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REVIEWING INDIA’S
COASTAL SECURITY
ARCHITECTURE
The Takshashila Institution and the US
Consulate, Chennai, hosted a roundtable
conference on reviewing India’s coastal
security architecture at The Hyatt MG Road, on
23 September 2016.
The roundtable discussion brought together
experts who brainstormed ideas to secure
India’s coastline, effectively and efficiently.
The Takshashila Blue Paper
26 September 2016
KEY DISCUSSIONS
• Prevention of terrorism on the coastline.
• Emboldened organisational structures in
Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard,
Marine Police & state governments for
effective management.
• Plugging intelligence gaps in coastal
security -- the need for new methods of
intelligence gathering and information
sharing.
• Pros and Cons of new organisations such
as Central Marine Police Force (CMPF)
or Maritime Indian Reserve Battalion
(MIRB).
• The need to address states’ disinterest
towards coastal security.
• The impact of reforms undertaken so far
on the coastal security apparatus.
• Role of technology in securing the Indian
coastline.
KEY SPEAKERS AND PANELISTS
Cdr Abhijit
Singh
SPS Basra ADG,
ICG (Retd.)
Cmde Udai Rao
Dr. Pushpita DasAir Marshal M.
Matheshwaran
KEY SPEAKERS AND
PANELISTS
Cdr Chaitanya
Chandel
Dr. Jose Paul
Eric Lund Cdr Guru Aiyar
Jon Bonnar
Nitin Pai
Principal Issues with
India’s Coastline
Security
Lack of a cooperative mechanism and
information sharing between multiple
agencies towards coastal security.
Lack of geolocation technology and
surveillance mechanisms.
Non-existent maintenance and operational
mechanisms for existing naval assets.
Multiplicity of authority vested in different
ministries such as shipping, fisheries, oil
exploration, customs and state police forces.
Lack of suitable training in counter-
terrorism for Marine Police.
Opening Remarks by
Cdr. GuruAiyar (Retd.)
26/11 revealed gaps in intelligence gathering
and sharing. Main issues: Smuggling of
drugs and contraband, illegal unreported
and unregulated fishing (IUU), and flow of
migrants from neighbouring countries.
The most important issue is consolidation of
various stakeholders who work in silos and
often at cross purposes.
Another challenge is that of a free-rider
problem. While all the stakeholders agree
that coastal security is an important issue,
no one wants to bear the expenses.
Need to see how technology can be used
innovatively in coastal security.
Recommendations by
Cmde Udai Rao (Retd.)
Coast Guard should be made responsible exclusively
for coastal security.
Navy should deal exclusively with blue water and war
fighting functions.
Induct more personnel from the fishermen community
and provide incentives such as sea duty allowance.
Appoint technical officers from Navy/Coast Guard to
marine police as technical advisers.
All coastal states & Union Territories need to set up
maritime boards.
Counter terrorism structure in India is highly police-
oriented. We need the induction of naval and coast
guard officers to handle maritime counter terrorism.
Set up a multi-disciplinary national maritime
authority (NMA) to advise NSA, Cabinet Secretary
and other relevant authorities.
Recommendations by SPS
Basra,Additional DG(Retd.),
Indian Coast Guard
While there is improved co-ordination amongst
various agencies, fishermen still remain the
weakest links. This has to be rectified.
Reduce the number of landing points along the
coast.
Link up diesel subsidy with compliance of
fisheries regulations.
Create ‘modern’ fishing harbours.
Make Fisheries Department responsible for
fisheries control and monitoring.
Strengthen the human intelligence (HUMINT)
capability.
Maintain forward posture at International
Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) with an
aggressive outlook.
Pursue rogue elements who encourage gullible
fishermen to fish across the IMBL.
Set in motion the mechanism of “Commander
Coastal Command.”
Recommendations by
Air Marshal (Dr.)
MMatheswaran,AVSM,
VM
Centralise information processing.
Integrate civil aviation system and aerostats (airborne radars) in
the peninsular region.
Introduce major policy change to overhaul the current process
to integrate surveillance systems.
Hire people with technical expertise to oversee and head new
processes.
Terrorism is not a law and order problem- terrorists on 26/11
carried out military operations. Create organisational structures
to tackle terrorism as current structures reflect classic war
fighting formats.
Impossible to get marine police alone to tackle terrorism.
Interoperability of multiple agencies is important to avoid
another 26/11.
Recommendations by Dr.
Pushpita Das, Research
Fellow, Institute of Defence
Studies andAnalyses
Hierarchical information sharing and turf wars are
major issues to be addressed.
Creation of Central Marine Police Force will lead
to overcrowding and coordination problem and
hence shouldn’t be carried out.
Indian Coast Guard should be given the overall
authority for Coastal Security.
Creation of clear hierarchy of command at the
national level to fix responsibility of omission and
commission.
A National Commission for Border and Coastal
Security Should be constituted at the apex level.
Recommendations by Dr.
Jose Paul, Former Acting
Chairman of JNPT,
Mumbai & Former
Chairman, Mormugao Port
Trust, Goa
Port Security is often an overlooked theme in coastal
security; responsibility is often abdicated.
50% of India's GDP is from trade, and 90% of trade is
through sea routes and therefore the need for maritime
security is high.
Establish observation centres in every coastal district.
Having a Central Marine Police Force may unnecessarily
lead to centre - state conflicts.
India must deploy a 10-satellite constellation for its
coastal surveillance. We have the capability.
Automated systems for screening the large number of
containers that land on our ports.
Recommendations by
Cdr. Chaitanya Chandel
(Retd.) Director, Baruni
Systems
Attach Marine Police to Indian Navy/Coast Guard ships
for 6 months before posting to Marine Police Stations.
Raise a tech cadre and setup a logistics infrastructure for
maintenance of boats used for patrolling.
Separate Marine Police from regular police and bring
under coast guard.
Create a Central Coastal Sec Ops Room with Cross
Functional teams from all agencies and Nodal officers
with the Authority to execute plans.
Create an information grid to enable info sharing between
agencies.
Fishing boats can become our eyes and ears if they are
brought on information grid.
Use technology for co-operative tracking of boats in India.
Recommendations by
Cdr. Abhijit Singh
(Retd.), Observer
Research Foundation
For the Indian Navy, the coastal security exercise is a
"brownie-point" generating endeavour that primarily
believes in big ticket items like Maritime Domain
Awareness.
Language barrier is an impediment to gathering
intelligence, even within different Indian states. Navy/CG
personnel are basically proficient in English & Hindi but
not the regional languages.
E-surveillance is not enough. Coastal Security is highly
dependent on the men on the ground (HUMINT).
Marine police not yet integrated into the Coastal
Surveillance system.
Comments by Jon
Bonnar, Deputy Consul
General, Australian
Consulate Chennai
The Australian Perspectives On Maritime Security
Border Protection Command (BPC) is responsible for
protecting Australia’s interests in the maritime domain
since 2005.
Layered security works very well in a multi-agency
environment.
Australia's maritime policy discourages people from
illegally entering the country's borders.
Irregular maritime arrivals pose a challenge because of its
nexus with criminality.
Migrants must be stopped from travelling irregularly on
boats. This may be controversial but is an effective policy.
Comments by Eric Lund,
Cultural Affairs Officer, US
Consulate Chennai Ties between India and the USA are growing
in fields from counter terrorism to women’s
rights.
26/11 was a turning point in the counter
terrorism partnership between India and the
USA.
With the Asian Rebalance, the Indo-US
Maritime relations becomes even more
important.
Intelligence sharing between India and the US
is an important aspect of the ties.
Closing Remarks by Nitin Pai,
Director, The Takshashila
Institution
Coastal security in India revolves around
securing targets from violent attack. However
it needs to go beyond threats to life and needs
to include threats to ways of life, livelihood,
environment etc.
Political economy of coastal security: need to
question states' ambivalence and apathy.
Political economy and sociology of the armed
forces needs better understanding.
Technology could provide answers to coastal
security problems- need to connect
technologists and entrepreneurs to those in
need of solutions.
DISCUSSION
OUTCOMES
After considering the perspectives of multiple
stakeholders in coastal security, key issues were
identified as the lack of organisational structure of
coastal security, coordination amongst multiple
stakeholders and the use of technology.
Threat perceptions need to consider port security.
The state government of Maharashtra has made a
strong pitch of Central Marine Police Force. A CMPF
for counter-terrorism on the coast will only
complicate matters.
The centralisation of coastal security was raised and
the participants mooted the institution of a new
organisation for the purpose of coastal security.
The strengthening of marine police is an essential
component of coastal security reform.

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Takshashila Blue Paper on Coastal Security Architecture

  • 1. REVIEWING INDIA’S COASTAL SECURITY ARCHITECTURE The Takshashila Institution and the US Consulate, Chennai, hosted a roundtable conference on reviewing India’s coastal security architecture at The Hyatt MG Road, on 23 September 2016. The roundtable discussion brought together experts who brainstormed ideas to secure India’s coastline, effectively and efficiently. The Takshashila Blue Paper 26 September 2016
  • 2. KEY DISCUSSIONS • Prevention of terrorism on the coastline. • Emboldened organisational structures in Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard, Marine Police & state governments for effective management. • Plugging intelligence gaps in coastal security -- the need for new methods of intelligence gathering and information sharing. • Pros and Cons of new organisations such as Central Marine Police Force (CMPF) or Maritime Indian Reserve Battalion (MIRB). • The need to address states’ disinterest towards coastal security. • The impact of reforms undertaken so far on the coastal security apparatus. • Role of technology in securing the Indian coastline.
  • 3. KEY SPEAKERS AND PANELISTS Cdr Abhijit Singh SPS Basra ADG, ICG (Retd.) Cmde Udai Rao Dr. Pushpita DasAir Marshal M. Matheshwaran
  • 4. KEY SPEAKERS AND PANELISTS Cdr Chaitanya Chandel Dr. Jose Paul Eric Lund Cdr Guru Aiyar Jon Bonnar Nitin Pai
  • 5. Principal Issues with India’s Coastline Security Lack of a cooperative mechanism and information sharing between multiple agencies towards coastal security. Lack of geolocation technology and surveillance mechanisms. Non-existent maintenance and operational mechanisms for existing naval assets. Multiplicity of authority vested in different ministries such as shipping, fisheries, oil exploration, customs and state police forces. Lack of suitable training in counter- terrorism for Marine Police.
  • 6. Opening Remarks by Cdr. GuruAiyar (Retd.) 26/11 revealed gaps in intelligence gathering and sharing. Main issues: Smuggling of drugs and contraband, illegal unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU), and flow of migrants from neighbouring countries. The most important issue is consolidation of various stakeholders who work in silos and often at cross purposes. Another challenge is that of a free-rider problem. While all the stakeholders agree that coastal security is an important issue, no one wants to bear the expenses. Need to see how technology can be used innovatively in coastal security.
  • 7. Recommendations by Cmde Udai Rao (Retd.) Coast Guard should be made responsible exclusively for coastal security. Navy should deal exclusively with blue water and war fighting functions. Induct more personnel from the fishermen community and provide incentives such as sea duty allowance. Appoint technical officers from Navy/Coast Guard to marine police as technical advisers. All coastal states & Union Territories need to set up maritime boards. Counter terrorism structure in India is highly police- oriented. We need the induction of naval and coast guard officers to handle maritime counter terrorism. Set up a multi-disciplinary national maritime authority (NMA) to advise NSA, Cabinet Secretary and other relevant authorities.
  • 8. Recommendations by SPS Basra,Additional DG(Retd.), Indian Coast Guard While there is improved co-ordination amongst various agencies, fishermen still remain the weakest links. This has to be rectified. Reduce the number of landing points along the coast. Link up diesel subsidy with compliance of fisheries regulations. Create ‘modern’ fishing harbours. Make Fisheries Department responsible for fisheries control and monitoring. Strengthen the human intelligence (HUMINT) capability. Maintain forward posture at International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) with an aggressive outlook. Pursue rogue elements who encourage gullible fishermen to fish across the IMBL. Set in motion the mechanism of “Commander Coastal Command.”
  • 9. Recommendations by Air Marshal (Dr.) MMatheswaran,AVSM, VM Centralise information processing. Integrate civil aviation system and aerostats (airborne radars) in the peninsular region. Introduce major policy change to overhaul the current process to integrate surveillance systems. Hire people with technical expertise to oversee and head new processes. Terrorism is not a law and order problem- terrorists on 26/11 carried out military operations. Create organisational structures to tackle terrorism as current structures reflect classic war fighting formats. Impossible to get marine police alone to tackle terrorism. Interoperability of multiple agencies is important to avoid another 26/11.
  • 10. Recommendations by Dr. Pushpita Das, Research Fellow, Institute of Defence Studies andAnalyses Hierarchical information sharing and turf wars are major issues to be addressed. Creation of Central Marine Police Force will lead to overcrowding and coordination problem and hence shouldn’t be carried out. Indian Coast Guard should be given the overall authority for Coastal Security. Creation of clear hierarchy of command at the national level to fix responsibility of omission and commission. A National Commission for Border and Coastal Security Should be constituted at the apex level.
  • 11. Recommendations by Dr. Jose Paul, Former Acting Chairman of JNPT, Mumbai & Former Chairman, Mormugao Port Trust, Goa Port Security is often an overlooked theme in coastal security; responsibility is often abdicated. 50% of India's GDP is from trade, and 90% of trade is through sea routes and therefore the need for maritime security is high. Establish observation centres in every coastal district. Having a Central Marine Police Force may unnecessarily lead to centre - state conflicts. India must deploy a 10-satellite constellation for its coastal surveillance. We have the capability. Automated systems for screening the large number of containers that land on our ports.
  • 12. Recommendations by Cdr. Chaitanya Chandel (Retd.) Director, Baruni Systems Attach Marine Police to Indian Navy/Coast Guard ships for 6 months before posting to Marine Police Stations. Raise a tech cadre and setup a logistics infrastructure for maintenance of boats used for patrolling. Separate Marine Police from regular police and bring under coast guard. Create a Central Coastal Sec Ops Room with Cross Functional teams from all agencies and Nodal officers with the Authority to execute plans. Create an information grid to enable info sharing between agencies. Fishing boats can become our eyes and ears if they are brought on information grid. Use technology for co-operative tracking of boats in India.
  • 13. Recommendations by Cdr. Abhijit Singh (Retd.), Observer Research Foundation For the Indian Navy, the coastal security exercise is a "brownie-point" generating endeavour that primarily believes in big ticket items like Maritime Domain Awareness. Language barrier is an impediment to gathering intelligence, even within different Indian states. Navy/CG personnel are basically proficient in English & Hindi but not the regional languages. E-surveillance is not enough. Coastal Security is highly dependent on the men on the ground (HUMINT). Marine police not yet integrated into the Coastal Surveillance system.
  • 14. Comments by Jon Bonnar, Deputy Consul General, Australian Consulate Chennai The Australian Perspectives On Maritime Security Border Protection Command (BPC) is responsible for protecting Australia’s interests in the maritime domain since 2005. Layered security works very well in a multi-agency environment. Australia's maritime policy discourages people from illegally entering the country's borders. Irregular maritime arrivals pose a challenge because of its nexus with criminality. Migrants must be stopped from travelling irregularly on boats. This may be controversial but is an effective policy.
  • 15. Comments by Eric Lund, Cultural Affairs Officer, US Consulate Chennai Ties between India and the USA are growing in fields from counter terrorism to women’s rights. 26/11 was a turning point in the counter terrorism partnership between India and the USA. With the Asian Rebalance, the Indo-US Maritime relations becomes even more important. Intelligence sharing between India and the US is an important aspect of the ties.
  • 16. Closing Remarks by Nitin Pai, Director, The Takshashila Institution Coastal security in India revolves around securing targets from violent attack. However it needs to go beyond threats to life and needs to include threats to ways of life, livelihood, environment etc. Political economy of coastal security: need to question states' ambivalence and apathy. Political economy and sociology of the armed forces needs better understanding. Technology could provide answers to coastal security problems- need to connect technologists and entrepreneurs to those in need of solutions.
  • 17. DISCUSSION OUTCOMES After considering the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in coastal security, key issues were identified as the lack of organisational structure of coastal security, coordination amongst multiple stakeholders and the use of technology. Threat perceptions need to consider port security. The state government of Maharashtra has made a strong pitch of Central Marine Police Force. A CMPF for counter-terrorism on the coast will only complicate matters. The centralisation of coastal security was raised and the participants mooted the institution of a new organisation for the purpose of coastal security. The strengthening of marine police is an essential component of coastal security reform.