Product
• Category
• User
•Going to use mongoose to define schemas
•Will use a couple key schema design principles
*
Product Schema
*
Product Schema in Action
*
Category Schema
*
Category Schema Queries
•What categories are descendants of “Electronics”?
•
•
•What categories are children of “Non-Fiction”?
•
•What categories are ancestors of “Phones”?
*
Product + Category Schemas
*
Category Schema Takeaways
•Queries in MongoDB should be simple
•Strive for minimal data transformation by server
•“Store what you query for”
•“If you need [the aggregation framework in a heavily
used API endpoint], you're screwed anyway, and should
fix your program.” - Linus Torvalds
•Good for performance and developer sanity
*
User Schema
User’s cart as an array
of ObjectIds...
*
Principle of Least Cardinality
•Product and user = many-to-many relationship
•Don’t necessarily need a mapping table
•User won’t have 1000s of products in cart
•Can represent relationship as array in user since one
side is small
•If one side of many-to-many is bounded and/or
small, it is a good candidate for embedding
•Arrays that grow without bound are an antipattern!
• 16mb document size limit
• network overhead
*
Part 4: The Express Framework
•Most popular Node.js web framework
•Simple, pluggable, and fast
•Great tool for building REST APIs
*
Your First Express App
Route Parameter
*
What is REST?
•Representational State Transfer
•HTTP request -> JSON HTTP response
•Business logic on top of MongoDB schemas
• Access control, emails, analytics, etc.
*
Structuring Your REST API
*
GET /category/id/:id
Find Category
Error handling
Output JSON
*
GET /category/parent/:id
*
GET /product/category/:id
*
Adding Products to User’s Cart
•Recall cart is an array of products
*
Adding Products to User’s Cart
Get cart from HTTP request
Overwrite user’s cart
Let mongoose handle
casting and validating data
*
PUT /me/cart Takeaways
•Mongoose lets you be lazy
•Access control using subdocs
*
Bonus: Stripe Checkout
Create a Stripe charge with the npm ‘stripe’ module
*
Bonus: Stripe Checkout
Error handling
Empty user cart
on success
*
Part 4 Takeaways
•Express REST API on top of mongoose
• Access control
• Business logic
• Define what operations user can take on database
•Mongoose casting and validation for APIs
*
Part 5: Test-Driven Development
•Building an API is tricky
•Lots of different error conditions
•Express has a lot of magic under the hood
*
NodeJS Concurrency and Testing
•Node.js runs in an event loop
•Single threaded
•Can run client and server on same thread!
• Client sends HTTP request
• Client registers a callback awaiting the result
• Server’s “on HTTP request” event handler is triggered
• Server sends response, continues waiting for events
• Client’s callback gets fired
•Test server end-to-end
*
Superagent
•NodeJS HTTP client
•Isomorphic: runs in both browser and NodeJS
•Same author as Express
*
Mocha
•Testing Framework for NodeJS
•Same author as Express
•BDD-style syntax
• describe() -> test suite
• it() -> individual test
*
Setting Up Category API Tests
*
Testing GET /category/id/:id
*
Part 5 Takeaways
•NodeJS concurrency makes testing easy
•Not just unit tests - full E2E for your REST API
•Can manipulate database and make arbitrary HTTP
requests
*
•Upcoming EdX Video Course
•Slides on http://www.slideshare.net/vkarpov15
•Looking for beta testers! Sign up for notifications
• http://goo.gl/forms/0ckaJ4YvJN
•Interested in learning about AngularJS?
• Professional AngularJS on Amazon
•More NodeJS+MongoDB content at:
• www.thecodebarbarian.com
• Twitter: @code_barbarian
Thanks for Listening!
TDD a REST API With Node.js and MongoDB

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TDD a REST API With Node.js and MongoDB

  • 1. Developing and Testing a MongoDB and Node.js REST API Valeri Karpov Node.js Engineer, MongoDB www.thecodebarbarian.com github.com/vkarpov15 @code_barbarian
  • 2. * What is this talk about? •Briefly introduce MongoDB and Node.js •MongoDB is great for storing web/mobile app data •So let’s build a REST API using Node.js! •+ learn a bit about test-driven dev with Node.js •+ learn two MongoDB schema design principles •Server-side only •Upcoming EdX course
  • 3. * What is MongoDB? •Document database - store objects, not columns •Often better* performance • Better data locality than RDBMS for 1 query vs 5 JOINs
  • 4. * What is MongoDB? •Easier ops • No need to set up databases, tables, schemas, etc. • Run one executable, you now have a working db • MongoDB Cloud Manager and Ops Manager •Developer sanity • In my experience, easiest database to get working • Minimal data transformation between DB and server • Company has dedicated “Developer Experience” team
  • 5. * Overview •Part 1: Shopping Cart Application • Search for products • Add them to your cart • Check out with Stripe •Part 2: Using Node.js and the Mongoose ODM •Part 3: Schema Design •Part 4: Building an API with the Express framework •Part 5: Testing with Mocha + Superagent
  • 6. * Part 1: What Does the App Do?
  • 7. * What Does the App Do?
  • 8. * What Does the App Do?
  • 9. * App Structure •"Bad programmers worry about the code. Good programmers worry about data structures and their relationships." - Linus Torvalds •3 schemas for 3 collections: •Products •Categories •Users
  • 10. * Schema Relationships •Product belongs to one or more categories •Users can have multiple products in their cart •Representing relationships in MongoDB is tricky • MongoDB doesn’t have a JOIN equivalent •But that’s what mongoose is for • Mongoose provides pseudo-JOINs (separate queries)
  • 11. * Part 2: Using the Mongoose ODM •“Object document mapper” (like ORM, but for MongoDB) •“MongoDB object modeling designed to work in an asynchronous environment” •Written for Node.js •Provides schema validation, pseudo-JOINs, etc.
  • 12. * Brief Overview of Node.js •require() ● Async I/O
  • 13. * What Does Async Mean? Register event handler In node.js, you don’t execute I/O imperatively. You register a callback to execute when the I/O is done Single thread - handler can’t be interrupted Prints before “done reading”
  • 14. * Why Async? •Most web app/mobile app backends are I/O bound • Multi-threading doesn’t help if CPU is just waiting for I/O • Mostly just waiting for database to respond •Nowadays there’s a REST API for everything • Analytics and tracking: Segment • Transactional email: Vero • Mailing lists: MailChimp •Threads are cumbersome for I/O bound programs
  • 15. * Your First Mongoose Schema matches X@Y.Z
  • 16. * Using Your Schema Create User Save user to MongoDB Load user from MongoDB Print user to stdout
  • 17. * Part 2 Takeaways •Mongoose provides several neat features • Model part of MVC • Default values • Schema validation and declarative schema design
  • 18. * Part 3: Schema Design •3 schemas: • Product • Category • User •Going to use mongoose to define schemas •Will use a couple key schema design principles
  • 22. * Category Schema Queries •What categories are descendants of “Electronics”? • • •What categories are children of “Non-Fiction”? • •What categories are ancestors of “Phones”?
  • 24. * Category Schema Takeaways •Queries in MongoDB should be simple •Strive for minimal data transformation by server •“Store what you query for” •“If you need [the aggregation framework in a heavily used API endpoint], you're screwed anyway, and should fix your program.” - Linus Torvalds •Good for performance and developer sanity
  • 25. * User Schema User’s cart as an array of ObjectIds...
  • 26. * Principle of Least Cardinality •Product and user = many-to-many relationship •Don’t necessarily need a mapping table •User won’t have 1000s of products in cart •Can represent relationship as array in user since one side is small •If one side of many-to-many is bounded and/or small, it is a good candidate for embedding •Arrays that grow without bound are an antipattern! • 16mb document size limit • network overhead
  • 27. * Part 4: The Express Framework •Most popular Node.js web framework •Simple, pluggable, and fast •Great tool for building REST APIs
  • 28. * Your First Express App Route Parameter
  • 29. * What is REST? •Representational State Transfer •HTTP request -> JSON HTTP response •Business logic on top of MongoDB schemas • Access control, emails, analytics, etc.
  • 34. * Adding Products to User’s Cart •Recall cart is an array of products
  • 35. * Adding Products to User’s Cart Get cart from HTTP request Overwrite user’s cart Let mongoose handle casting and validating data
  • 36. * PUT /me/cart Takeaways •Mongoose lets you be lazy •Access control using subdocs
  • 37. * Bonus: Stripe Checkout Create a Stripe charge with the npm ‘stripe’ module
  • 38. * Bonus: Stripe Checkout Error handling Empty user cart on success
  • 39. * Part 4 Takeaways •Express REST API on top of mongoose • Access control • Business logic • Define what operations user can take on database •Mongoose casting and validation for APIs
  • 40. * Part 5: Test-Driven Development •Building an API is tricky •Lots of different error conditions •Express has a lot of magic under the hood
  • 41. * NodeJS Concurrency and Testing •Node.js runs in an event loop •Single threaded •Can run client and server on same thread! • Client sends HTTP request • Client registers a callback awaiting the result • Server’s “on HTTP request” event handler is triggered • Server sends response, continues waiting for events • Client’s callback gets fired •Test server end-to-end
  • 42. * Superagent •NodeJS HTTP client •Isomorphic: runs in both browser and NodeJS •Same author as Express
  • 43. * Mocha •Testing Framework for NodeJS •Same author as Express •BDD-style syntax • describe() -> test suite • it() -> individual test
  • 46. * Part 5 Takeaways •NodeJS concurrency makes testing easy •Not just unit tests - full E2E for your REST API •Can manipulate database and make arbitrary HTTP requests
  • 47. * •Upcoming EdX Video Course •Slides on http://www.slideshare.net/vkarpov15 •Looking for beta testers! Sign up for notifications • http://goo.gl/forms/0ckaJ4YvJN •Interested in learning about AngularJS? • Professional AngularJS on Amazon •More NodeJS+MongoDB content at: • www.thecodebarbarian.com • Twitter: @code_barbarian Thanks for Listening!