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Chapter 22 Notes- Human
Geography of Southwest Asia
Religion, Politics, & Oil
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula
Islam- based on the teachings of Muhammad.
Monotheistic
Mosque- place of worship
All Muslims (followers of Islam) perform the 5
pillars.
Faith
“There is no God but Allah, and
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”
• all believers believe in this statement of faith
Prayer
Muslims face toward Mecca and pray
five times a day
• may be done in a mosque or elsewhere
Charity (Alms or Giving)
responsible to support less fortunate by
giving money
Fasting
During Islamic holy month of Ramadan,
Muslims do not eat or drink anything
between sunrise and sunset.
This reminds Muslims that there are more
important things in life than food.
Seen as sign of humility and self-control.
Pilgrimage
Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage
to Mecca at least once during their lifetime
Called the Hajj
Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Spread of
Many people on Arabian Peninsula
began to convert to Islam
• spread religion
• Muslims became leaders of conquered lands
• Arabic language spread across lands
(Asia, Africa, and Europe)
Types of Islam
Two main branches of Islam
Sunni Muslim- 83% of all
Muslims
Shi’ite Muslim (mostly in Iran)
Section 1: The Arabian
Peninsula
Theocratic- religious leaders control the
government.
many of the governments in the region are
this
Section 1: The Arabian
Peninsula
Arabic Women-
Most cover themselves from head to toe in a burqa (Arabic
covering)
• Modesty & being covered is believed to be pleasing to god.
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
3 major religions were all started
in Southwest Asia
Judaism, Christianity, & Islam
All 3 claim Jerusalem as a holy city.
Judaism
Established 3,200 years ago.
Basic laws and teachings come
from the Torah.
Jerusalem is the religious center
of Judaism.
Jews and the Holy Land
Torah establishes claim to
Holy Land
Jerusalem is holiest Jewish
city
Believe Holy Land was gift
from God to Abraham and
Lot
King David brought ark
containing original Torah
here
Site of King Solomon's
Section 2:The Eastern Mediterranean
The Western Wall
Holiest site of Judaism - Western Wall (Wailing Wall)
Whole area is known as the Temple Mount
• First Temple built by King Solomon then destroyed
• Temple was rebuilt
• Second Temple destroyed by the Romans
• Only piece left standing is known as the Western Wall
• No Jewish temple on site since 70 A.D.
Western Wall
a.k.a. the Wailing Wall
considered the holiest site in Israel
part of an ancient Temple of Solomon
Christianity
Evolved 2,000 years ago from Judaism
Based on teaching of Jesus Christ, who Christians
believe to be the son of God.
Teachings recorded in the Bible.
Spread from Jerusalem
Christians and the Holy Land
Christians cherish
Jerusalem as the site of
Jesus’ life, death and
resurrection
Home to original cross
and stone of Christ’s
tomb
Site of sacred Church of
the Holy Sepulcher
Holds variety of Christian
shrines
Islam
Established around 613 A.D.
Based on teachings of prophet
Muhammad
Has close ties to the prophets and
teachers of Judaism and Christianity
Holy book is the Qur’an.
Two major sects are Sunni and Shiite.
Muslims and the Holy Land
Qur’an establishes claim that
both Jews and Arabs are people
of Abraham
Islam claims Jerusalem as 3rd
most holy city behind Mecca &
Medina
Dome of the Rock- spot where
Muslims believe the Prophet
Muhammad rose into heaven
Next to Western Wall
Site of frequent clashes between
Muslims & Jews
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
After WW1 Britain controlled
Palestine
Zionism- goal of the creation &
support of a Jewish homeland in
Palestine
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean
After WW2 world sentiment favored giving
the Jews a national homeland.
May 14th
, 1948 Israel was established.
• Western nations (Europe and U.S.) supported the
creation of Israel
• Most Arab nations are angered and upset about the
creation of a Jewish designated country in what is
predominately a Muslim occupied region.
Reaction
Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq,
Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,
Syria) tried to destroy Israel
Arab-Israeli War (1948)
Six Day War (1967)
Yom Kippur War (1973)
Results
Arab countries defeated
Israel gained more territory
• Military occupied Gaza Strip & West Bank
• Palestine is no longer a country
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO)- formed to regain the land for
Arabs
Political & Military means used
Hamas
Hamas (Palestinian Nationalist group) demands
own territory, currently occupies Gaza Strip
Considered a terrorist organization
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
Ottoman Empire-
Muslim based
government, started
in Turkey
Lasted from 1520-
1920 (‘til end of WW1)
Section 3: The Northeast
The Kurds- ethnic group in Southwestern
Asia
Stateless nation
5,000+ were gassed to death by Saddam
Hussein’s army.
Saddam was executed for this
Section 3: The Northeast
Mesopotamia- many civilizations were
started here in the “land between the
rivers” (AKA The Fertile Crescent)
Sumer
Babylonia
Assyria
Chaldea
Hittites
Persia
Section 3: The Northeast
Taliban- fundamentalist Muslim political
group in Afghanistan
No television, music or movies
No whistling or clapping
No dancing
No shorts
No photography
No smoking
Men must have a beard and wear a
head covering
Women:
•No jobs, must stay at home
•Must wear the burqa and be with a male
relative outside the house
•No schooling/education
•No revealing ankles/ no white socks
•No treatment by male doctors
•No make-up or brightly colored clothes
•No associating with male
shopkeepers
•No laughing loudly
•No high heels
•No driving
•No riding bicycles
•No washing clothes next to a river
unless a male relative is present
•Windows must be painted or
covered
Osama bin Laden

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Sw asia religion, politics, and oil(2)

  • 1. Chapter 22 Notes- Human Geography of Southwest Asia Religion, Politics, & Oil
  • 2. Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula Islam- based on the teachings of Muhammad. Monotheistic Mosque- place of worship All Muslims (followers of Islam) perform the 5 pillars.
  • 3. Faith “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” • all believers believe in this statement of faith
  • 4. Prayer Muslims face toward Mecca and pray five times a day • may be done in a mosque or elsewhere
  • 5. Charity (Alms or Giving) responsible to support less fortunate by giving money
  • 6. Fasting During Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink anything between sunrise and sunset. This reminds Muslims that there are more important things in life than food. Seen as sign of humility and self-control.
  • 7. Pilgrimage Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during their lifetime Called the Hajj
  • 9. Spread of Many people on Arabian Peninsula began to convert to Islam • spread religion • Muslims became leaders of conquered lands • Arabic language spread across lands (Asia, Africa, and Europe)
  • 10. Types of Islam Two main branches of Islam Sunni Muslim- 83% of all Muslims Shi’ite Muslim (mostly in Iran)
  • 11. Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula Theocratic- religious leaders control the government. many of the governments in the region are this
  • 12. Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula Arabic Women- Most cover themselves from head to toe in a burqa (Arabic covering) • Modesty & being covered is believed to be pleasing to god.
  • 13. Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean 3 major religions were all started in Southwest Asia Judaism, Christianity, & Islam All 3 claim Jerusalem as a holy city.
  • 14. Judaism Established 3,200 years ago. Basic laws and teachings come from the Torah. Jerusalem is the religious center of Judaism.
  • 15. Jews and the Holy Land Torah establishes claim to Holy Land Jerusalem is holiest Jewish city Believe Holy Land was gift from God to Abraham and Lot King David brought ark containing original Torah here Site of King Solomon's
  • 16. Section 2:The Eastern Mediterranean The Western Wall Holiest site of Judaism - Western Wall (Wailing Wall) Whole area is known as the Temple Mount • First Temple built by King Solomon then destroyed • Temple was rebuilt • Second Temple destroyed by the Romans • Only piece left standing is known as the Western Wall • No Jewish temple on site since 70 A.D.
  • 17. Western Wall a.k.a. the Wailing Wall considered the holiest site in Israel part of an ancient Temple of Solomon
  • 18. Christianity Evolved 2,000 years ago from Judaism Based on teaching of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe to be the son of God. Teachings recorded in the Bible. Spread from Jerusalem
  • 19. Christians and the Holy Land Christians cherish Jerusalem as the site of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection Home to original cross and stone of Christ’s tomb Site of sacred Church of the Holy Sepulcher Holds variety of Christian shrines
  • 20. Islam Established around 613 A.D. Based on teachings of prophet Muhammad Has close ties to the prophets and teachers of Judaism and Christianity Holy book is the Qur’an. Two major sects are Sunni and Shiite.
  • 21. Muslims and the Holy Land Qur’an establishes claim that both Jews and Arabs are people of Abraham Islam claims Jerusalem as 3rd most holy city behind Mecca & Medina Dome of the Rock- spot where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad rose into heaven Next to Western Wall Site of frequent clashes between Muslims & Jews
  • 22. Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean After WW1 Britain controlled Palestine Zionism- goal of the creation & support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
  • 23.
  • 24. Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean After WW2 world sentiment favored giving the Jews a national homeland. May 14th , 1948 Israel was established. • Western nations (Europe and U.S.) supported the creation of Israel • Most Arab nations are angered and upset about the creation of a Jewish designated country in what is predominately a Muslim occupied region.
  • 25. Reaction Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria) tried to destroy Israel Arab-Israeli War (1948) Six Day War (1967) Yom Kippur War (1973)
  • 26. Results Arab countries defeated Israel gained more territory • Military occupied Gaza Strip & West Bank • Palestine is no longer a country
  • 27. Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)- formed to regain the land for Arabs Political & Military means used
  • 28. Hamas Hamas (Palestinian Nationalist group) demands own territory, currently occupies Gaza Strip Considered a terrorist organization
  • 29. Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean Ottoman Empire- Muslim based government, started in Turkey Lasted from 1520- 1920 (‘til end of WW1)
  • 30. Section 3: The Northeast The Kurds- ethnic group in Southwestern Asia Stateless nation 5,000+ were gassed to death by Saddam Hussein’s army. Saddam was executed for this
  • 31. Section 3: The Northeast Mesopotamia- many civilizations were started here in the “land between the rivers” (AKA The Fertile Crescent) Sumer Babylonia Assyria Chaldea Hittites Persia
  • 32. Section 3: The Northeast Taliban- fundamentalist Muslim political group in Afghanistan
  • 33. No television, music or movies No whistling or clapping No dancing No shorts No photography No smoking Men must have a beard and wear a head covering
  • 34. Women: •No jobs, must stay at home •Must wear the burqa and be with a male relative outside the house •No schooling/education •No revealing ankles/ no white socks •No treatment by male doctors •No make-up or brightly colored clothes
  • 35. •No associating with male shopkeepers •No laughing loudly •No high heels •No driving •No riding bicycles •No washing clothes next to a river unless a male relative is present •Windows must be painted or covered

Editor's Notes

  1. Concern that US has with Afghanistan is that US believes that Osama bin Laden the mastermind behind the 9-11 attacks and Al-qaida are in Afghanistan – why we invaded in 2002