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SYNOVIAL JOINT
Dr SANA YASEEN
ANATOMY DEPARTMENT
JMDC
INTRODUCTION
• These are the most freely moveable
joints.
• They are often termed as DIARTHRODIAL
Joints.
(the site of the junction or union of two or
more bones of the body; its primary
function is to provide motion and
flexibility to the frame of the body.)
COMPONENTS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT
It posses,
• Articular ends of bones enclosed in so called fibrous
capsule. Forming a cavity called JOINT cavity filled
with synovial fluid
Synovial joints
Synovial joints
FEATURES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS
1- The articular surfaces are covered by a thin
plate of articular(hyaline) cartilage.
2- The cavity of the joint is lined everywhere
by SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE except over the
articular cartilage.
Synovial joints
3- Between articular surfaces there is a joint
cavity filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID secreted by
synovial membrane which provides lubrication
of the articular surfaces and nutrition to
articular cartilage.
4- The joint is surrounded by ARTICULAR
CAPSULE
(fibrous capsule along with synovial
membrane forms articular capsule).
Synovial joints
COMPONENTS OF SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
It consists of the following:
1- Fibrous capsule
2- Synovial membrane
3- Articular cartilage
4- Articular disc or Meniscus
5- Ligaments
6- Bursae
FIBROUS CAPSULE
 A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers
the ends of the articulating bones.
 It completely encloses the cavity.
 It is lined on its inner aspect by synovial membrane.
 Fibrous capsule along with synovial membrane forms
ARTICULAR CAPSULE.
FUNCTIONS:
 It stabilize the joint (permits the movements but resists
dislocation).
 It is richly supplied by nerves so sensitive to stretches and
produce reflex contraction of muscles acting on the joint in
such a way that joint is brought in position of maximum
comfort to protect the joint. This is known as “ Watch-dog”
action of capsule.
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
• It is a thin highly vascular membrane of
connective tissue linning the whole interior of
the joint except articular surfaces.
FUNCTIONS:
 It produces synovial fluid which is
slimy,viscous like an egg-white, which
lubricates the joint and nourishes the
articular cartilage.
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
• It is made up of hyaline cartilage.
• It is avascular, non nervous and elastic.
FUNCTIONS:
• It provides smooth friction, free movements
and resist compression forces.
MENISCUS
• These are the pads of fibrocartilage interposed
between the articular surfaces of some joints.
• Examples: TMJ, Sterno-clavicular, radio-ulna and
knee joints
FUNCTIONS:
• Helps in lubrication.
• Divides the joint completely into two
compartments.
• Prevents wear and tear of articular cartilage by
providing cushioning effect.
LIGAMENTS
These are thickened bands of collagen fibers.
TYPES:
1- TRUE LIGAMENTS
2- ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS
TRUE LIGAMENTS
• They thickens the fibrous capsule and are not
separate from the capsule.
• They are also called INTRINSIC LIGAMENTS.
FUNCTIONS:
• They permit the movement in one plane and
prevent unwanted movements in other
planes.
• They also stabilize the joint.
ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS
• They are separate from fibrous capsule and
may be extracapsular or intra capsular.
FUNCTION:
• They provide additional reinforcement to
joint and limit the range of movements.
BURSAE
• They are pouch like sacs of CT filled with synovial fluid,
found near certain synovial joints.
LOCATIONS:
• Between Tendon and Bone
• Between Muscle and Bone
• Between Skin and Bone
• Between Tendon and Skin
FUNCTIONS:
• Reduces friction of one structure moving over the other.
• Provide cushioning effect.
 PLANE SYNOVIAL JOINT
 HINGE SYNOVIAL JOINT
 CONDYLAR JOINT
 BALL & SOCHET JOIT
 ELLIPSOID JOINT
 SADDLE JOIT
 PIVOT JOIT
TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT
PLANE SYNOVIAL JOINT
• THE articular surfaces are flat
• Movt: sliding, gliding movements (translations) in
various direction
• Eg: intercarpal joint
Intertarsal joint
Synovial joints
HINGE JOINTS
• Articular surfaces are pulley shaped
• Have strong collateral ligaments
• Movt: in one plane around transverse axis
• Eg: elbow joint
ankle joint
interphalangeal joint
Synovial joints
Synovial joints
PIVOT JOINT
• Articulating surface comprises of central
bony pivot surrounded by osteoligamentous
ring.
• Eg: superior & inferior radio-ulnar joint
median atlanto axial joint
Synovial joints
Synovial joints
CONDYLAR JOINTS
• Articular surface include two distinct
condyles fitting into reciprocally concave
surface.
• Movt: in one plane around a transverse axis,
but partialy in other plane around a verticle
axis.
• Eg: knee joint
right and left jaw joint
Synovial joints
ELLIPSOID JOINTS
• Articular surfaces include and oval, convex surface
fitting into elliptical concave surface
• Free movements are permitted around both axes,
Transverse axis: flexion & extension
Anteroposterior axis: abduction & adduction
Combination of all these movt called : circumduction
Eg: wrist joint
Metacarpophalageal joint
Atlanto-occipital joint
Synovial joints
Synovial joints
SADDLE JOINT
• Articular surface are reciprocally concavoconvex
• Mvt similar to ellipsoid joint with addition of some
rotation around third axis
Examples:
first carpometacarpal joint
sternoclavicular joint
Calcaneocuboid joint
Synovial joints
BALL AND SOCKET JOINT
• Articular surface include globular head fitting
into cup shaped socket.
• Movements occur around all axis with one
common center
• Example:
• Shoulder joint
• Hip joint
Synovial joints
Synovial joints
BLOOD SUPPLY OF SYNOVIAL JOINT
• The articular & epiphysial branches given off by
neighbouring arteries form PERIARTICULAR ARTERIAL
PLEXUS.
• Vessels from these plexus pierce fibrous capsule and
form a rich vascular plexus in the synovial membrane
• The vessels of synovial membrane terminate around
articular margin in fringe of looped anastomoses
called CIRCULUS VASCULOSUS
• It suplies capsule, synovial membrane and epiphysis
NERVE SUPPLY
• Capsule & ligament: rich nerve supply
• Synovial membrane: poor nerve supply
• Articular cartilage: totally insensitive
• Types of nerve fibers:
• Sensory (proprioceptive) sensory to position &
movement. Controle reflex of posture &
locomotion
• and autonomic are vasomotor
Synovial joints

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Synovial joints

  • 1. SYNOVIAL JOINT Dr SANA YASEEN ANATOMY DEPARTMENT JMDC
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • These are the most freely moveable joints. • They are often termed as DIARTHRODIAL Joints. (the site of the junction or union of two or more bones of the body; its primary function is to provide motion and flexibility to the frame of the body.)
  • 3. COMPONENTS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT It posses, • Articular ends of bones enclosed in so called fibrous capsule. Forming a cavity called JOINT cavity filled with synovial fluid
  • 6. FEATURES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS 1- The articular surfaces are covered by a thin plate of articular(hyaline) cartilage. 2- The cavity of the joint is lined everywhere by SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE except over the articular cartilage.
  • 8. 3- Between articular surfaces there is a joint cavity filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID secreted by synovial membrane which provides lubrication of the articular surfaces and nutrition to articular cartilage. 4- The joint is surrounded by ARTICULAR CAPSULE (fibrous capsule along with synovial membrane forms articular capsule).
  • 10. COMPONENTS OF SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE It consists of the following: 1- Fibrous capsule 2- Synovial membrane 3- Articular cartilage 4- Articular disc or Meniscus 5- Ligaments 6- Bursae
  • 11. FIBROUS CAPSULE  A protective layer of dense white connective tissue that covers the ends of the articulating bones.  It completely encloses the cavity.  It is lined on its inner aspect by synovial membrane.  Fibrous capsule along with synovial membrane forms ARTICULAR CAPSULE. FUNCTIONS:  It stabilize the joint (permits the movements but resists dislocation).  It is richly supplied by nerves so sensitive to stretches and produce reflex contraction of muscles acting on the joint in such a way that joint is brought in position of maximum comfort to protect the joint. This is known as “ Watch-dog” action of capsule.
  • 12. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE • It is a thin highly vascular membrane of connective tissue linning the whole interior of the joint except articular surfaces. FUNCTIONS:  It produces synovial fluid which is slimy,viscous like an egg-white, which lubricates the joint and nourishes the articular cartilage.
  • 13. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE • It is made up of hyaline cartilage. • It is avascular, non nervous and elastic. FUNCTIONS: • It provides smooth friction, free movements and resist compression forces.
  • 14. MENISCUS • These are the pads of fibrocartilage interposed between the articular surfaces of some joints. • Examples: TMJ, Sterno-clavicular, radio-ulna and knee joints FUNCTIONS: • Helps in lubrication. • Divides the joint completely into two compartments. • Prevents wear and tear of articular cartilage by providing cushioning effect.
  • 15. LIGAMENTS These are thickened bands of collagen fibers. TYPES: 1- TRUE LIGAMENTS 2- ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS
  • 16. TRUE LIGAMENTS • They thickens the fibrous capsule and are not separate from the capsule. • They are also called INTRINSIC LIGAMENTS. FUNCTIONS: • They permit the movement in one plane and prevent unwanted movements in other planes. • They also stabilize the joint.
  • 17. ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS • They are separate from fibrous capsule and may be extracapsular or intra capsular. FUNCTION: • They provide additional reinforcement to joint and limit the range of movements.
  • 18. BURSAE • They are pouch like sacs of CT filled with synovial fluid, found near certain synovial joints. LOCATIONS: • Between Tendon and Bone • Between Muscle and Bone • Between Skin and Bone • Between Tendon and Skin FUNCTIONS: • Reduces friction of one structure moving over the other. • Provide cushioning effect.
  • 19.  PLANE SYNOVIAL JOINT  HINGE SYNOVIAL JOINT  CONDYLAR JOINT  BALL & SOCHET JOIT  ELLIPSOID JOINT  SADDLE JOIT  PIVOT JOIT TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT
  • 20. PLANE SYNOVIAL JOINT • THE articular surfaces are flat • Movt: sliding, gliding movements (translations) in various direction • Eg: intercarpal joint Intertarsal joint
  • 22. HINGE JOINTS • Articular surfaces are pulley shaped • Have strong collateral ligaments • Movt: in one plane around transverse axis • Eg: elbow joint ankle joint interphalangeal joint
  • 25. PIVOT JOINT • Articulating surface comprises of central bony pivot surrounded by osteoligamentous ring. • Eg: superior & inferior radio-ulnar joint median atlanto axial joint
  • 28. CONDYLAR JOINTS • Articular surface include two distinct condyles fitting into reciprocally concave surface. • Movt: in one plane around a transverse axis, but partialy in other plane around a verticle axis. • Eg: knee joint right and left jaw joint
  • 30. ELLIPSOID JOINTS • Articular surfaces include and oval, convex surface fitting into elliptical concave surface • Free movements are permitted around both axes, Transverse axis: flexion & extension Anteroposterior axis: abduction & adduction Combination of all these movt called : circumduction Eg: wrist joint Metacarpophalageal joint Atlanto-occipital joint
  • 33. SADDLE JOINT • Articular surface are reciprocally concavoconvex • Mvt similar to ellipsoid joint with addition of some rotation around third axis Examples: first carpometacarpal joint sternoclavicular joint Calcaneocuboid joint
  • 35. BALL AND SOCKET JOINT • Articular surface include globular head fitting into cup shaped socket. • Movements occur around all axis with one common center • Example: • Shoulder joint • Hip joint
  • 38. BLOOD SUPPLY OF SYNOVIAL JOINT
  • 39. • The articular & epiphysial branches given off by neighbouring arteries form PERIARTICULAR ARTERIAL PLEXUS. • Vessels from these plexus pierce fibrous capsule and form a rich vascular plexus in the synovial membrane • The vessels of synovial membrane terminate around articular margin in fringe of looped anastomoses called CIRCULUS VASCULOSUS • It suplies capsule, synovial membrane and epiphysis
  • 40. NERVE SUPPLY • Capsule & ligament: rich nerve supply • Synovial membrane: poor nerve supply • Articular cartilage: totally insensitive • Types of nerve fibers: • Sensory (proprioceptive) sensory to position & movement. Controle reflex of posture & locomotion • and autonomic are vasomotor