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TAMI SUTCLIFFE
APRIL XX, 2014
Unexpected ways people use language in large personal digital image collections
1
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 2
COST OF LARGE INSTITUTIONAL IMAGE COLLECTIONS
Expensive to maintain
[Examples: Public art museums, metropolitan mug shot binders, corporate graphics archives]
CONTROL OF LARGE INSTITUTIONAL IMAGE COLLECTIONS
Institutional funding = institutional controls
[Examples: Official curators, institutionally-approved indices w/controlled vocabulary, limited access]
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 3
WHAT IS PINTEREST? http://www.pinterest.com
• Free web site
• Open invitations began in 2012
• Millions of people actively “pin”
• Sessions average 40 minutes
• “Social collecting” site (Zarro & Hall)
SOCIAL COLLECTING = USER/CURATORS
•Create and manage personal image collections
•User-centered perspective
•Cataloger role = patron role
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 4
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
• Institutional gatekeepers of large image collections are
trained in official naming conventions.
• Large public digital image collections outside of
institutional control are now a reality.
• Behaviors of individual social image collectors have
yet to be studied in the online environment.
This project will examine the behavior of individual
image user-curators as they construct pin and board
names within their personal digital image collections.
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 5
NAME GAMES IN PINTEREST
Each user-curator in Pinterest is given the
technical capability to name and re-name
images (pins), as well as categorize and re-
categorize collections (boards).
NAMING ACTIVITY
IS NOT EXCLUSIVELY FOCUSED
ON EFFICIENT IMAGE RETRIEVAL
• Embed additional layers of expression in the
presentation of individual images and
collections
• Increase the strata of possible meaning
available to all viewers
• Provide a sophisticated level of interpretive
expression and cognitive association
• Display a personally expressive form of
communication
OBSERVABLE NAMING BEHAVIORS
IN PINTEREST
Names become part of the meaning behind the
concepts being staged:
• Puns
• Word art
• Alliteration
• Malapropisms
• Spoonerisms
• Obscure words
• Rhetorical excursions
• Oddly formed sentences
• ASCII art
• Emoticons
• Double entendres
• Unique uses of upper/lower case fonts
• Coded abbreviations
• Creatively malformed sentence/word phrases
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 6
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
• How do people use language
when naming their personal
digital image collections?
• Focus is NOT on image retrieval.
• Analyze how often the image
names selected by Pinterest user-
curators correspond to the
Panofsky, Rosch and Shatford
Layne matrix of subject matter
categories, levels of
categorization and image
attributes.
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 7
PRIMARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS
•How frequently do the pin and board names
created by user-curators in Pinterest
correspond to the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix?
•Will information which is factual, recognizable and not
specialized occur most often in board names?
•Will information which relies on specialized knowledge
beyond the immediately factual occur most often in pin
names?
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 8
LITERATURE REVIEW:
VISUAL CATEGORIZATION IN IMAGE COLLECTION INDEXING
•Interindexer consistency
•Automated annotated image data
•Cognitive economy and perceived world structure
•Literal-ness in images
•Triads of visual categories: Rosch’s basic, subordinate and superordinate
•Two Stage (primary versus secondary) subject matter categories
•Defining image attributes: Shatford Layne
•User behavior in image file naming
•Image Name Iconology: Tools for assigning meaning (Iconclass)
•Iconology: Panofsky and Van Straten
EXISTING PINTEREST“RESEARCH”
•Gender, Misogyny, Commercial Use and “Social Networking”
•Bias in Pinterest “Research”
PANOFSKY,ROSCH AND SHATFORD LAYNE MATRIX:
•Panofsky’s three strata of subject matter
•Rosch’s three levels of categorical abstraction
•Shatford Layne’s four divisions of image attributes
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 9
ALPHA DATA COLLECTION: JAN-MARCH 2014
120 unique Pinterest images captured: three search terms with 40 images per term
• All captured images exported to Word “maps” with names and originator data intact
• Visual image, board name, pin name and originator data stored
• Language stripped from image names and sorted alphabetically
• Word frequency in image names calculated
• Text clouds generated for both pin names and board names
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 10
ALPHADATACOLLECTION:JAN-MARCH2014
WORDS OCCURING IN BOARD NAMES
FOR PRIMARY SEARCH TERM [tree] :
DATA ANALYSIS METHOD
Methodological issues:
Previously observed limitations of Pinterest data collection
Gilbert noted that obtaining a truly random Pinterest sample
is not possible without an API from Pinterest, allowing
researchers to capture live site data samples.
A Pinterest API remains unavailable as of April 2014.
Scope and limitations
Pinterest users can chose to remain anonymous in terms of
reported demographic data so limited information related to
users (age, gender, education ) can be deduced from
categorization activity.
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 11
BETA DATA COLLECTION:APRIL – JULY 2014
• Create 4 – 6 new sets of three search terms (primary/secondary/intrinsic)
• Use search term sets to collect corresponding images with board and pin names
• Capture data (images, names, originators) and compile
• Analyze words in names
• Attempt to assign names to the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix.
EXPECTED RESULTS
User-curator language used in both pin names and board names will correspond to diverse levels
of the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix, indicating that the level of creativity involved in
generating new image names is greater than previously expected– and expanding.
Names which are factual, recognizable and do not indicate specialized knowledge (the strongest
positive correlation to Panofsky’s category of “Primary”) would occur most often
in board names.
Names which rely on specialized knowledge beyond the immediately factual (the strongest
positive correlation to Panofsky’s category of “Secondary”) would occur most often
in pin names.
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 12
POTENTIAL SECONDARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS
•How could an understanding of the language used in personalized naming
by user-curators affect the development of other large digital image
collections?
•Would large digital image collections become more relevant or less
relevant as image collections when individual images can literally be re-
ordered and re-named by every unique user?
•How can navigation/retrieval/meaning be assigned within a large
uncontrolled digital image collection when no outside authority
predetermines the indexing parameters? Is such assignment necessary?
•What is a “collection”? Should images selected and named by a user-
curator be redefined as something other than a “collection” when no
controlling authority is responsible for assigning text to image?
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
TAMI SUTCLIFFE 13
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SELF-CURATED IMAGE COLLECTIONS LIKE
PINTEREST :
Allow user-curators to break free from vocabularies/
gatekeepers
PINTEREST USER-CURATORS:
Develop particular sense-making behaviors while
naming large, unstructured collections
BEHAVIORS WHILE NAMING COLLECTIONS:
Reveal previously invisible underlying user needs
UNDERSTANDING SUCH NEEDS:
• Improvements in user naming tools within other
large social collection systems
• Better methods for users in other collections to
contribute meaningful image names
• Reduced factors which appear to discourage
users from contributing to the naming process
TAMI SUTCLIFFE
APRIL XX, 2014
14
THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST

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Sutcliffe Dissertation Proposal: April 2014

  • 1. TAMI SUTCLIFFE APRIL XX, 2014 Unexpected ways people use language in large personal digital image collections 1 THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST
  • 2. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 2 COST OF LARGE INSTITUTIONAL IMAGE COLLECTIONS Expensive to maintain [Examples: Public art museums, metropolitan mug shot binders, corporate graphics archives] CONTROL OF LARGE INSTITUTIONAL IMAGE COLLECTIONS Institutional funding = institutional controls [Examples: Official curators, institutionally-approved indices w/controlled vocabulary, limited access]
  • 3. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 3 WHAT IS PINTEREST? http://www.pinterest.com • Free web site • Open invitations began in 2012 • Millions of people actively “pin” • Sessions average 40 minutes • “Social collecting” site (Zarro & Hall) SOCIAL COLLECTING = USER/CURATORS •Create and manage personal image collections •User-centered perspective •Cataloger role = patron role
  • 4. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM • Institutional gatekeepers of large image collections are trained in official naming conventions. • Large public digital image collections outside of institutional control are now a reality. • Behaviors of individual social image collectors have yet to be studied in the online environment. This project will examine the behavior of individual image user-curators as they construct pin and board names within their personal digital image collections.
  • 5. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 5 NAME GAMES IN PINTEREST Each user-curator in Pinterest is given the technical capability to name and re-name images (pins), as well as categorize and re- categorize collections (boards). NAMING ACTIVITY IS NOT EXCLUSIVELY FOCUSED ON EFFICIENT IMAGE RETRIEVAL • Embed additional layers of expression in the presentation of individual images and collections • Increase the strata of possible meaning available to all viewers • Provide a sophisticated level of interpretive expression and cognitive association • Display a personally expressive form of communication OBSERVABLE NAMING BEHAVIORS IN PINTEREST Names become part of the meaning behind the concepts being staged: • Puns • Word art • Alliteration • Malapropisms • Spoonerisms • Obscure words • Rhetorical excursions • Oddly formed sentences • ASCII art • Emoticons • Double entendres • Unique uses of upper/lower case fonts • Coded abbreviations • Creatively malformed sentence/word phrases
  • 6. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 6 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY • How do people use language when naming their personal digital image collections? • Focus is NOT on image retrieval. • Analyze how often the image names selected by Pinterest user- curators correspond to the Panofsky, Rosch and Shatford Layne matrix of subject matter categories, levels of categorization and image attributes.
  • 7. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 7 PRIMARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS •How frequently do the pin and board names created by user-curators in Pinterest correspond to the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix? •Will information which is factual, recognizable and not specialized occur most often in board names? •Will information which relies on specialized knowledge beyond the immediately factual occur most often in pin names?
  • 8. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 8 LITERATURE REVIEW: VISUAL CATEGORIZATION IN IMAGE COLLECTION INDEXING •Interindexer consistency •Automated annotated image data •Cognitive economy and perceived world structure •Literal-ness in images •Triads of visual categories: Rosch’s basic, subordinate and superordinate •Two Stage (primary versus secondary) subject matter categories •Defining image attributes: Shatford Layne •User behavior in image file naming •Image Name Iconology: Tools for assigning meaning (Iconclass) •Iconology: Panofsky and Van Straten EXISTING PINTEREST“RESEARCH” •Gender, Misogyny, Commercial Use and “Social Networking” •Bias in Pinterest “Research” PANOFSKY,ROSCH AND SHATFORD LAYNE MATRIX: •Panofsky’s three strata of subject matter •Rosch’s three levels of categorical abstraction •Shatford Layne’s four divisions of image attributes
  • 9. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 9 ALPHA DATA COLLECTION: JAN-MARCH 2014 120 unique Pinterest images captured: three search terms with 40 images per term • All captured images exported to Word “maps” with names and originator data intact • Visual image, board name, pin name and originator data stored • Language stripped from image names and sorted alphabetically • Word frequency in image names calculated • Text clouds generated for both pin names and board names
  • 10. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 10 ALPHADATACOLLECTION:JAN-MARCH2014 WORDS OCCURING IN BOARD NAMES FOR PRIMARY SEARCH TERM [tree] : DATA ANALYSIS METHOD Methodological issues: Previously observed limitations of Pinterest data collection Gilbert noted that obtaining a truly random Pinterest sample is not possible without an API from Pinterest, allowing researchers to capture live site data samples. A Pinterest API remains unavailable as of April 2014. Scope and limitations Pinterest users can chose to remain anonymous in terms of reported demographic data so limited information related to users (age, gender, education ) can be deduced from categorization activity.
  • 11. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 11 BETA DATA COLLECTION:APRIL – JULY 2014 • Create 4 – 6 new sets of three search terms (primary/secondary/intrinsic) • Use search term sets to collect corresponding images with board and pin names • Capture data (images, names, originators) and compile • Analyze words in names • Attempt to assign names to the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix. EXPECTED RESULTS User-curator language used in both pin names and board names will correspond to diverse levels of the Panofsky/Rosch/Stratford Layne matrix, indicating that the level of creativity involved in generating new image names is greater than previously expected– and expanding. Names which are factual, recognizable and do not indicate specialized knowledge (the strongest positive correlation to Panofsky’s category of “Primary”) would occur most often in board names. Names which rely on specialized knowledge beyond the immediately factual (the strongest positive correlation to Panofsky’s category of “Secondary”) would occur most often in pin names.
  • 12. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 12 POTENTIAL SECONDARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS •How could an understanding of the language used in personalized naming by user-curators affect the development of other large digital image collections? •Would large digital image collections become more relevant or less relevant as image collections when individual images can literally be re- ordered and re-named by every unique user? •How can navigation/retrieval/meaning be assigned within a large uncontrolled digital image collection when no outside authority predetermines the indexing parameters? Is such assignment necessary? •What is a “collection”? Should images selected and named by a user- curator be redefined as something other than a “collection” when no controlling authority is responsible for assigning text to image?
  • 13. THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST TAMI SUTCLIFFE 13 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY SELF-CURATED IMAGE COLLECTIONS LIKE PINTEREST : Allow user-curators to break free from vocabularies/ gatekeepers PINTEREST USER-CURATORS: Develop particular sense-making behaviors while naming large, unstructured collections BEHAVIORS WHILE NAMING COLLECTIONS: Reveal previously invisible underlying user needs UNDERSTANDING SUCH NEEDS: • Improvements in user naming tools within other large social collection systems • Better methods for users in other collections to contribute meaningful image names • Reduced factors which appear to discourage users from contributing to the naming process
  • 14. TAMI SUTCLIFFE APRIL XX, 2014 14 THE ICONOLOGY OF PINTEREST