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Supply Chain Management
Business Trends
What is a Supply Chain ? All activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from raw materials to end users. The term supply chain refers to the entire network of companies that work together to design, produce, deliver, and service products. A network of facilities including: Material flow from suppliers and their “ upstream ” suppliers at all levels, Transformation of materials into semi-finished and finished products ( internal process ) Distribution of products to customers and their “ downstream ”customers at all levels .
Components of the Supply Chain
Example of SC 2 nd  Tier Supplier Upstream Internal Downstream 2 nd  Tier Supplier 2 nd  Tier Supplier 1 st  Tier Supplier 1 st  Tier Supplier Assembly/ Manufacturing and Packaging Distribution Centers Retailers Customers Grain Producer Processing Facility Packaging Distributor Store Customers Corrugate Manufacturer Lumber Company Label Manufacturer Grain Cereal Packaged Cereal Labels Word Paperboard
Complex-nonlinear Supply Chain
Three Flows in SC There are three kinds of flows in a supply chain:  material ,  information ,  capital . Downstream Material:  Products, Parts Information:  Capacity, Delivery Schedules Finance:  Invoices, Pricing, Credit Terms Upstream Material:  Returns, Repairs, After-sales Services Information:  Orders, Point-of-sale Data Finance:  Payments
Push vs. Pull in supply chains Push or Building-to-stock(BTS):  Producing stock on the basis of anticipated demand. Demand forecasting can be done via a variety of sophisticated techniques (some from the Operations Research area and some using Data Mining). Pull or Building-to-order(BTO):  Producing stock in response to actual demand (firm orders). The Push-Pull Point:  In many supply chains, upstream units employ BTS, while downstream units employ BTO strategies. The point in the supply chain where the switch-over (from BTS to BTO) occurs is called the  Push-Pull point. Optimally locating the Push-Pull point is a key determinant of supply chain performance. Examples ?
The Push vs. Pull Model
Major Concepts Order fulfillment Deliver right order on time Front office operations: order taking, advertisement, CRM Back office operations: Accounting, finance, inventor, packaging, logistics Logistics: Managing the flow of goods, information and money along the supply chain
The Process of Order Fulfillment
The Steps of Order Fulfillment 7. Purchasing, warehousing 8. Demand forecast 9. Accounting, billing 10. Customer contacts 11. Returns (Reverse logistics) 1. Payment Clearance 2. In-stock availability 3. Packaging, shipment 4. Insuring 5. Production (planning, execution) 6. Plant services
Supply Chain Management (SCM) A set of processes and sub-processes which attempt to implement and optimize the functions, connected entities, and interacting elements of a supply chain. Involves: Organizations, procedures, people. Activities: Purchasing, delivery, packaging, checking, warehousing, etc. Establishment of long-term relationships with suppliers (supply alliances) and distributors Effective flow of information through the supply chain Supply chain optimization
Key Business Areas Enterprise performance Customer service Order management Demand planning Warehouse distribution Partnerships Supplier/supply base management
Benefits of SCM Reduce uncertainty along the chain Proper inventory levels in the chain Minimize delays Eliminate rush (unplanned) activities Provide good customer service
Global Supply Chain Can be very long Possible cross-border problems Need information technology support for: communication and collaboration Possible delays due to: customs, tax, translations, politics
Problems along the Supply Chain Delays in production, distribution etc. Expensive Inventories Lack of partners’ coordination Uncertainties in deliveries Poor demand forecast Interference with production  Poor quality
More  Challenges Complexity of the  supply chain network e.g. large numbers of suppliers and distributors Complexity in product structure and manufacturing process How much product differentiation/ customization/ localization should be supported ? Where do you customize a product (upstream or downstream) ? decentralized control/organizational "silos" increasing pressure for customer service and asset utilization
Variability in the supply chain Demand variability Even the most sophisticated demand forecasting tools often fail to anticipate demand Examples of demand variability problems ? Process variability Production unit downtimes Unexpected staff absences Supply variability e.g., late deliveries from suppliers
The Bullwhip Effect Slight changes in actual demand create problems Babies Distributors Proctor & Gamble 3M Retailers
Common Causes of the Bullwhip Effect Demand forecast mismatches Demand forecasting distributed across units in the supply chain Order Batching Sometimes helps achieve economies of scale Price Fluctuations “ forward buy” inducements through lower prices Others: partners build “just in case” inventories  lack of trust among partners cannot order material from suppliers
Product design  The product has been designed so that localization (or customization or differentiation) can occur as close as possible to the local market. The product is built for a specific market before it is shipped out of the factory Upstream differentiation Downstream differentiation Example: The Hewlett-Packard Deskjet Printer.  How might you localize ?
Technology in the SC The internet and the web can be very effective communication enhancers Software includes  demand forecasting tools  and  planning tools  to allow all SC members to coordinate their activities and adjust their production levels. Software can allow members to:  review past performance monitor current performance   predict future production levels of products .
Web SCM Share information about consumer demand Receive rapid notification of product design changes and adjustments Provides specs and drawings more efficiently. Increase speed of processing transactions. Reduce cost of handling transactions. Reduce errors in entering transaction data  Share information about defect rates and types.
Example 1: Cisco  Making use of the internet in its own supply chain.  Products are manufactured by contract manufacturers (CM) Integrated well with both its CM’s and its component suppliers.  Communicates a single forecast through both levels of suppliers, reducing the bullwhip effect.  Display their product and component requirements to their entire chain.
Example 1: Benefits for Cisco  Eliminated paper purchase orders and invoices Communicate engineering change orders electronically to all partners 90% of sales are made over the internet US$875 million annual internet savings (more than 50% due to SC initiatives) Lead times reduced 75% Low manufacturing manpower requirements despite rapid growth Cost  reductions of 20%-28% every year.
Example 2: Dell Create “Virtual integration” : the entire supply chain acts like a single integrated company. Upstream partners: contract manufacturers (CM) and component suppliers Downstream partners/customers (most are business corporations) Share information with suppliers on inventory levels. Maintain long-term relationships with key suppliers for design collaboration.
Example 2: Benefits for Dell  Dell and Suppliers work together as a “Virtual Enterprise” BTO benefits (low inventory) Dynamic pricing: change prices rapidly in response to demand and availability Strong links to corporate customers
Example 3: Covisint B2B Supply Chain Benefits Automated procurement lower procurement costs  lower inventories Collaboration:  complete visibility less bullwhip Efficient market More profits Sell unused capacity
Supply chain integration: Benefits Tangible benefits Inventory reduction, personnel reduction, productivity improvement, order management improvement, financial cycle improvements. Intangible benefits Information visibility, new / improved processes, customer responsiveness, standardization, flexibility, globalization, and business performance.
Evolution of Software Integration Completely Independent of each other MRP = Material Requirements Planning: Inventory, production MRPII =Manufacturing Requirements Planning more integrated, MRP+Finance+labor ERP =Enterprise Resources Planning All functional areas Extended ERP =Include suppliers, customers
MRP Core Concepts Key questions:  How much of an item is needed to meet demand? When? What parts and components are required? When? When to order parts and components? Dependent demand production (or procurement) of parts and materials is directly linked to demand for the final product. Time-phased scheduling parts and components must be ordered in advance to accommodate  lead times  between order placement and receipt.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP  = Integrating business processes and activities in real time Solves many supply chain problems Necessary for medium to large corporations May be useful for SMEs too Need to interface with EC order taking system Manages all routine transactions in the Enterprise
Post ERP (2nd Generation) 1st generation -  transaction processing orientation 2nd generation  including decision making capabilities EC requires decision support EC requires business intelligence SCM software:  Production Planning, Manpower utilization, Profitability models, market analysis.   Integration of SCM capabilities Other added functionalities: CRM, KM
ASP Leasing information systems application Back to the days of “time sharing” A risk prevention strategy Very popular with ERP (expensive, cumbersome)
Supply chain  optimization Business objective: improve supply chain efficiency (velocity ?), optimize operation of the supply chain Metrics for efficiency - what do we optimize ? Define the problem in terms of  decision variables Define an  objective function  in terms of the decision variables. The goal would be to  maximize  or  minimize  the value of this function, i.e., to find an allocation of values to the decision variables such that the value of this function is either maximized or minimized. Supply chain optimization is the continuous process of seeking optimal allocations of values to decision variables
Common optimization problems: I Long-term planning  (time-frame: several months/years): Questions: How much of each product type should I manufacture ? When ? Where ? (Assumes a network of manufacturing centers with potential duplication of manufacturing capability) How much should I keep in inventory (both for manufacturing inputs and outputs) ? Where ? (Assumes a distributed network of warehouses) Constraints: Capacity constraints (both manufacturing and inventory) Demand profile Process constraints (downtimes, planned outages) Supply variability Objectives: Profit/revenue maximization, maximizing asset utilization, minimization of deviation from demand profile, minimization of deviation from target inventory profile
Common optimization problems: II Medium-term planning/scheduling  (time-frame: a few months/weeks) : Similar to long-term planning, but with scheduling constraints and objectives added Unit scheduling/reactive scheduling: Questions: In what sequence should orders/jobs be manufactured ? Which job should I process on a given production unit at a given point in time ? Should I go into overtime ? Constraints: Capacity constraints Sequencing constraints Orders + deadlines Process constraints (downtimes etc.) Objectives: Minimize makespan (i.e., maximize asset utilization), minimize deviation from order deadlines, maximize profit/revenue
Common optimization problems: III Shipping: How do I allocate orders to trucks ? What routes should trucks travel on ? How do I allocate truck to routes ?
Major classes of optimization techniques: From the field of operations research (OR) Linear programming Integer programming…. From the field of artificial intelligence (AI) Constraint programming Heuristic search techniques
Supply Chain Mgt. Software Includes demand forecasting tools and planning capabilities to allow all supply chain members to coordinate their activities and adjust their production levels Firms offering SCM software:  i2 Technologies RHYTHM Manugistics
Purchasing, Logistics & Support Software Enterprise Resource Planning  (ERP) software is designed to integrate manufacturing, finance, distribution, and other internal business functions into one information system Major ERP vendors include -  Baan  J.D. Edwards Oracle PeopleSoft SAP
B2B E-Commerce Software Designed to help companies build Web sites that host: Catalog Marketplace and  other commercial sales activities Major software packages include: Netscape - SellerXpert & ECXpert,  OpenMarket Transact, IBM’s Websphere. MS Site Server, and Ariba
The end Questions?

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Supply Chain Management

  • 3. What is a Supply Chain ? All activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from raw materials to end users. The term supply chain refers to the entire network of companies that work together to design, produce, deliver, and service products. A network of facilities including: Material flow from suppliers and their “ upstream ” suppliers at all levels, Transformation of materials into semi-finished and finished products ( internal process ) Distribution of products to customers and their “ downstream ”customers at all levels .
  • 4. Components of the Supply Chain
  • 5. Example of SC 2 nd Tier Supplier Upstream Internal Downstream 2 nd Tier Supplier 2 nd Tier Supplier 1 st Tier Supplier 1 st Tier Supplier Assembly/ Manufacturing and Packaging Distribution Centers Retailers Customers Grain Producer Processing Facility Packaging Distributor Store Customers Corrugate Manufacturer Lumber Company Label Manufacturer Grain Cereal Packaged Cereal Labels Word Paperboard
  • 7. Three Flows in SC There are three kinds of flows in a supply chain: material , information , capital . Downstream Material: Products, Parts Information: Capacity, Delivery Schedules Finance: Invoices, Pricing, Credit Terms Upstream Material: Returns, Repairs, After-sales Services Information: Orders, Point-of-sale Data Finance: Payments
  • 8. Push vs. Pull in supply chains Push or Building-to-stock(BTS): Producing stock on the basis of anticipated demand. Demand forecasting can be done via a variety of sophisticated techniques (some from the Operations Research area and some using Data Mining). Pull or Building-to-order(BTO): Producing stock in response to actual demand (firm orders). The Push-Pull Point: In many supply chains, upstream units employ BTS, while downstream units employ BTO strategies. The point in the supply chain where the switch-over (from BTS to BTO) occurs is called the Push-Pull point. Optimally locating the Push-Pull point is a key determinant of supply chain performance. Examples ?
  • 9. The Push vs. Pull Model
  • 10. Major Concepts Order fulfillment Deliver right order on time Front office operations: order taking, advertisement, CRM Back office operations: Accounting, finance, inventor, packaging, logistics Logistics: Managing the flow of goods, information and money along the supply chain
  • 11. The Process of Order Fulfillment
  • 12. The Steps of Order Fulfillment 7. Purchasing, warehousing 8. Demand forecast 9. Accounting, billing 10. Customer contacts 11. Returns (Reverse logistics) 1. Payment Clearance 2. In-stock availability 3. Packaging, shipment 4. Insuring 5. Production (planning, execution) 6. Plant services
  • 13. Supply Chain Management (SCM) A set of processes and sub-processes which attempt to implement and optimize the functions, connected entities, and interacting elements of a supply chain. Involves: Organizations, procedures, people. Activities: Purchasing, delivery, packaging, checking, warehousing, etc. Establishment of long-term relationships with suppliers (supply alliances) and distributors Effective flow of information through the supply chain Supply chain optimization
  • 14. Key Business Areas Enterprise performance Customer service Order management Demand planning Warehouse distribution Partnerships Supplier/supply base management
  • 15. Benefits of SCM Reduce uncertainty along the chain Proper inventory levels in the chain Minimize delays Eliminate rush (unplanned) activities Provide good customer service
  • 16. Global Supply Chain Can be very long Possible cross-border problems Need information technology support for: communication and collaboration Possible delays due to: customs, tax, translations, politics
  • 17. Problems along the Supply Chain Delays in production, distribution etc. Expensive Inventories Lack of partners’ coordination Uncertainties in deliveries Poor demand forecast Interference with production Poor quality
  • 18. More Challenges Complexity of the supply chain network e.g. large numbers of suppliers and distributors Complexity in product structure and manufacturing process How much product differentiation/ customization/ localization should be supported ? Where do you customize a product (upstream or downstream) ? decentralized control/organizational "silos" increasing pressure for customer service and asset utilization
  • 19. Variability in the supply chain Demand variability Even the most sophisticated demand forecasting tools often fail to anticipate demand Examples of demand variability problems ? Process variability Production unit downtimes Unexpected staff absences Supply variability e.g., late deliveries from suppliers
  • 20. The Bullwhip Effect Slight changes in actual demand create problems Babies Distributors Proctor & Gamble 3M Retailers
  • 21. Common Causes of the Bullwhip Effect Demand forecast mismatches Demand forecasting distributed across units in the supply chain Order Batching Sometimes helps achieve economies of scale Price Fluctuations “ forward buy” inducements through lower prices Others: partners build “just in case” inventories lack of trust among partners cannot order material from suppliers
  • 22. Product design The product has been designed so that localization (or customization or differentiation) can occur as close as possible to the local market. The product is built for a specific market before it is shipped out of the factory Upstream differentiation Downstream differentiation Example: The Hewlett-Packard Deskjet Printer. How might you localize ?
  • 23. Technology in the SC The internet and the web can be very effective communication enhancers Software includes demand forecasting tools and planning tools to allow all SC members to coordinate their activities and adjust their production levels. Software can allow members to: review past performance monitor current performance predict future production levels of products .
  • 24. Web SCM Share information about consumer demand Receive rapid notification of product design changes and adjustments Provides specs and drawings more efficiently. Increase speed of processing transactions. Reduce cost of handling transactions. Reduce errors in entering transaction data Share information about defect rates and types.
  • 25. Example 1: Cisco Making use of the internet in its own supply chain. Products are manufactured by contract manufacturers (CM) Integrated well with both its CM’s and its component suppliers. Communicates a single forecast through both levels of suppliers, reducing the bullwhip effect. Display their product and component requirements to their entire chain.
  • 26. Example 1: Benefits for Cisco Eliminated paper purchase orders and invoices Communicate engineering change orders electronically to all partners 90% of sales are made over the internet US$875 million annual internet savings (more than 50% due to SC initiatives) Lead times reduced 75% Low manufacturing manpower requirements despite rapid growth Cost reductions of 20%-28% every year.
  • 27. Example 2: Dell Create “Virtual integration” : the entire supply chain acts like a single integrated company. Upstream partners: contract manufacturers (CM) and component suppliers Downstream partners/customers (most are business corporations) Share information with suppliers on inventory levels. Maintain long-term relationships with key suppliers for design collaboration.
  • 28. Example 2: Benefits for Dell Dell and Suppliers work together as a “Virtual Enterprise” BTO benefits (low inventory) Dynamic pricing: change prices rapidly in response to demand and availability Strong links to corporate customers
  • 29. Example 3: Covisint B2B Supply Chain Benefits Automated procurement lower procurement costs lower inventories Collaboration: complete visibility less bullwhip Efficient market More profits Sell unused capacity
  • 30. Supply chain integration: Benefits Tangible benefits Inventory reduction, personnel reduction, productivity improvement, order management improvement, financial cycle improvements. Intangible benefits Information visibility, new / improved processes, customer responsiveness, standardization, flexibility, globalization, and business performance.
  • 31. Evolution of Software Integration Completely Independent of each other MRP = Material Requirements Planning: Inventory, production MRPII =Manufacturing Requirements Planning more integrated, MRP+Finance+labor ERP =Enterprise Resources Planning All functional areas Extended ERP =Include suppliers, customers
  • 32. MRP Core Concepts Key questions: How much of an item is needed to meet demand? When? What parts and components are required? When? When to order parts and components? Dependent demand production (or procurement) of parts and materials is directly linked to demand for the final product. Time-phased scheduling parts and components must be ordered in advance to accommodate lead times between order placement and receipt.
  • 33. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP = Integrating business processes and activities in real time Solves many supply chain problems Necessary for medium to large corporations May be useful for SMEs too Need to interface with EC order taking system Manages all routine transactions in the Enterprise
  • 34. Post ERP (2nd Generation) 1st generation - transaction processing orientation 2nd generation including decision making capabilities EC requires decision support EC requires business intelligence SCM software: Production Planning, Manpower utilization, Profitability models, market analysis. Integration of SCM capabilities Other added functionalities: CRM, KM
  • 35. ASP Leasing information systems application Back to the days of “time sharing” A risk prevention strategy Very popular with ERP (expensive, cumbersome)
  • 36. Supply chain optimization Business objective: improve supply chain efficiency (velocity ?), optimize operation of the supply chain Metrics for efficiency - what do we optimize ? Define the problem in terms of decision variables Define an objective function in terms of the decision variables. The goal would be to maximize or minimize the value of this function, i.e., to find an allocation of values to the decision variables such that the value of this function is either maximized or minimized. Supply chain optimization is the continuous process of seeking optimal allocations of values to decision variables
  • 37. Common optimization problems: I Long-term planning (time-frame: several months/years): Questions: How much of each product type should I manufacture ? When ? Where ? (Assumes a network of manufacturing centers with potential duplication of manufacturing capability) How much should I keep in inventory (both for manufacturing inputs and outputs) ? Where ? (Assumes a distributed network of warehouses) Constraints: Capacity constraints (both manufacturing and inventory) Demand profile Process constraints (downtimes, planned outages) Supply variability Objectives: Profit/revenue maximization, maximizing asset utilization, minimization of deviation from demand profile, minimization of deviation from target inventory profile
  • 38. Common optimization problems: II Medium-term planning/scheduling (time-frame: a few months/weeks) : Similar to long-term planning, but with scheduling constraints and objectives added Unit scheduling/reactive scheduling: Questions: In what sequence should orders/jobs be manufactured ? Which job should I process on a given production unit at a given point in time ? Should I go into overtime ? Constraints: Capacity constraints Sequencing constraints Orders + deadlines Process constraints (downtimes etc.) Objectives: Minimize makespan (i.e., maximize asset utilization), minimize deviation from order deadlines, maximize profit/revenue
  • 39. Common optimization problems: III Shipping: How do I allocate orders to trucks ? What routes should trucks travel on ? How do I allocate truck to routes ?
  • 40. Major classes of optimization techniques: From the field of operations research (OR) Linear programming Integer programming…. From the field of artificial intelligence (AI) Constraint programming Heuristic search techniques
  • 41. Supply Chain Mgt. Software Includes demand forecasting tools and planning capabilities to allow all supply chain members to coordinate their activities and adjust their production levels Firms offering SCM software: i2 Technologies RHYTHM Manugistics
  • 42. Purchasing, Logistics & Support Software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software is designed to integrate manufacturing, finance, distribution, and other internal business functions into one information system Major ERP vendors include - Baan J.D. Edwards Oracle PeopleSoft SAP
  • 43. B2B E-Commerce Software Designed to help companies build Web sites that host: Catalog Marketplace and other commercial sales activities Major software packages include: Netscape - SellerXpert & ECXpert, OpenMarket Transact, IBM’s Websphere. MS Site Server, and Ariba