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FORM: WORDS, WORD CLASSES
AND PHRASES
Mei Ayu Hanifah 1313042050
Nikmatul Khoiriah 1313042056
Rini Malinda 1313042068
THE NOTION WORD
 Dog-dogs :
- Dogs is different from dog, it has an-s ending.
- Dogs and dog belongs to the same lexeme or
dictionary entry. They are different word-forms or
orthographic words.
 Duty-free:
- They feel like one word, hence the hyphen (-).
- They really belong to the domain of morphology.
- We can say this as a “word-form”
NOUNS AND DETERMINERS
 Traditionally nouns are defined as words that denote people,
animals, things or places. A description like this is called a
notional definition, because it offers characterisation, like word
class, in term of concept of meaning.
 Notional definition is also denote :
- Abstract ideas or concepts; death, sincerity, success.
- Emotional states; happiness, love.
- Bodily sensations; dizziness, pain.
 the most common determiners in English are :
- the/a the/a camera
- this/these this film/ these films
- that/those that cat/ those cats
- which which house?
- whose whose neighbours?
 Common nouns :
- countable : book, cat, fork, car.
-non-countable: butter, water, soap, jam.
 Proper nouns: jack, london, cathy, sarah,etc.
- numerals :
cardinalone, two, three.
ordinal first, second, third
 Pronouns:
- personal pronouns: I/me, you, she/her, he/him, it, we/us,
they/them
- possesive pronouns: my/mine, your/yours, her/hers, his, its,
our/ours, their/ theirs
- reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, herself, himself,
itself, ourselves, themselves
- demonstrative pronouns: this/these, that/those
- reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another
- relative pronouns : that, who, which, which, whose
ADJECTIVES
 Adjectives can modify nouns :
 Adjectival suffixes
- a beautiful spring : -ful
- a careless attitude : - less
-a constructive criticism : -ive
 prefix –un
- unsavoury lecturer : -un
 Absolute form Comparative form Superlative form
great greater greatest
full fuller fullest
good better best
VERBS
 Every day our head of department devours three pizzas.
 The builders worked for many days.
 The ending –s and –ed have been appended to the words
devour and work. These endings are called inflections.
 The -s ending signals that the verbs is present tense to be present tense
inflecction.
 The –ed ending encode past tense to be past tense inflection.
 A verb of carries tense is called a finite verb, whereas a verb that doesn’t
carry tense is a nonfinite verb.
 Modal auxiliaries : will/would, can/could,
may/might, must,
shall/should, ought to.
- we can dance until midnight
 Aspectual auxiliaries : be, have
- these students are always complaining.
 The passive auxiliaries : be
- this bread was eaten by head of class.
 The dummy auxiliaries : do
- do you like eating pizza?
PREPOSITIONS
 The word class of prepositions cannot easily be defined by making
reference to formal characteristics, in that prepositions do not have
typical endings like the parts of speech.
 Here a few example one word of prepositions :
at, behind, beside, by, for, in, like, of, on, through, under, with,
without, etc.
 Two words and more of perpositions :
means of, in front of, in spite of, etc.
 Prepositional object/ prepositional complement
NP + PP : {PP, on(NP her bicycle)}
ADVERBS
 Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
- verb : Ali runs quickly.
- adj : The problem is too difficult.
- adverb : The driver drives more slowly.
 Adverb subclasses
- Circumtantial adverbs : often, gleefully, intentionally,
reluctantly.
- Degree adverbs : extremely, less, more, pretty,
quite, too, very.
-Sentence adverbs : however, probably, perhaps.
CONJUNCTIONS
 Conjunctions belong to a closed class of words that
have a linking function.
 Two types of conjunctions :
 Coordinating conjunctions (e.g. and, but, or)
- The units that are being coordinate we call conjoins.
e.g. I bought a computer and a keyboard.
 Subordinating conjunctions (e.g. That, if, wheter, for,
because, although, when, etc.)
e.g. We don’t know (whether he will come)
INTERJECTIONS
 Interjecctions are expressions of emotion, physical
state, agreement, disagree-ment, and such like.
 These a few examples :
ah, erh, hmm, oh, no, ouch, shit, yuck, waw, etc.
 They are regarded as a separate word class, but really
only in deference to traditional grammarians.
 This concludes of word classes and their
associated phrases in English.
 Noun, noun phrases, adjectives, and adjective
phrases, verb and verb phrases, etc. belong to a
level of analysis which referred to as form.
 Subject, direct object, adjunct, etc. belong to the
level of function.
Thank you

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Syntax- introduction to syntax

  • 1. FORM: WORDS, WORD CLASSES AND PHRASES Mei Ayu Hanifah 1313042050 Nikmatul Khoiriah 1313042056 Rini Malinda 1313042068
  • 2. THE NOTION WORD  Dog-dogs : - Dogs is different from dog, it has an-s ending. - Dogs and dog belongs to the same lexeme or dictionary entry. They are different word-forms or orthographic words.  Duty-free: - They feel like one word, hence the hyphen (-). - They really belong to the domain of morphology. - We can say this as a “word-form”
  • 3. NOUNS AND DETERMINERS  Traditionally nouns are defined as words that denote people, animals, things or places. A description like this is called a notional definition, because it offers characterisation, like word class, in term of concept of meaning.  Notional definition is also denote : - Abstract ideas or concepts; death, sincerity, success. - Emotional states; happiness, love. - Bodily sensations; dizziness, pain.  the most common determiners in English are : - the/a the/a camera - this/these this film/ these films - that/those that cat/ those cats - which which house? - whose whose neighbours?
  • 4.  Common nouns : - countable : book, cat, fork, car. -non-countable: butter, water, soap, jam.  Proper nouns: jack, london, cathy, sarah,etc. - numerals : cardinalone, two, three. ordinal first, second, third  Pronouns: - personal pronouns: I/me, you, she/her, he/him, it, we/us, they/them - possesive pronouns: my/mine, your/yours, her/hers, his, its, our/ours, their/ theirs - reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, themselves - demonstrative pronouns: this/these, that/those - reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another - relative pronouns : that, who, which, which, whose
  • 5. ADJECTIVES  Adjectives can modify nouns :  Adjectival suffixes - a beautiful spring : -ful - a careless attitude : - less -a constructive criticism : -ive  prefix –un - unsavoury lecturer : -un  Absolute form Comparative form Superlative form great greater greatest full fuller fullest good better best
  • 6. VERBS  Every day our head of department devours three pizzas.  The builders worked for many days.  The ending –s and –ed have been appended to the words devour and work. These endings are called inflections.  The -s ending signals that the verbs is present tense to be present tense inflecction.  The –ed ending encode past tense to be past tense inflection.  A verb of carries tense is called a finite verb, whereas a verb that doesn’t carry tense is a nonfinite verb.
  • 7.  Modal auxiliaries : will/would, can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, ought to. - we can dance until midnight  Aspectual auxiliaries : be, have - these students are always complaining.  The passive auxiliaries : be - this bread was eaten by head of class.  The dummy auxiliaries : do - do you like eating pizza?
  • 8. PREPOSITIONS  The word class of prepositions cannot easily be defined by making reference to formal characteristics, in that prepositions do not have typical endings like the parts of speech.  Here a few example one word of prepositions : at, behind, beside, by, for, in, like, of, on, through, under, with, without, etc.  Two words and more of perpositions : means of, in front of, in spite of, etc.  Prepositional object/ prepositional complement NP + PP : {PP, on(NP her bicycle)}
  • 9. ADVERBS  Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. - verb : Ali runs quickly. - adj : The problem is too difficult. - adverb : The driver drives more slowly.  Adverb subclasses - Circumtantial adverbs : often, gleefully, intentionally, reluctantly. - Degree adverbs : extremely, less, more, pretty, quite, too, very. -Sentence adverbs : however, probably, perhaps.
  • 10. CONJUNCTIONS  Conjunctions belong to a closed class of words that have a linking function.  Two types of conjunctions :  Coordinating conjunctions (e.g. and, but, or) - The units that are being coordinate we call conjoins. e.g. I bought a computer and a keyboard.  Subordinating conjunctions (e.g. That, if, wheter, for, because, although, when, etc.) e.g. We don’t know (whether he will come)
  • 11. INTERJECTIONS  Interjecctions are expressions of emotion, physical state, agreement, disagree-ment, and such like.  These a few examples : ah, erh, hmm, oh, no, ouch, shit, yuck, waw, etc.  They are regarded as a separate word class, but really only in deference to traditional grammarians.
  • 12.  This concludes of word classes and their associated phrases in English.  Noun, noun phrases, adjectives, and adjective phrases, verb and verb phrases, etc. belong to a level of analysis which referred to as form.  Subject, direct object, adjunct, etc. belong to the level of function. Thank you