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Summary Of Imagery In Oresteia
From fate to justice; how the net imagery in the Oresteia changes throughout the play and how does
it establish the superiority of a formal justice system to one based on the individual quest for
revenge
There is no doubt that the house of Atreus did not have an easy history. However, it made me
question the true motives of the actions the characters in the Oresteia perform. Are they a form of
justice or revenge? In the system that was practiced throughout the play, revenge drives the
characters to act. And although they call it justice, it is not. Aeschylus uses net imagery that
originates in the first play Agamemnon and plays a crucial role in the subject of faith and destiny.
From Cassandra's vision to Clytemnestra executing that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Second, it gives the sense that Agamemnon was never in charge of his own fate, a theme that repeats
in the Oresteia. Agamemnon, the fish in this scenario, seems like a helpless creature. Third, since a
fishing net is unseen by its prey, Agamemnon does not know the fate that awaits him. This, in turn,
can be connected to Cassandra's vision that symbolizes Clytemnestra as the net. "Now the net
[Clytemnestra] – the fish–eye terror [Agamemnon]. Death is bundling him up, like a mother
swaddling a child" (55). If the consensus is that Clytemnestra did this deed solely for the purpose of
avenging her daughter's death, ignoring Aegisthus involvement for the moment, then I could not
have said it better myself. By understanding Clytemnestra is the net in Cassandra's vision, and the
fish is Agamemnon, the reader can focus on the urgent need for revenge that Clytemnestra holds.
Another passage that relates well to these two is the chorus's response to Clytemnestra. After
revealing the murder, she is compared to a spider that had cast a web. "The spider's web swaddled
him helpless" (75). The change of the net imagery is what makes this sentence unique. Throughout
the play, Clytemnestra is symbolized as a serpent, a spider and more. Now, she is the spider, perhaps
the black widow, who eats their significant others. She is once again in a position of power and
superiority
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Aeschylus's Treatment Of Women In Oresteia
In Aeschylus's trilogy, Oresteia, the tragic manifesto paints a bloody chain of murder, adultery,
betrayal, and kinslaying, in which DIKE (justice) and the relation of women to social and family
structure serve as central themes. The Greeks were a misogynistic culture, in which women were
relegated to an inferior status in society. Women were only given a limited voice because the family
was the sovereign unit of society. The rule of justice stood for patriarchy. Cassandra's importance is
merely in the first play but her prophetic visions and declarations about the House of Atreus peal
through the entire trilogy. She's presented as a true inferior female to male superiority with little to
no voice. Contrastingly, the female character, Cornelia, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The Furies, who were dark–winged, snake haired ladies from the underworld were put in charge to
enforce the blood vengeance law. They were opposed to crimes enacted on mothers by their
children. The ironic nature of the rivalry between Apollo and the Furies began at Apollo's temple in
Delphi. They both possess ideals that were similar but sought to establish order and justice in the
world in separate ways. In the last play, Eumenides, Apollo takes center stage to defend Orestes
against the murder of his blood mother, Clytemnestra. They appeared in a courtroom like setting
with the goddess Athena to judge the trial of Orestes for matricide. The prosecution (The Furies)
began the questioning. The Furies accused him of being guiltier than his mother because he killed
someone of the same blood as himself. Apollo argued but with a patriarchal standpoint all based on
the notion that a woman's life is worth less than a man's. He argues for paternal rights, saying that
the father who plants the seed, is the only true parent. "Man mounts to create life, whereas woman is
a stranger fostering a stranger, nourishing the young, unless a god blights the birth" (Aeschylus, p.
145, 659–661). A person can have a father but no mother. Therefore, Orestes murder of his mother
must be seen in the light of Clytemnestra's killing of his father. Athena brings
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Essay On Eupatridae
A very significant and important year was 525 BC because it was my birth into the small town of
Eleusis. I lived close to the major city Athens. I was born into a wealthy and well established
family and they loved and cared for me. The Eupatridae is the ancient nobility of Attica. My
father was a member of the Eupatridae. When I was about 20 years old I worked at a vineyard.
The god Dionysus visited me one night in a dream and pretty much told me to turn to tragedy
and become a playwrite. The next morning, as I woke up from my dream I started writing my
first tragedy and started my life. When I was about 26, I finished my first play and did my first
performance. My first victory of performing happened in 484 BC in the city of Dionysia at the ...
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The battle was the Battle of Marathon and my brother and I
were defending Athens against the invading Persian army of Daruis I. We beat them and were
victorious but Cynegeirus died and it was so hard and sad. After I won my first victory of
performing in 484 BC, I was called back into the service of war in 480 BC. I was fighting against
the army of Xerxes I at the Battle of Salamis this time. Salamis holds a prominent place because
my oldest play, The Persians, which I performed at the Dionysia and won first place, was the
main location. After the 2 wars, I settled down and produced major plays and they are: The
Persians, Seven against Thebes, The Suppliants, The Oresteia, Agamemnon, The Libation
Bearers, The Eumenides, and Prometheus Bound. I returned to Sicily to visit the city Gela in 458
BC and that is where I died. He died in 446 or 455 BC. That's all the history they have so I am
done speaking in first person. His lost plays are: Myrmidons, Nereids, Phrygians or Hector's
Ransom, and Niobe. Overall he produced between 70 to 90 plays according to various ancient
sources. He had a very big impact overall on Greek drama and culture and kind of
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Theme Of Vengeance In The Oresteia
Orestes has to kill her (Zeitlin, 476). The view of vengeance in Aeschylus's The Oresteia also
depends on the situation the person enacting the vengeance is in beforehand.
Another component that changes the view of vengeance is what situation the character is in;
meaning how the murderer is related to the victim and the position they are in at the time or before.
Clytemnestra is in a situation where her husband kills their daughter and she can either retaliate or
live with the fact that Iphigenia is dead. She chooses to kill her husband and she does not have any
support other than that of Aegisthus. Orestes is basically forced into killing his mother and
Aegisthus by Apollo and people around him like his sister Electra and the Chorus as well as his
friend Pylades. In the beginning of Liberation Bearers, Orestes comes back and encounters his sister
Electra at their father's grave. During their reacquaintance, Orestes tells Electra that he has been
ordered to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus by Apollo, "...if I failed to kill my father's killers.......to
kill the two of them as they killed him, in the same way. He said that otherwise I'd pay the debt with
my own life, and it would be a life of torment that would never end" (Aeschylus, Liberation Bearers
lines 307–313). He has this threat hanging over his head and any time he starts to waver, his friend
Pylades, his sister, and the chorus encouraged him. "the third and last storm battering their house. In
the end, Orestes does in fact come third and as a saviour. Before entering the palace he rehearses the
piece of deceit by which he wraps his mother and Aegisthus in their own toils. As he puts it before
his sister and the confederate chorus of Trojan captives, he will not give Aegisthus time to ask from
where he has come", this shows that he has a lot of support behind him in this endeavor in addition
to the support of Apollo (Clay, 4). After he kills his mother and her lover, he has to wash his hands
of the blood and, "to be cured, he must journey to the oracle of Delphi" (Burke, 382). Orestes kills
his mother, subsequently he begins to see the furies that are coming after him (Burke, 382).
The Furies that are now pursuing him punish "blood–guilt" (Burke, 382)
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Aeschylus The Oresteia
The Oresteia The Oresteia is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus. This trilogy consists
of Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers or The Choephoroe, and The Eumenides. The only extant
example of an ancient Greek theatre trilogy, the Oresteia won first prize at the Dionysia festival in
458 BC. Many consider the Oresteia to be Aeschylus' finest work. The principal themes of the
trilogy include the contrast between revenge and justice, as well as the transition from personal
vendetta to organized litigation. In this trilogy there are multiple themes carried through all three
plays. Other themes can be found and in one, or two, of the three plays, but are not applicable to the
Trilogy as a whole and thus are not considered themes of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The play starts off at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the home of the famous Oracle of Delphi.
Orestes find himself there for temporary shelter from the Furies that have been torturing him ever
since the murder of his mother. Orestes pleads the gods for help against the Furies. Apollo cannot
help him, but with a sleeping curse he slows down the Furies and their evil works against Orestes
for a little while. As the Furies surround Orestes again, he begs Athena to save him. This leads to the
trial of Orestes. As a result of the trial, Orestes leaves to go home to Argos and the Furies have their
name switched to The Eumenides, or Kindly Ones, and ruling that they will now be honoured by the
citizens of Athens. By the end of the trilogy, Orestes is seen to be the key, not only to ending the
curse of the House of Atreus, but also in laying the foundation for a new step in the progress of
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Chorus Intervention in Aeschylus' the Eumenides and Agamemnon
In The Eumenides and Agamemnon of The Oresteia trilogy, Aeschylus constructs an over–arching
metaphor for elements of the new Athenian democracy. The chorus in each play represents the
people who feel under–represented and disrespected, by the society's changing values. In The
Eumenides, the chorus of Furies is frustrated with the younger gods and infringements on their
power; in Agamemnon the chorus fears more the control of an effective woman in Clytemnestra
rather than the leadership of fruitless Agamemnon. Both choruses take direct actions thought to
ensure their prominence.
Agamemnon picks of the story eponymous Greek king following the conclusion of the Trojan War.
In his absence, his wife Clytemnestra has assumed the throne, and ... Show more content on
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1561) Clytemnestra is to them a force which will "hold [them] down" (Agamemnon, Ln. 146), and a
"woman [who] made him (Agamemnon) suffer." (Agamemnon, Ln. 1481) They call for the return of
Orestes to both avenge his father's death and release them from her rule.
Their view of the future with Clytemnestra as ruler pays no heed to the success of her reign. Even
Agamemnon acknowledges that her rule surpassed his: "The storms of ruin live! Her last dying
breath, rising up from the ashes sends us gales of incense rich in gold." (Agamemnon, Ln. 804) The
chorus' overriding concern is not with success or competency, but only with the preservation of the
tradition rule. By first backing Agamemnon and then calling for Orestes murder of Clytemnestra
they are seeking to reassert and realign the old order.
While the chorus in Agamemnon is focused on restoring power to Agamemnon as king, the play's
sequel, The Eumenides traces the progression of the struggle for power as the chorus of the Furies
strives to retain authority.
The metaphorical focus of The Eumenides is the changing values in contemporary Athens. In
Athenian democracy's first recorded trial, Orestes is charged with the murder of his mother
Clytemnestra. At the prompting of Clytemnestra, the chorus of Furies begins the play by taunting
Orestes. This propels Orestes into a public trial. The Furies then work to ensure that matricide,
which they
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Aeschylus Greek Justice Essay
Throughout the plays written by Aeschylus, the characters suffer mightily and all reach their own
tragic fate for their actions, however the theme of it being a just fate is shown in the acts. The
characters in the acts show their own definitions of justice through their actions and through their
explanations of their actions. Their personal beliefs help form the system that is Greek justice. One
can show the Greek definition of justice through the text from Aeschylus. The first act of justice that
is believed to be done is by the character Clytaemnestra, when she murders her husband, who is the
king, because of a crime that his father committed. The text describes the crime in which
Clytaemnestra states, "And you, you try me like some desperate woman...Here is Agamemnon, my
husband made a corpse by ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This shows that Clytaemnestra believes that what she has done is just, because she was getting
revenge for a crime that Agamemnon's father had committed against her new lover Aegisthus. The
text also shows that the one aspect of the Greek justice system revolves around revenge for one's
crimes. The next time the text shows an event where someone believes they are engaging in a just
act is when Orestes murders Clytaemnestra, who is his own mother. The text describes the scene
when it shows the dialogue from Orestes, "This way– I want to butcher you–right across his body!
In life you though he dwarfed my father–Die!– go down with him forever! You love this man, the
man you should have loved you hated" (The Libation Bearers 890–894), the character Orestes goes
on to say, "destiny is handing you your death" (The Libation Bearers 898). These two quotes from
Orestes show that he believes what he is doing is just and that is fate that requires him to murder his
own mother for her crimes. This once again reveals the theme that justice in this culture, needs to be
given in a form of revenge. The final time that justice is addressed in the text is when the
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Eugene O’neill and the the Rebirth of Tragedy a...
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill is one of the greatest American playwrights, he is known for plays such
as "Long Day's Journey into Night" ,"Beyond the Horizon" (1920), "Anna Christie" (1922),
"Strange Interlude" (1928), "Mourning Becomes Electra"(1931)and The Iceman Cometh (1946). His
plays probe the American Dream, race relations, class conflicts, sexuality, human aspirations and
psychoanalysis. He often became immersed in the modernist movements of his time as he primarily
sought to create "modern American drama" that would rival the great works of European modernists
such as Ibsen, Strindberg and G.B. Shaw. O'Neill was a great admirer of classical theatre and as a
young man he had read Friedrich Nietzsche's work about the origin of ... Show more content on
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It is remarkable how O'Neill contrives to preserve the Chorus, which is a fundamental element of
the Greek tragedy. Although it is not as dramatic as the tragic Chorus of the classical Greek plays,
each and every of the three parts of "Mourning Becomes Electra" begins with the performance of a
chorus formed of different men and women that comment upon the Mannons, the history of their
family, revealing to the audience details about the behavior and the character of the heroes.
Moreover, the setting chosen by O'Neill is similar to the classical one used by the Greeks. It is
known that in Aeschylus' times a wooden wall was used as a background of the setting, the wall
usually stood for a palace or a temple and this exactly the same as in O'Neill's trilogy, as the greatest
part of the action takes place in front of the Mannon's residence which is described as being an
enormous stone mansion that has the aspect of a Greek temple(the temple of god Apollo) "with a
white wooden portico, with six tall columns"[2]. However that was the typical construction for a
house that belonged to an American aristocratic family in the XIX century. In "Mourning Becomes
Electra", O'Neill brought into consonance the fundamental traits of the Greek tragedy and the
specific elements of modern theatre, thus creating a
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Destiny, Fate, Free Will and Free Choice in Oedipus the...
The Role of Fate in Oedipus Rex
Before we approach this complex question inductively, we are at first obliged to contemplate what
definitions and assumptions are being made. This essay, perhaps more so than others, requires a
more extensive look at this aspect of the question, because of the sheer variety of possible responses.
However, I now have reduced them to three possibilities. Firstly, we could make the assumption that
perhaps as destiny controls all fates, then Oedipus' character was created long before he was
conceived. On the other hand, we could also say that perhaps Oedipus' horrific fate came about
because of his character and fate. The final possibility is that everything is inevitable – therefore no
one ever has had ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Yet if would be interesting to note that as this play is constructed along the lines of Aristotle's theory
of tragedy, the way in which the play is constructed would try to convey the sentiment that fate was
the overriding factor and thus could be a valid basis for the argument just outlined. But if we were to
look at the play and interpret it according to our own value judgement system, then we could just as
easily reject this premise. It all depends on how we would like to approach the play. And as there is
no definitive, positive way of doing this, neither way can be said to be "right" or "wrong".
The next solution that I outlined to this problem was the idea that it could be a amalgamation of both
destiny and character. At first this would seem to be a complete paradox, but if we extrapolate upon
these ideas it should become clear. After all, how can anyone's character have any consequence if
destiny is at work? During Oedipus we see many examples of how this can be resolved. When
Oedipus (unbeknown to him) meets his father on the road, he could have decided to walk away and
not react. However he decided to react aggressively, and thus kills his father. But theoretically, if his
character had been different, fate could have returned later and tested him in different ways, perhaps
then
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Essay Greek Theater
Ancient Greek Theater is the first historical record of "drama," which is the Greek term meaning "to
do" or "to act." Beginning in the 5th century BC, Greek Theater developed into an art that is still
used today. During the golden age of the Athenians plays were created, plays that are considered
among the greatest works of world drama. Today there are thousands of well–known plays and films
based on the re–make of ancient drama.
Theater originated from the religious rites of ancient Greek tribes. Located in northern Greece, a cult
was formed to worship the God of wine and fertility, Dionysus. The cult held religious celebrations
which included large consumptions of alcohol, animal sacrifices, and sometimes ... Show more
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The government chose wealthy patrons who financed the plays and the competitors who performed
in them. During this time period, providing for the productions meant tax exemption for the
individual and his family that year.
Once plays started being written, the number of interested spectators increased. In order to satisfy
the Greeks amphitheaters were constructed all over Greece. Three well–known theaters were the
theater at Delphi, the Attic Theater and the theater of Dionysus built at the foot of the Acropolis in
Athens. During their prime time, the plays attracted crowds of 30,000 and more. The stands were
built around the orchestra and up hillsides; somewhat like a baseball stadium today. This made it
possible to seat more than 17,000 spectators at a time.
The Dionysian Festivals lasted for several days along with the drama competitions. The
performances were always done during the day and the drinking at night! Little or no makeup was
worn by the actors, instead they wore masks with exaggerated facial expressions. Actors were
always male and played more than one role, so the masks helped portray different characters, races,
and sexes. Not much scenery was used and usually the majority of the play took place in the
orchestra. When attention was shifted to the actors, however, the action was played on stage.
The plays were lit by
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Essay about Eumenides
The Importance of Gender in Aeschylus' Oresteia
Gender is made explicit as a theme throughout the Oresteia through a series of male–female
conflicts and incorrectly gendered characters dominated by the figure of Clytemnestra, a woman out
of place. This opposition of gender then engenders all the other oppositions of the trilogy; conflicts
of oikos and polis, chthonic and Olympian, old and young can be assigned to female and male
spheres respectively. In this essay I will look at how the polis examines itself in terms of gender by
focusing on the Eumenides' exploration of the myth of matriarchy, issues of the conflict between
oikos and polis and the use of speech within the polis. I will then look at how these themes are ...
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Not only has the sex of the owners changed but also so has that of the source of the inspiration 'but it
is Zeus that Apollo speaks for' (Eum. 19). This transition to a world ordered by men is
complemented by images of Apollo's journey to Delphi; the manly god of fire Hephaestos civilizes
this female 'savage country' (Eum. 14) which has been bequeathed by the female deities and a male
head of state, Delphos (Eum. 16), who is there to welcome Apollo and his new male order. The play
opens with a hopeful precedent for a return to a proper patriarchal society.
The Eumenides brings to mind other myths, Zeitlin notices that the trial scene has strong
connections with another Athenian myth of a trial that also is very concerned with gender. Athena
had to compete with Poseidon for the city of Athens and this was decided by a vote. This was during
a time when women had the right to vote, and lead promiscuous lives and no one knew who his
father was. The women side with Athena and they out number the men by one and so Athena wins.
The women however must be punished for the use of their power and so patriarchal society is
installed.1 Whether Athenians felt at all uncomfortable with this founding myth of their female
patron deity is debateable but Athena's famous speech (Eum. 750–756) has been interpreted as a
returning of the favour. Athena may be siding with the male here but we are reminded of her ties
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Balance In The Oresteia
Through the three plays of The Oresteia, we are exposed to many opposing forces of power.
Elements such as darkness, light, fate, patriarchy, and justice are intertwined to make up Aeschylus'
tragic tale, however all of these elements are directed by one central force: balance. The word
balance itself suggests a state of equilibrium or a stable environment. Balance is often looked at as a
scale; if one side of the scale is overpowering the other, then it creates a state of disorder,
irregularity, and even chaos. Aeschylus meddles with the scales of balance but, in the end, reinforces
the equipoise of power. I would argue that, not only does The Oresteia include balance as a critical
underlying theme and is strategically used in determining the outcome of the play, but that the role
of Athena is vital in creating this balance. In this play, there are many cases in which the word
balance can be substituted for the word justice. The final play, The Eumenides, is significantly based
on the idea of balance. Aeschylus puts it as "justice waits and turns the scales"(line 61), meaning
that justice is purposeful, and is one of the components that forces the balance within the play. By
analyzing the reference to the tipping of the scales, we can assume a reversal of fortune and what is
fated to happen. With the trial being the main plotline of the last play, it reveals the scales tipping
towards justice and leaves us with a sense of harmony. The two sides of justice are seen
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Justice Is Not Rigid And Unchanging Like So Many People
Justice is not rigid and unchanging like so many want to believe. For the Ancient Greeks in the 8th
century, blood justice is the only way to settle disputes. By the mid–400s BCE, there are glimpses of
what will later become a trial by jury in a democratic judicial system. Aeschylus' plays show a
distinct shift from blood justice to a more democratic system. Even Homer, when writing his epic
works, seems to hint at a better way to resolve conflict than the "eye for an eye" mentality. The Iliad
acts as book ends to the transformation of blood justice to a trial by jury as presented by The
Oresteia; and that transformation positively influences how Western culture deals with justice.
Blood justice to the Ancient Greeks is their way of enacting retribution on parties that did them
wrong. The punishment required by blood justice must fit the crime committed, "Act for act, wound
for wound" life for a life; and that leads to many turning to their rage as a tool to help them justify
their actions (Agamemnon 1555). The Iliad opens with "Rage–Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son
Achilles" (Iliad i.1). It is Achilles' rage that is called upon and drives his actions through the entire
work. Achilles' rage is to right a great wrong done to him, but it comes at a deadly cost. Patroclus
begs to be sent into battle to help the Greeks fight. He wants to "bring some light of victory to the
Argives" by donning Achilles' armor to boost morale and drive back the Trojans (Iliad xvi.43–49).
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Summary Of The Net Imagery In Oresteia
In the Oresteia, revenge drives the characters to act. Although they call it justice, it is not. Aeschylus
uses net imagery to symbolize faith and destiny. When Clytemnestra murders Agamemnon and
Cassandra, the net imagery acts as a symbol of terrible fate. However, then fate reverse. Now,
Orestes is caught in Apollo's net and kills his own mother. Lastly, Athene changes the meaning of
the net from one of chaos to that of order and justice. These uses of the net imagery help the reader
focus on a crucial theme in the play: the superiority of a formal justice system to one based on the
individual quest for revenge by progressively altering the nets meaning and its affect on those
around it.
Clytemnestra's use of the net imagery focuses the reader on the drawback, that is, collateral damage,
of a justice system that is based on the individual quest for revenge by emphasizing the collateral
damage associated with revenge. As she stands over the bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra she
says: "I wrapped in a great net– not a fish could have slipped from the shoal" (69). Involving the
shoal in Clytemnestra's speech explains that with every revenge quest there are innocent people who
suffer the repercussions. An avenger does not consider the bystanders surrounding the guilty person.
Clytemnestra states that the net was so large that the fish could not escape the shoal. If the fish's fate
is to be caught in the net yet it cannot escape the shoal, that means the shoal suffers the same
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Justice In The Odyssey
After Orestes avenges his father's murder, he himself is now involved in the cyclic bloodshed;
however, instead of him being killed by kin, he is hunted by the punishers of matricides, the Furies.
The last play of Aeschylus I, The Eumenides, marks the change from antiquated Argos to abreast
Athens. It also highlights the transition of men from upholding the violent, Lex Talionis tradition to
a trial based system of justice. Though by thought this was an achievement, from barbaric to
civilized thinking, but in truth justice was hardly practiced.
In Athena's courtroom, justice was not unseeing. There is an apparent bigotry for life, and there were
repercussions for the wrong verdict. For example, the life of Clytemnestra is seemingly less
cherished than the life of King Agamemnon, who as a ruler is "honored with the king's staff given
by the hand of god" (Line 626). Moreover, the life of Iphigenia was even less valuable since her
death is not even mentioned in the trial. Bringing us to question why Orestes' was deemed most fit
for receiving such a "just" trial. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Apollo goes to even greater lengths, he threatens, "I command you to fear...from Zeus and me"
(Lines 713–714), when that was of no avail, he bribes the jury, hinting that he treats well, "the man
who shows [him] worship" (Line 725). In similar fashion, before the jurors vote Athena herself
exclaims to the jurors, "I am always for the male" (Line 737). The ballot vote for Orestes' fate was,
"In equal number for each side" (Line 751), perhaps this number of jurors was another coy by
Athena to choose the verdict that would align with her
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The Means Of Potence In Agamemnon
Agamemnon, she is viewed as haughty and despicable and everyone hates her for it. She walks out
of the palace and starts talking about how her vengeance has been enacted and that it is justifiable.
The chorus hears her and asks, "how you can swagger so over the butchered body of your husband"
(Aeschylus, Agamemnon lines 1596–1597). They continue further saying", Woman, what foul food
nursed deep in the earth, or what drink drawn from the flowing sea could you have tasted to take on
yourself so horrible a sacrifice and the people's curse? You have cast away, you have cut away, and
away will you go from the city, under the full weight of the city's hate" (Aeschylus, Agamemnon
lines 1604–1611). She shows the difference in the way her husband was treated for killing someone
then how she is treated by saying basically you condemn me and curse me while no one said
anything about my husband killing my daughter as if "...it were a beast he slaughtered..." ,and all to
"charm the winds of Thrace? Why wasn't he the one you banished from the land in punishment for
that foul act? Yet you hear my case and all at once you are a ruthless judge" (Aeschylus,
Agamemnon lines 1612–1629). Everyone is reproachful of her actions and part of this has to do
with her being a woman. One reason why everyone is so critical about Clytemnestra's actions is
because she is going outside society's gender role for her and taking charge. She "...breaks with
tradition and takes on an active role in avenging
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Aeschylus's The Oresteia
Maintaining the rule of law is central to most societies ability to remain orderly. Initially, derived
from the family, a transition occurred driving the origins of the rule of law to occur within society as
a whole. Aeschylus's The Oresteia provides an excellent illustration of this change from the
instinctual law within the family to the positive law of society. Aeschylus shows this transition
through the example of the aristocratic family of Argo's, which culminates in a murder trial in the
city of Athens. The Oresteia provides an excellent starting point for understanding the evolution of
the rule of law from natural law to societal law through the breakdown of the family roles, the
obligations of fate and duty, and the calming of the furies. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The action in this court scene is set up by the opening scene which happened in the temple of
Apollo. This instance helps to show the usurpation of one set of gods over another, in that the Furies
were lulled to sleep by Apollo to protect Orestes from their torment. The Furies are used to represent
instinctual justice because the ghost of Clytaemnestra awakes them by charging them to fulfill their
duty to torment Orestes for committing matricide. A requirement to complete the evolution of justice
to be based in society is that the Furies current capacity is in need of elimination, which is what
takes place during the trial in Athens. In the trial, the Furies' case hinges on the concept that
Clytaemnestra the same blood as Orestes, but Apollo counters that, "The man is the source of life –
the one who mounts. She, like a stranger for a stranger, keeps the shoot alive unless god hurts the
roots" (Lines 669–671). Apollo is saying that the Furies claim that Orestes and Clytaemnestra share
the same blood is meaningless because the man is the source of life, while the woman is merely a
vehicle. To contrast, this Orestes builds the case for his innocence on the premise that he was
commanded by the seer of Apollo to avenge his father's death since he had just returned a hero in the
Trojan War. Both parties were able to make sound cases, which ultimately led to the jury splitting
evenly down the middle, which shows the complexity of the situation. Given a vote, in this case, I
would have voted for Orestes, because the implications of changing the role of the Furies to occur
more peacefully in society will help for all to flourish. In the end, Athena voted for Orestes because
"she killed her husband, guardian of their house." While Orestes freed of his guilt, however, it was
not a defeat for the Furies as they received a new role
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Libation Bearers 'By Aeschylus' The Oresteia
The Libation Bearers
Summary
Libation Bearers is part of The Oresteia that Aeschylus wrote. The Greek plays included in The
Oresteia were Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. They are in sequential order.
In Agamemnon it tells you about his life as a king until his murder. In Aeschylus Libation Bearers in
beginning Orestes and Pylades go to Argos to visit Agamemnon in his grave. Agamemnon was
killed by Clytemnestra (his wife) and Aegisthus a few years before. Orestes was ordered to go to
Argos by the oracle of Apollo that sent him to get revenge on the killers on Agamemnon. Orestes
son of Agamemnon went to mourn for his fathers death and then saw a group of women dressed in
black walking towards the grave. Orestes discovered that among those women was his sister Electra.
Electra went to Agamemnon's grave because she was sent by her mother to bring libations to
Agamemnon in his grave to stop the terrible dreams that Clytemnestra is having. Orestes and Electra
finally talk at first Electra doesn't believe that Orestes is actually there. They both talk about the
hatred towards their mother and how much they miss their father and love him. Orestes and Electra
pray to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The house where Clytemnestra and Electra lived in was dark with all the past troubles that it had.
Orestes was the one that was suppose to bring it light, make it have a new start. When the nurse first
heard about Orestes' fake death she said "The old troubles of the house of Atreus, so hard to bear"
(line 921). Nurse believes that there is no hope left for the house of Atreus. But when Orestes finally
does kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus they would be able to see light again. The tyrant's will finally
be dead and the house would be free from any darkness. Apollo the god of sun and illumination
should help keep the house in light and not let it go so easy to darkness
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The Evolution Of Justice In AeschylusThe Oresteia
The trilogy of Aeschylus' The Oresteia follows a bloody feud within the House of Atreus. With this
feud there are many boundaries that get crossed and challenged dealing with revenge and murder. A
clear shift in justice is observed over the course of the three plays and Aeschylus shows that this
shift in justice as an evolution that must happen to shape a society. The Oresteia provides a message
that a society must come together to define justice in order to become unified and it must protect the
interests of everyone and not just a single case or person. Agamemnon provides two essential steps
in the evolution of justice over these plays. The war in Troy is attributed to the abduction of Helen,
upon which Agamemnon gathers his army to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The chorus exemplifies this plagued form of justice that continues to occur throughout the play in a
cyclical manner by saying, "Justice brings new acts of agony, yes, on new grindstones Fate is
grinding sharp the sword of justice" (Agamemnon 1564–1565). The retributive justice described by
the chorus is extremely prominent throughout Agamemnon and provides a foundation for Aeschylus
to show the change in justice from play to play in his trilogy.
The Libation Bearers is a medial step in the evolution of justice in The Oresteia. When Orestes
murders his mother Clytaemestra he exemplifies the justice imposed by the new gods which
contradicts the principles in which the old gods ruled the land. Orestes is encouraged and aided by
Apollo, a member of the new gods, the commit this matricide which opposes the will of The Furies,
who believe in blood for blood justice. This is the first instance in which retributive justice is
challenged because the higher authority is calling upon Orestes to carry out this act because they
believe it is just. Orestes explains his feelings in The Libation Bearers when he says "So he may
come, my witness when the day of judgment comes, that I pursued this bloody death with justice,
mother's death" (978–981). He is describing how his acts are credited to some higher system of
justice imposed by the gods which alerts a change in the personal retributive justice that is seen up
until this point. Apollo believes that all
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The Myth Of Aeschylus The Eumenides
From the classical period until present day, artists have attempted to portray Aeschylus' The
Eumenides in various forms of art. However, in order to appreciate the work of these artist one must
first become familiar with the subject of the myth they depict. According to Greek and Roman
mythology, the Furies were female spirits of justice and vengeance. Known especially for pursuing
people who had murdered family members, the Furies punished their victims by driving them mad.
There are various stories on the origin of the Furies. According to Hesiod's Theogony, the Titan
Cronus castrated and threw his father, Uranus, genitalia into the sea. When Cronus blood fell onto
the earth, the Furies were born. Other stories circulated in Greek and ... Show more content on
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Currently housed in the Chrysler Museum of Art in Norfolk, Virginia is one of his most famous
painting The Remorse of Orestes (1862). At the center of the painting, we have Orestes naked
except for a discreet white drapery. With and look of pure anguish he attempts to cover his ears as
the Furies appear to be screaming behind him. Behind him to the left of the painting, we see
Clytemnestra in a white dress, draped in a disarranged red cloak, with a dagger in her heart. As
Clytemnestra is falling, one of the Furies holds her up. It is as if the murder has just taken place and
Orestes is immediately regretting his actions, and one of the Furies is refusing to let Orestes burry
the sense of guilt he feels. Another of the Furies is holding a torch, which similarly to the last
painting discussed, could be symbolic of the Furies enacting justice for the crime of matricide. All of
the Furies are partially clothed and have their characteristic snake–like hair. The positioning of the
Orestes body and face looking away from the Furies also adds to the overarching theme of the
painting. It is as if he cannot face what he has done, he cannot even look at the Furies, let alone try
to justify his actions. No matter how he tries to run from the crime, he will never be able to get away
from it. This all–encompassing dread is not something that Orestes can escape even after being
pardoned for his crime; it is something that he will have to live with for the rest of his life. The
canvas is 7.5 feet by 9 feet and reflects how important the message of the painting that the guilty
feel an unceasing torment that they cannot escape is to the artist. When submitting the painting
Bouguereau wrote about his painting
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Justice In Aeschylus's Oresteia
"Eumenides", the third and final piece in Aeschylus's Oresteia trilogy, resumes the tale where
"Choephoroe" left it as Orestes is pursued by the vengeful Erinyes. The primary plot point in
"Eumenides" is the judgement Orestes undergoes for his act of matricide, and the conflicting ideas
of justice provided by the various parties that are associated with it. Topic In "Eumenides", the best
idea of justice Argument is Athena's Reason because her lack of a personal stake in the matter
allows her to give a truly fair solution to the situation. (topic) The Erinyes do not have the best idea
of justice because, as they have a personal stake in the matter, they twist their ideals to fit the
situation and lean it in their favor. (point) Their manipulated ... Show more content on
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(point) When Orestes and the Erinyes cannot resolve their disagreements on their own, they turn to
Athena, who chooses to establish a court of justice that will resolve the trial of bloodshed as well as
provide protection in the future for her village, demonstrating the first and only sound idea of justice
in the entire piece. (evidence)"People of Athens, hear my ordinance / At this first trial for bloodshed.
Evermore / This great tribunal shall abide in power....I establish / This great tribunal to protect my
people," (Aeschylus 362). (explanation 1) In this statement, Athena officially declares the creation
of a court of justice that will solve the current issue of bloodshed as well as abide in power from
then on to protect her people. (ex 2)The creation of this court, which is not only created by a party
impartial to the issue but also composed of neutral judges, is a solution equally fair to all parties,
unlike those proposed by the Erinyes or Apollo. (ex 3) Thus, Athena is the only character who
demonstrates a reasonable idea of justice, and it is consequentially the best idea of justice found in
the piece. (transition) Thanks to this idea of justice, the issue was finally resolved and the piece was
able to avoid a tragic
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Comparing Hubris in Antigone and Oedipus Essay
Hubris in Antigone and Oedipus
The idea of hubris is monumental in a plethora of Greek mythological works. In many ways the
excessive pride of certain characters fuels their own destruction. This is certainly true with respect to
the characters of Pentheus, Antigone, and Oedipus. All three of these characters demonstrate,
through their actions, various degrees of arrogance that seem to undercut the traditional role of the
Gods, and thus largely contribute to their downfall. However, it should be noted that while each of
these characters demonstrate hubris, they way in which their arrogance manifests itself is unique to
each character.
Pentheus, the authoritarian newly appointed king of Thebes is immediately troubled ... Show more
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As Pentheus interrogates Dionysus he again is issued a direct warning not to go against the will of
the gods by persecuting one whom the gods favor. As Dionysus calmly states, "Very well, I¹ll go
along with this wrongful undestined destiny, but remember this: Dionysus, who you say does not
exist, will wreak revenge on you for this" (Euripides 417). The story culminates in Dionysus playing
on Pentheus¹ curiosity and voyeurism regarding the intoxicated hordes of Thebian women, by
tricking him to go out to see them in action. Pentheus is brutally ripped apart by the possessed
women, yet in effect it was his own actions that caused his destruction. As Dionysus directly
addresses the hubris of Pentheus, "The sins of jealousy and anger made this Pentheus deal unjustly
with one bringing blessings, whom he disgracefully imprisoned and insulted; and so he met his end
at the hands of his own kin‹ an unnatural end and yet a just one" (Euripides 453).
Antigone also over steps her bounds, yet in a drastically different way. Rather than embracing the
authoritarian ideals and decrees of Creon, the Stalinist new leader of Thebes, Antigone¹s dual sense
of pride and stubbornness fuels her personal reactions. Her belief that her brother deserves a proper
burial seems to transcend logic and directly counter both temporal and divine authority. Antigone
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Justice In Oresteia, Libation Bearers, And Eumenides
All three plays in the Oresteia, Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, and Eumenides, revolve around a
central theme of justice. This theme reflects the socio–historical context in which Aeschylus wrote
his plays; the beginning of a new age in Athens following its war with Persia marked the political
shift to a society built on democracy and morality–governing laws. Now justice was
institutionalized– a major shift from the personalized, blood–to–blood form of exacting justice that
preceded it. Aeschylus depicts this new form of justice as a step forward in implementing an orderly
society; however, the new justice system finds itself unable to overcome the sexism that tainted the
old one, and male superiority continues to pervade decisions of justice. ... Show more content on
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She addresses her own inclinations when she says, "I do so because there is no mother who gave me
birth, and I approve the male in everything" (Eum. 736–37). Despite Athena's intentions of bringing
peace by "resolv[ing] this matter in the truth" (Eum. 499), she pardons Orestes when making the
deciding vote: "I will set higher value on the death of a woman who killed her husband, a house's
guardian" (Eum. 739–40). Athena's confession of her own bias goes uncriticized, further
legitimizing the systematic marginalization of
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Justice In The Odyssey
As Mahatma Gandhi once noted astutely, "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind."
Gandhi's assertion challenges this moral code established in both the Odyssey and the Old
Testament, just as Aeschylus challenges the validity of vendetta as a successful technique for
maintaining societal order in his Oresteia trilogy. The revenge ethic plays a key role in the story
because it makes justice the personal responsibility of the person insulted; the killer must be killed,
and the act of retribution must be carried out by the most appropriate person––preferably a close
blood relative. It is a radically straightforward basis for justice, linking retribution to the family and
its collective honor. Like the storied blood feud between the Hatfields ... Show more content on
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The chorus notes that for those who exact vengeance, "no cure whatever exists; and all ways which
converge / in one road, to purify / blood on polluted hands, go straight onward in vain" (lines 71–
74). They appeal to the gods for some kind of remedy to the madness: "You great powers of Fate,
may Zeus grant an ending here / in which justice changes to the other side" (lines 307–309).
Nevertheless, the chorus seems to change its mind later on in the dialogue with Electra and
recognizes that justice by retribution has been a valid way to keep the peace in the past. They note
that "certainly there is a law that bloodshed / dripping to the ground demands another's blood. / The
havoc from those slain before / shouts the Fury on / who brings fresh ruin upon ruin" (lines 400–
405). Orestes tells Clytemnestra that she "killed the man you ought not; so you must / suffer the
thing you should not" (lines 929–230) and proceeds to commit matricide. At this point, the chorus
laments that Orestes took his own mother's life, but they admit that their "choice is nevertheless for /
this eye of the house not to fall utterly in destruction" (lines 933–934). Later on in Eumenides when
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Sleep Imagery in The Oresteia Essay examples
Sleep Imagery in The Oresteia
Sleep—it's what divides the day and the night; the conscious and the subconscious; the aware
and the unaware. It's image, then, is a powerful tool for polarizing such extremes. In his trilogy, The
Oresteia, Aeschylus utilizes sleep imagery to divide between those who are aware and those who
aren't. Though sleep's meaning changes throughout the plays, Clytaemestra is always able to use it
to her aid. Her story accompanies a shift in a justice system that defines right and wrong.
Throughout the trilogy, the meaning of sleep evolves from a clear division into a more indefinite one
as the definition of right and wrong becomes increasingly ambiguous. "…fear in sleep's place
stands forever ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the second play, "The Libation Bearers", awareness occurs during sleep rather than during waking
hours. When Clytaemestra dreams Orestes is a snake that draws blood from her breast, the chorus
says, "She woke screaming out of her sleep, shaky with fear…" (The Libation Bearers 535)
Her fear came as a result of the realization that Orestes, her son, would harm her. This image of evil
came to her in sleep, rather than while she was awake. Because she was aware of potential harm,
Clytaemestra was able to act more cautiously. But despite efforts to protect herself, Orestes
ultimately takes his revenge on Clytaemestra. Though dreams are not representative of perception in
the first play, in the second part of the trilogy, they are seen as a definite type of awareness.
Although contrary to the original meaning of sleep, a clear division is still shown between
consciousness and ignorance.
Though sleep serves as a division between awareness and obliviousness in the first two plays, in the
final play of The Oresteia, "The Eumenides", the role of sleep becomes more ambiguous. The ghost
of Clytaemestra evokes the Furies from their sleep. She addresses them, "You would sleep then?
And what use are you, if you sleep?" (The Eumenides 94) Clytaemestra makes them aware of her
matricide though they sleep, and as she wakes them, the Furies are still aware of the existing
situation. Thus sleep no longer sets the
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Essay about The Oresteia, Aeschylus
In "The Oresteia" trilogy, the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus advocates the importance of the
male role in society over that of the female. The entire trilogy can be seen as a subtle proclamation
of the superiority of men over women. Yet, the women create the real interest in the plays. Their
characters are the impetus that makes everything occur.
The most complex and compelling character in the three plays is Clytaemnestra. Clytaemnestra is
consumed with thoughts of revenge. She seeks vengeance on Agamemnon for the loss of their
daughter, Iphigeneia whose life was forfeited in order to appease the goddess Artemis so that
Agamemnon's troops would be allowed passage to the Trojan shore. Clytaemnestra ... Show more
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In breaking away from the traditional female role, she sets up the scenario for the entire story to
unfold. Clytaemnestra is thus the driving force behind the conflicts of the trilogy for it is her actions
that spark the debate between the Furies and Apollo over whether or not Orestes is just in
committing matricide.
Where as Clytaemnestra breaks with female tradition, Electra is the preserver of the status quo.
Because Clytaemnestra is not motherly, Electra who has already lost her father to the depths of
Hades, loses her mother to that one's all–consuming hate of Agamemnon as well. And so she seeks
revenge towards her mother, the cause of all her misery in taking away the only family she ever had.
She desperately awaits the arrival of her brother, Orestes, who becomes the father figure she lost
when Agamemnon was murdered. She says to Orestes on lines 241–242, "I have to call you father, it
is fate;/ and I turn to you the love I gave my mother" (Aeschylus 189). In this way, she comes to
revere the male over the female, the father over the mother.
Another strong female character who is grossly underestimated is Cassandra, daughter of Priam,
King of Troy. Cassandra is brought into this family feud when Agamemnon brings her back from
Troy as his personal prize from the war. She has the gift of prophesy but her prophesies are never
believed because she once angered Apollo by not submitting to him and has suffered ever
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Sophocles Vs. Euripides ' The Peloponnesian War
When choosing a poet to give Athens much needed advice to hopefully save it from what seems to
be the inevitable end to the Peloponnesian war, one might consider either Euripides or Aeschylus.
Both are excellent tragedians. Based on one's political beliefs, one will probably easily choose one
over because they stand on opposite sides of the political spectrum. Euripides is for a more socially
progressive state whereas Aeschylus is for a more conservative form. However, there is a third, and
in fact better option. Aristophanes, as a result of preferring comedy over tragedy and discussing
more important issues within his works, such as the state of contemporary politics, is the obvious
candidate who would give Athens the best, most convincing advice. Each poet has their own method
of convincing people. Aeschylus appeals to the citizens' negative emotions, such as fear,
melancholy, or hate by depicting the character Clytemnestra as completely evil and Agamemnon and
Orestes as innocent and morally upright (Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, p.100–102). Aeschylus goes
into great detail convincing the audience of the great injustice that Orestes went through and expects
them to believe that his actions are, as a result, justifiable. He then presents Orestes fearful for his
life but confident in what the gods have told him after he commits the murder as he flees from the
Furies to seek help from Athena. While this method of storytelling can be convincing, it is not what
people need.
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Aeschylus Agamemnon Essay
Analysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon
Characters– The Watchman
Clytaemnestra
The Herald
Agamemnon
Cassandra
Aegisthus
The Chorus
1). The Watchman:
The watchman sets the time and place for the play (Agamemnon's palace in Argos, the house of
Atreus); he describes the many miserable nights he has spent on the rooftop of the palace watching
for the signal fires that will herald the fall of Troy.
The watchman is one Aeschylus's small characters, but like the herald he serves an important role as
he not only sets the scene but also perhaps portrays the mood of Argos awaiting their king and
soldiers return.
"That woman – She manoeuvres like a man" is the important first reference to Clytaemnestra, it
ominously ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Helens promiscuity is alluded to as she is described as a "woman manned by many" and the cause of
the Trojan War.
The chorus talks about the inevitability of crime and punishment by the gods. Zeus will punish Paris
because he is the god of hospitality and it is his laws of hospitality that have been broken; they also
suggest that there is no way to "enchant away the rigid fury".
The Chorus introduce themselves as "the old dishonoured ones, the broken husks of men" alluding
to the fact that they are the old men of Argos and could not go to war "old men are children once
more" makes us sympathise with the Chorus in their old age.
A change of pace in the chorus's speech signals that the chorus have become narrators outside the
action of the play and are given divine wisdom and knowledge "The gods breathe power through my
song"
At this point the chorus narrates the omen of the birds and the hare; Agamemnon and Menelaus are
likened this time to two eagles which fly from the palace west towards the sea (and Troy) and kill a
pregnant hare which represents the city of Troy full of life and prosperity. The fact they are likened
to eagles is important because eagles are the kings of birds and they have beaks just like the prow of
a ship.
There is a long section of praise to Zeus. The chorus then speak of a price to pay for the Trojan War
(the sacrifice of the as yet unnamed Iphigenia) and hint at
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Oresteia
Oresteia – The Issue of Justice in Aeschylus' Eumenides
The concept of justice is manifested through the three plays of Aeschylus' Oresteia. The old tradition
of justice, the private blood feud, caused an ungoverned succession of violent acts that spiralled
uncontrollably. Aegisthus, Clytemnestra's lover, is introduced in Agamemnon; he desires vengeance
for the plot contrived by Agamemnon's father (Ag: 1605–1611).1 Neither Agamemnon nor
Aegisthus took part in this "plot" and yet as the chorus explains (Ag: 755–6)
'But ancient Violence longs to breed,
new violence comes
when its fatal hour comes,'
The justice system of this period demanded that one avenge the death of a family member, this can
be seen in The Libation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However, the violent acts of reprisal do not end with Agamemnon. With this act comes a twist
within the traditional system of justice. In The Libation Bearers, Orestes must choose to avenge his
father's murder. The twist comes in that by avenging his father, Orestes will be committing
matricide, a crime revolting to the gods and especially to the Furies. Orestes is placed in a no win
situation; he must avenge his father or else be plagued by (Lib: 285–6)
'.................leprous boils that ride the flesh,
their wild teeth gnawing the mother tissue,'
Unfortunately, the same fate awaits him if he commits matricide, thereby avenging his father.
Orestes chooses the latter and is besieged by 'the hounds of mother's hate.' (Lib: 1055–6). Through
this sequence of murderous events, Aeschylus demonstrates the complexity and futility of the blood
feud as a system of justice. There are no winners, and the cycle of violence does not end. Thus, this
cycle of vengeance is not justice.
In the Eumenides, Aeschylus manifests a new system of justice for the more civilised times. Orestes,
plagued by the Furies, turns to Apollo (Eum: 88–90)
'Lord Apollo, you know the rules of justice
know them well. Now learn
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Justice and Gender in the Oresteia
Justice and Gender in the Oresteia
Justice and gender are put into relation with each other in Aeschylus' Oresteia. In this trilogy, Greek
society is characterized as a patriarch, where the oldest male assumes the highest role of the oikos
(household). The household consists of a twofold where the father is the head, and the wife and
children are the extended family. The head of the oikos is the only one who possesses the authority
to seek justice. This is because the father acquires the authority through the inheritance law or male
lineage. On the contrary, Greek society seems to transform to a matriarch when Clytemnestra solely
murders Agamemnon because she, like primitive males, exercises destructive justice and enters the
cycle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Clytemnestra makes no implications of violence until she deceitfully welcomes Agamemnon, "For
while the root still lives, the leaves bring cool shade to the house again. So coming back to hearth
and home, you bring a summer's warmth to us in wintertime," (77: 1108–1112). This quote serves as
the prelude to Clytemnestra finally utilizing destructive justice, and thus breaking the circle of
violence. Clytemnestra destructiveness is intrinsic in the scene where she welcome home
Agamemnon, who accompanied by Cassandra. Aeschylus writes, "You go inside now. I'm talking to
you, Cassandra. Zeus, not unkindly, has determined you should share the lustral water of our house,
standing where all our slaves crowd the altar of god who guards the house's wealth" (79:1173–78).
In this excerpt, Clytemnestra shows that she is the head of her household because she can determine
who is rightfully welcome. One might argue that Clytemnestra is not revealing destructive justice
because of her calmness and generosity in this scene. However, the passage suggests that she is the
head and Cassandra is the extended family, and therefore Clytemnestra shows a hint of her
destructiveness as she enslaves Cassandra. Clytemnestra mercilessly tells Cassandra that it is "Here
with us you'll be treated as custom warrants (1189).
Destructive justice is first seen when Clytemnestra says, "My aim was so exact–I won't deny it–that
he could
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Mirror Image Of Electra In Aeschylus The Libation Bearers
In this paper I will discuss Aeschylus' The Libation Bearers. Close reading reveals that Electra is
Orestes' mirror image of a Fury. This thesis will be demonstrated through the analysis of passages
through the lens of the following principles of close reading: anomaly and parallel stories. To prove
this theory, the interpreter needs to offer evidence to show that Electra is a mirror image of Orestes,
a physical copy of himself meant to display his emotional and 'Fury–like' motivations towards
killing his mother. Hence, the interpreter then also has to prove that Electra shares the same
characteristics as a Fury. In this case, her parallel story with Orestes and the anomaly of their
physical similarities proves the first condition. To demonstrate ... Show more content on
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Apollo focuses on the "oath to the Father" (p.259; 626–628) and the value of knowledge over
kinship (p.260–261; 665–675), while the Furies focus on the "mother's rights" (p.259; 630–631) and
the emotional values of kinship, "Disclaim your mother's blood? She gave you life." (p.258; 614)
Athena weighs both of these arguments out and makes a compromise that takes in both sides
(p.264–265; 748–758). In comparison, Orestes compromises Electra and Pylades' motivations in
The Libation Bearers by killing Clytemnestra with motivations of emotion, "You flung me into a life
of pain" (p.217; 900) as well as those of oaths and logic, "my father's destiny...decrees your death."
(p.219; 913) Hence, what Apollo and the Furies are to Athena, is what Pylades and Electra are to
Orestes. As discussed in class, Pylades is the disguise of Apollo, and Athena represents humanity.
When combining these conclusions, Orestes also represents humanity, with Pylades as his Apollo,
and Electra as his mirror image of a
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Aeschylus Trilogy And Sweat By Lynn Nottage
The Aeschylus Trilogy and Sweat by Lynn Nottage, though written thousands of years apart,
actually share the same underlying problems especially when it comes the the characters that drive
the plot. In both plays, there is this very prominent character trait found in most, if not all, the
characters, selfishness. These self centered characters actually create conflict simply by only
thinking of themselves. The self–centered and selfish air in both time periods, whether brought up
by individual characters or even character groups, drives the plot in both the Aeschylus Trilogy and
Sweat. The mythical story of "Agamemnon" opens with an air of hope and fear as the very weary
watchmen and city of Argos wait for the fall of Troy, a war that has been going on for ten years.
After the signal is seen, Agamemnon's wife Clytemnestra, who has been ruling in his absence,
appears from her home and tells the city the great news, they have won the war. Agamemnon arrives
home and has brought the captured Trojan princess Cassandra, his concubine. Clytemnestra falsely
welcomes him with gifts that will lead him to his death. After also being welcomed, Cassandra,
moves into a state of frenzy, foreshadowing to Agamemnon's murder and her own. She enters the
house, knowing it will lead to her death. Thc cries of the dying Agamemnon are heard by many,
when the palace is revealed, Clytemnestra is joyfully standing over the bodies of her victims. She
answers the elders' charges by claiming justice
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Sophocles Vs. Euripides ' The Peloponnesian War
When choosing a poet to give Athens much needed advice to hopefully save it from what seems to
be the inevitable end to the Peloponnesian war, one might consider either Euripides or Aeschylus.
Both are excellent tragedians. Based on one's political beliefs, one will probably easily choose one
over because they stand on opposite sides of the political spectrum. Euripides is for a more socially
progressive state whereas Aeschylus is for a more conservative form. However, there is a third, and
in fact better option. Aristophanes, as a result of preferring comedy over tragedy and discussing
more important issues within his works, such as the state of contemporary politics, is the obvious
candidate who would give Athens the best, most convincing advice. Each poet has their own method
of convincing people. Aeschylus appeals to the citizens' negative emotions, such as fear,
melancholy, or hate by depicting the character Clytemnestra as completely evil and Agamemnon and
Orestes as innocent and morally upright (Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, p.100–102). Aeschylus goes
into great detail convincing the audience of the great injustice that Orestes went through and expects
them to believe that his actions are, as a result, justifiable. He then presents Orestes fearful for his
life but confident in what the gods have told him after he commits the murder as he flees from the
Furies to seek help from Athena. While this method of storytelling can be convincing, it is not what
people need.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Philosophy and Psychology of Sophocles’s Antigone and...
The Philosophy and Psychology of Sophocles's Antigone and The Eumenides in Aeschylus' Oresteia
There is a consensus among readers of the poetry or plays written in the fifth century that the plays
succeed with inspiring profound movement on the audience. The methods or reasons for the reader
to be moved by a text are often disputed. Specific to tragic works the concepts of philosophy and
psychology are critical elements to understand the cause of the stirred emotions of individuals who
response to classical tragedies in a similar manner. Philosophy helps to understand "why" and
psychology "how" poetry affects and moves human emotion.
Philosophy and poetry are united by a common intent. Each searches for an ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
This logic is based on the universal principle, evidently accepted by Athena in the play, and supports
the patriarchal ancient Greek society.
The universal described by Aristotle was, "How a person of a certain type will on occasion speak or
act, according to the law of probability or necessity" (Aristotle, 68). Aristotle identified the
characters of tragedies with tragic flaws. These tragic flaws may be considered tragic qualities
because it is the identification and sympathy of the audience for this quality that will have a
profound impact. In his introduction of Oedipus the King, Bernard Knox identifies the similarity
between values held by Oedipus and the people of Athens and modern readers.
"The more important for the play's impact on the audience than this grim setting
is the characterization of the play's central figure, Oedipus the King. The poet's
language presents him to the audience not as a figure of the mythical past but as one fully
contemporary" (Knox, 138).
Oedipus' quick decisiveness, emphasis on intelligence and dedication are admirable qualities. Creon
demonstrates great nationalism promoting, "The safety of our country is our safety" (Sophocles, 68).
Agamemnon also has admirable nationalist qualities because of his willingness sacrifice his
daughter for the future conquest of Troy.
Each character is met with tragedy but has characteristics that are identified and even admired by the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Essay The Cycle of Vengeance in Aeschylus’s Oresteia
The Cycle of Vengeance in Aeschylus's Oresteia
The cyclic thread of vengeance runs like wild fire through the three plays in Aeschylus's Oresteia.
This thread, with its complexity of contemporary and universal implications lends itself quite well to
– in fact, almost necessitates – deeply interested study. While a brief summary of the Oresteia will
inevitably disregard some if not much of the trilogy's essence and intent, on the positive side it will
establish a platform of characters, events, and motives with which this paper is primarily concerned.
As such, I begin with a short overview of the Oresteia and the relevant history that immediately
precedes it.
The house of Atreus is cursed, it would seem, with the perpetual cycle ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Now joined together (amorously) by a common hatred for Agamemnon, Clytemnestra
(Agamemnon's wife) and Aegisthus plot and execute the death of Agamemnon. As John H. Finley,
Jr. has rightly put it, "Both Agamemnon and Aegisthus perpetuate their father's infections" –
Agamemnon by the slaughter of innocents and Aegisthus by the adultery with Clytemnestra (Pindar
258). The Libation Bearers speaks of the remaining children of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra,
Orestes and Electra, who (with some urging from Apollo) avenge the death of their father by killing
both Aegisthus and their own mother. The Furies, enraged by Orestes' violation of the filial bond,
pursue his punishment. The Eumenides covers the taming of the Furies, the reconciliation of the
dominant opposing forces in the trilogy, the establishment of Athena's court of law, and, as J. J.
Pollitt argues, "brings us out of the earlier dark irrationality into what seems an enlightened world of
order and reason" (30). Each of these acts, excepting the first and the last, is both a consequence and
a cause: every individual involved sought to avenge the horrid act of an offender – each seemingly
sought justice by way of retribution. By identifying only a single reason or cause each for the
vengeful acts outlined above, it is easy to generalize this chain of events into cyclic manifestation of
the age–old law "an eye for an eye." Much is lost in this simplification of the story; the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Oresteia By Sophocles, The Libation Bearers, And The...
Aeschylus Writing Assignment "The Oresteia" written by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus,
who showed three events of the play Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides. The
three plays were performed at the annual Dionysia festival in Athens in 458 BCE. The play
highlighted different types of themes but the most important one is the theme of justice and
injustice. Both themes were seen in different parts of the play where even the gods played a role in
determining the justice and injustice in the play. Justice is also divided into two types in the play as
human and divine justice. This essay will talk about both justice, and injustice in the play, and the
different parts of justice. In the beginning of "The Oresteia" it talks about how King Agamemnon
gave his own daughter Iphigeneia as a sacrifice to Artemis so they could continue in proceeding
with the war in Troy. Agamemnon's decision is considered as injustice since he gave his only
daughter so he could enter the war. As the Chorus started the play they highlighted that the fact they
were at war with Troy was justice to them. However, the way Agamemnon led the war was injustice
for the way he sacrificed his daughter for the war. After the return of Agamemnon from the Trojan
War he did not only return by himself but he bought Cassandra the princess of Trojan who he had
taken as a concubine for him. Although by the Greeks is considered justice but, it is still injustice
since her land was destroyed she
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Life Lessons In Oresteia
4 Life Lessons From Aeschylus's Oresteia
Greek tragedy contains valuable life advice.
Revenge! Faster, Kill, Kill!
Aeschylus (525–455 BC) retells a story first made popular by Homer. What develops in "Oresteia"'s
three tragedies – "Agamemnon", "The Libation Bearers" and "The Eumenides" could be the plot of
"Revenge! Faster, kill, kill!", but behind all this fun stuff philosophical questions peek out.
Beyond the stories told in ancient tragedies, there are topics that were of interest and dispute in
community. The Greeks did not believe in holy commandments to live by, they used the lives of
their heroes as guidelines, myths were really just stories that, depending on the storyteller, could
have a different emphasis.
Aeschylus had the genius ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In "The Eumenides" Argos is free at last but left alone – awaiting for its ruler.
Orestes left home in search of salvation: he is protected by Apollo but still pays for the murder he
committed as the Furies keep him in a continuous hustle. Contact with humans decreases his pain
but cannot redeem him. Only the intervention of another higher authority – goddess Athena, will put
an end to this conflict. There are two sides and Athena can fight off the vengeance gods or rally with
them. Instead of this traditional resolution of conflict, Athena calls on the Athenians to judge
Orestes. They cannot decide if he was wrong or right and he is freed of condemnation.
In the end Athena also convinces the Furies to change their ways and protect humans, they agree and
change into The Eumenides, spirits of reason and democracy.
4. The moral applicable to Greek citizens was that they shouldn't be like Orestes, Clytemnestra and
Electra and they should not take justice into their own hands but instead they should solve their
conflicts through law and trials.
Aeschylus lived in violent times, he himself thought in battles against the Persians. His work, of
remarkable poetic intensity, is thus a search for meaning and the right ways to resolve
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Democracy In The Oresteia
Aeschylus was an ancient Greek playwright who wrote "The Oresteia" post Athens win over Persia,
in the Persian War around 465 B.C. During that time Athens and democracy were seen as strong and
Aeschylus portrays the strength of Athens and democracy in his plays. He wrote in hope of people
understanding that for a society to work there have to be rules and force, but not so much of either
that circumstances are not taken into account. Throughout "The Oresteia" there are family ties that
take president with the gods of the underworld. These family ties are blood, being born into a bond
with someone. Who your blood family is, is not something you can choose. In the book, Oresties is
born into a family that has a curse placed on their household ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
She brings her husband to commit hubris against the gods by goading him to walk on a purple
tapestry, here she again believes her actions justified by the gods and she has no blame to hold. She
considers herself higher than even the gods and this is why her son is seen as the hero. Orestes sees
himself as doing wrong when he has to avenge his father's murder, and never feels pride over taking
his own mom's life. Apollo had asked him to avenge his father and in doing so Orestes would invoke
the wrath of the furies. The furies are three horridly ugly women who will tear a person to shreds
and leave them at the edge of death to heal, and then come back to repeat the process for
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Summary Of Imagery In Oresteia

  • 1. Summary Of Imagery In Oresteia From fate to justice; how the net imagery in the Oresteia changes throughout the play and how does it establish the superiority of a formal justice system to one based on the individual quest for revenge There is no doubt that the house of Atreus did not have an easy history. However, it made me question the true motives of the actions the characters in the Oresteia perform. Are they a form of justice or revenge? In the system that was practiced throughout the play, revenge drives the characters to act. And although they call it justice, it is not. Aeschylus uses net imagery that originates in the first play Agamemnon and plays a crucial role in the subject of faith and destiny. From Cassandra's vision to Clytemnestra executing that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Second, it gives the sense that Agamemnon was never in charge of his own fate, a theme that repeats in the Oresteia. Agamemnon, the fish in this scenario, seems like a helpless creature. Third, since a fishing net is unseen by its prey, Agamemnon does not know the fate that awaits him. This, in turn, can be connected to Cassandra's vision that symbolizes Clytemnestra as the net. "Now the net [Clytemnestra] – the fish–eye terror [Agamemnon]. Death is bundling him up, like a mother swaddling a child" (55). If the consensus is that Clytemnestra did this deed solely for the purpose of avenging her daughter's death, ignoring Aegisthus involvement for the moment, then I could not have said it better myself. By understanding Clytemnestra is the net in Cassandra's vision, and the fish is Agamemnon, the reader can focus on the urgent need for revenge that Clytemnestra holds. Another passage that relates well to these two is the chorus's response to Clytemnestra. After revealing the murder, she is compared to a spider that had cast a web. "The spider's web swaddled him helpless" (75). The change of the net imagery is what makes this sentence unique. Throughout the play, Clytemnestra is symbolized as a serpent, a spider and more. Now, she is the spider, perhaps the black widow, who eats their significant others. She is once again in a position of power and superiority ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 3. Aeschylus's Treatment Of Women In Oresteia In Aeschylus's trilogy, Oresteia, the tragic manifesto paints a bloody chain of murder, adultery, betrayal, and kinslaying, in which DIKE (justice) and the relation of women to social and family structure serve as central themes. The Greeks were a misogynistic culture, in which women were relegated to an inferior status in society. Women were only given a limited voice because the family was the sovereign unit of society. The rule of justice stood for patriarchy. Cassandra's importance is merely in the first play but her prophetic visions and declarations about the House of Atreus peal through the entire trilogy. She's presented as a true inferior female to male superiority with little to no voice. Contrastingly, the female character, Cornelia, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Furies, who were dark–winged, snake haired ladies from the underworld were put in charge to enforce the blood vengeance law. They were opposed to crimes enacted on mothers by their children. The ironic nature of the rivalry between Apollo and the Furies began at Apollo's temple in Delphi. They both possess ideals that were similar but sought to establish order and justice in the world in separate ways. In the last play, Eumenides, Apollo takes center stage to defend Orestes against the murder of his blood mother, Clytemnestra. They appeared in a courtroom like setting with the goddess Athena to judge the trial of Orestes for matricide. The prosecution (The Furies) began the questioning. The Furies accused him of being guiltier than his mother because he killed someone of the same blood as himself. Apollo argued but with a patriarchal standpoint all based on the notion that a woman's life is worth less than a man's. He argues for paternal rights, saying that the father who plants the seed, is the only true parent. "Man mounts to create life, whereas woman is a stranger fostering a stranger, nourishing the young, unless a god blights the birth" (Aeschylus, p. 145, 659–661). A person can have a father but no mother. Therefore, Orestes murder of his mother must be seen in the light of Clytemnestra's killing of his father. Athena brings ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 5. Essay On Eupatridae A very significant and important year was 525 BC because it was my birth into the small town of Eleusis. I lived close to the major city Athens. I was born into a wealthy and well established family and they loved and cared for me. The Eupatridae is the ancient nobility of Attica. My father was a member of the Eupatridae. When I was about 20 years old I worked at a vineyard. The god Dionysus visited me one night in a dream and pretty much told me to turn to tragedy and become a playwrite. The next morning, as I woke up from my dream I started writing my first tragedy and started my life. When I was about 26, I finished my first play and did my first performance. My first victory of performing happened in 484 BC in the city of Dionysia at the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The battle was the Battle of Marathon and my brother and I were defending Athens against the invading Persian army of Daruis I. We beat them and were victorious but Cynegeirus died and it was so hard and sad. After I won my first victory of performing in 484 BC, I was called back into the service of war in 480 BC. I was fighting against the army of Xerxes I at the Battle of Salamis this time. Salamis holds a prominent place because my oldest play, The Persians, which I performed at the Dionysia and won first place, was the main location. After the 2 wars, I settled down and produced major plays and they are: The Persians, Seven against Thebes, The Suppliants, The Oresteia, Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, The Eumenides, and Prometheus Bound. I returned to Sicily to visit the city Gela in 458 BC and that is where I died. He died in 446 or 455 BC. That's all the history they have so I am
  • 6. done speaking in first person. His lost plays are: Myrmidons, Nereids, Phrygians or Hector's Ransom, and Niobe. Overall he produced between 70 to 90 plays according to various ancient sources. He had a very big impact overall on Greek drama and culture and kind of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 8. Theme Of Vengeance In The Oresteia Orestes has to kill her (Zeitlin, 476). The view of vengeance in Aeschylus's The Oresteia also depends on the situation the person enacting the vengeance is in beforehand. Another component that changes the view of vengeance is what situation the character is in; meaning how the murderer is related to the victim and the position they are in at the time or before. Clytemnestra is in a situation where her husband kills their daughter and she can either retaliate or live with the fact that Iphigenia is dead. She chooses to kill her husband and she does not have any support other than that of Aegisthus. Orestes is basically forced into killing his mother and Aegisthus by Apollo and people around him like his sister Electra and the Chorus as well as his friend Pylades. In the beginning of Liberation Bearers, Orestes comes back and encounters his sister Electra at their father's grave. During their reacquaintance, Orestes tells Electra that he has been ordered to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus by Apollo, "...if I failed to kill my father's killers.......to kill the two of them as they killed him, in the same way. He said that otherwise I'd pay the debt with my own life, and it would be a life of torment that would never end" (Aeschylus, Liberation Bearers lines 307–313). He has this threat hanging over his head and any time he starts to waver, his friend Pylades, his sister, and the chorus encouraged him. "the third and last storm battering their house. In the end, Orestes does in fact come third and as a saviour. Before entering the palace he rehearses the piece of deceit by which he wraps his mother and Aegisthus in their own toils. As he puts it before his sister and the confederate chorus of Trojan captives, he will not give Aegisthus time to ask from where he has come", this shows that he has a lot of support behind him in this endeavor in addition to the support of Apollo (Clay, 4). After he kills his mother and her lover, he has to wash his hands of the blood and, "to be cured, he must journey to the oracle of Delphi" (Burke, 382). Orestes kills his mother, subsequently he begins to see the furies that are coming after him (Burke, 382). The Furies that are now pursuing him punish "blood–guilt" (Burke, 382) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 10. Aeschylus The Oresteia The Oresteia The Oresteia is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus. This trilogy consists of Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers or The Choephoroe, and The Eumenides. The only extant example of an ancient Greek theatre trilogy, the Oresteia won first prize at the Dionysia festival in 458 BC. Many consider the Oresteia to be Aeschylus' finest work. The principal themes of the trilogy include the contrast between revenge and justice, as well as the transition from personal vendetta to organized litigation. In this trilogy there are multiple themes carried through all three plays. Other themes can be found and in one, or two, of the three plays, but are not applicable to the Trilogy as a whole and thus are not considered themes of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The play starts off at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the home of the famous Oracle of Delphi. Orestes find himself there for temporary shelter from the Furies that have been torturing him ever since the murder of his mother. Orestes pleads the gods for help against the Furies. Apollo cannot help him, but with a sleeping curse he slows down the Furies and their evil works against Orestes for a little while. As the Furies surround Orestes again, he begs Athena to save him. This leads to the trial of Orestes. As a result of the trial, Orestes leaves to go home to Argos and the Furies have their name switched to The Eumenides, or Kindly Ones, and ruling that they will now be honoured by the citizens of Athens. By the end of the trilogy, Orestes is seen to be the key, not only to ending the curse of the House of Atreus, but also in laying the foundation for a new step in the progress of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 12. Chorus Intervention in Aeschylus' the Eumenides and Agamemnon In The Eumenides and Agamemnon of The Oresteia trilogy, Aeschylus constructs an over–arching metaphor for elements of the new Athenian democracy. The chorus in each play represents the people who feel under–represented and disrespected, by the society's changing values. In The Eumenides, the chorus of Furies is frustrated with the younger gods and infringements on their power; in Agamemnon the chorus fears more the control of an effective woman in Clytemnestra rather than the leadership of fruitless Agamemnon. Both choruses take direct actions thought to ensure their prominence. Agamemnon picks of the story eponymous Greek king following the conclusion of the Trojan War. In his absence, his wife Clytemnestra has assumed the throne, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 1561) Clytemnestra is to them a force which will "hold [them] down" (Agamemnon, Ln. 146), and a "woman [who] made him (Agamemnon) suffer." (Agamemnon, Ln. 1481) They call for the return of Orestes to both avenge his father's death and release them from her rule. Their view of the future with Clytemnestra as ruler pays no heed to the success of her reign. Even Agamemnon acknowledges that her rule surpassed his: "The storms of ruin live! Her last dying breath, rising up from the ashes sends us gales of incense rich in gold." (Agamemnon, Ln. 804) The chorus' overriding concern is not with success or competency, but only with the preservation of the tradition rule. By first backing Agamemnon and then calling for Orestes murder of Clytemnestra they are seeking to reassert and realign the old order. While the chorus in Agamemnon is focused on restoring power to Agamemnon as king, the play's sequel, The Eumenides traces the progression of the struggle for power as the chorus of the Furies strives to retain authority. The metaphorical focus of The Eumenides is the changing values in contemporary Athens. In Athenian democracy's first recorded trial, Orestes is charged with the murder of his mother Clytemnestra. At the prompting of Clytemnestra, the chorus of Furies begins the play by taunting Orestes. This propels Orestes into a public trial. The Furies then work to ensure that matricide, which they ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 14. Aeschylus Greek Justice Essay Throughout the plays written by Aeschylus, the characters suffer mightily and all reach their own tragic fate for their actions, however the theme of it being a just fate is shown in the acts. The characters in the acts show their own definitions of justice through their actions and through their explanations of their actions. Their personal beliefs help form the system that is Greek justice. One can show the Greek definition of justice through the text from Aeschylus. The first act of justice that is believed to be done is by the character Clytaemnestra, when she murders her husband, who is the king, because of a crime that his father committed. The text describes the crime in which Clytaemnestra states, "And you, you try me like some desperate woman...Here is Agamemnon, my husband made a corpse by ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This shows that Clytaemnestra believes that what she has done is just, because she was getting revenge for a crime that Agamemnon's father had committed against her new lover Aegisthus. The text also shows that the one aspect of the Greek justice system revolves around revenge for one's crimes. The next time the text shows an event where someone believes they are engaging in a just act is when Orestes murders Clytaemnestra, who is his own mother. The text describes the scene when it shows the dialogue from Orestes, "This way– I want to butcher you–right across his body! In life you though he dwarfed my father–Die!– go down with him forever! You love this man, the man you should have loved you hated" (The Libation Bearers 890–894), the character Orestes goes on to say, "destiny is handing you your death" (The Libation Bearers 898). These two quotes from Orestes show that he believes what he is doing is just and that is fate that requires him to murder his own mother for her crimes. This once again reveals the theme that justice in this culture, needs to be given in a form of revenge. The final time that justice is addressed in the text is when the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 16. Eugene O’neill and the the Rebirth of Tragedy a... Eugene Gladstone O'Neill is one of the greatest American playwrights, he is known for plays such as "Long Day's Journey into Night" ,"Beyond the Horizon" (1920), "Anna Christie" (1922), "Strange Interlude" (1928), "Mourning Becomes Electra"(1931)and The Iceman Cometh (1946). His plays probe the American Dream, race relations, class conflicts, sexuality, human aspirations and psychoanalysis. He often became immersed in the modernist movements of his time as he primarily sought to create "modern American drama" that would rival the great works of European modernists such as Ibsen, Strindberg and G.B. Shaw. O'Neill was a great admirer of classical theatre and as a young man he had read Friedrich Nietzsche's work about the origin of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is remarkable how O'Neill contrives to preserve the Chorus, which is a fundamental element of the Greek tragedy. Although it is not as dramatic as the tragic Chorus of the classical Greek plays, each and every of the three parts of "Mourning Becomes Electra" begins with the performance of a chorus formed of different men and women that comment upon the Mannons, the history of their family, revealing to the audience details about the behavior and the character of the heroes. Moreover, the setting chosen by O'Neill is similar to the classical one used by the Greeks. It is known that in Aeschylus' times a wooden wall was used as a background of the setting, the wall usually stood for a palace or a temple and this exactly the same as in O'Neill's trilogy, as the greatest part of the action takes place in front of the Mannon's residence which is described as being an enormous stone mansion that has the aspect of a Greek temple(the temple of god Apollo) "with a white wooden portico, with six tall columns"[2]. However that was the typical construction for a house that belonged to an American aristocratic family in the XIX century. In "Mourning Becomes Electra", O'Neill brought into consonance the fundamental traits of the Greek tragedy and the specific elements of modern theatre, thus creating a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 18. Destiny, Fate, Free Will and Free Choice in Oedipus the... The Role of Fate in Oedipus Rex Before we approach this complex question inductively, we are at first obliged to contemplate what definitions and assumptions are being made. This essay, perhaps more so than others, requires a more extensive look at this aspect of the question, because of the sheer variety of possible responses. However, I now have reduced them to three possibilities. Firstly, we could make the assumption that perhaps as destiny controls all fates, then Oedipus' character was created long before he was conceived. On the other hand, we could also say that perhaps Oedipus' horrific fate came about because of his character and fate. The final possibility is that everything is inevitable – therefore no one ever has had ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Yet if would be interesting to note that as this play is constructed along the lines of Aristotle's theory of tragedy, the way in which the play is constructed would try to convey the sentiment that fate was the overriding factor and thus could be a valid basis for the argument just outlined. But if we were to look at the play and interpret it according to our own value judgement system, then we could just as easily reject this premise. It all depends on how we would like to approach the play. And as there is no definitive, positive way of doing this, neither way can be said to be "right" or "wrong". The next solution that I outlined to this problem was the idea that it could be a amalgamation of both destiny and character. At first this would seem to be a complete paradox, but if we extrapolate upon these ideas it should become clear. After all, how can anyone's character have any consequence if destiny is at work? During Oedipus we see many examples of how this can be resolved. When Oedipus (unbeknown to him) meets his father on the road, he could have decided to walk away and not react. However he decided to react aggressively, and thus kills his father. But theoretically, if his character had been different, fate could have returned later and tested him in different ways, perhaps then ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 20. Essay Greek Theater Ancient Greek Theater is the first historical record of "drama," which is the Greek term meaning "to do" or "to act." Beginning in the 5th century BC, Greek Theater developed into an art that is still used today. During the golden age of the Athenians plays were created, plays that are considered among the greatest works of world drama. Today there are thousands of well–known plays and films based on the re–make of ancient drama. Theater originated from the religious rites of ancient Greek tribes. Located in northern Greece, a cult was formed to worship the God of wine and fertility, Dionysus. The cult held religious celebrations which included large consumptions of alcohol, animal sacrifices, and sometimes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The government chose wealthy patrons who financed the plays and the competitors who performed in them. During this time period, providing for the productions meant tax exemption for the individual and his family that year. Once plays started being written, the number of interested spectators increased. In order to satisfy the Greeks amphitheaters were constructed all over Greece. Three well–known theaters were the theater at Delphi, the Attic Theater and the theater of Dionysus built at the foot of the Acropolis in Athens. During their prime time, the plays attracted crowds of 30,000 and more. The stands were built around the orchestra and up hillsides; somewhat like a baseball stadium today. This made it possible to seat more than 17,000 spectators at a time. The Dionysian Festivals lasted for several days along with the drama competitions. The performances were always done during the day and the drinking at night! Little or no makeup was worn by the actors, instead they wore masks with exaggerated facial expressions. Actors were always male and played more than one role, so the masks helped portray different characters, races, and sexes. Not much scenery was used and usually the majority of the play took place in the orchestra. When attention was shifted to the actors, however, the action was played on stage. The plays were lit by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 22. Essay about Eumenides The Importance of Gender in Aeschylus' Oresteia Gender is made explicit as a theme throughout the Oresteia through a series of male–female conflicts and incorrectly gendered characters dominated by the figure of Clytemnestra, a woman out of place. This opposition of gender then engenders all the other oppositions of the trilogy; conflicts of oikos and polis, chthonic and Olympian, old and young can be assigned to female and male spheres respectively. In this essay I will look at how the polis examines itself in terms of gender by focusing on the Eumenides' exploration of the myth of matriarchy, issues of the conflict between oikos and polis and the use of speech within the polis. I will then look at how these themes are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Not only has the sex of the owners changed but also so has that of the source of the inspiration 'but it is Zeus that Apollo speaks for' (Eum. 19). This transition to a world ordered by men is complemented by images of Apollo's journey to Delphi; the manly god of fire Hephaestos civilizes this female 'savage country' (Eum. 14) which has been bequeathed by the female deities and a male head of state, Delphos (Eum. 16), who is there to welcome Apollo and his new male order. The play opens with a hopeful precedent for a return to a proper patriarchal society. The Eumenides brings to mind other myths, Zeitlin notices that the trial scene has strong connections with another Athenian myth of a trial that also is very concerned with gender. Athena had to compete with Poseidon for the city of Athens and this was decided by a vote. This was during a time when women had the right to vote, and lead promiscuous lives and no one knew who his father was. The women side with Athena and they out number the men by one and so Athena wins. The women however must be punished for the use of their power and so patriarchal society is installed.1 Whether Athenians felt at all uncomfortable with this founding myth of their female patron deity is debateable but Athena's famous speech (Eum. 750–756) has been interpreted as a returning of the favour. Athena may be siding with the male here but we are reminded of her ties ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 24. Balance In The Oresteia Through the three plays of The Oresteia, we are exposed to many opposing forces of power. Elements such as darkness, light, fate, patriarchy, and justice are intertwined to make up Aeschylus' tragic tale, however all of these elements are directed by one central force: balance. The word balance itself suggests a state of equilibrium or a stable environment. Balance is often looked at as a scale; if one side of the scale is overpowering the other, then it creates a state of disorder, irregularity, and even chaos. Aeschylus meddles with the scales of balance but, in the end, reinforces the equipoise of power. I would argue that, not only does The Oresteia include balance as a critical underlying theme and is strategically used in determining the outcome of the play, but that the role of Athena is vital in creating this balance. In this play, there are many cases in which the word balance can be substituted for the word justice. The final play, The Eumenides, is significantly based on the idea of balance. Aeschylus puts it as "justice waits and turns the scales"(line 61), meaning that justice is purposeful, and is one of the components that forces the balance within the play. By analyzing the reference to the tipping of the scales, we can assume a reversal of fortune and what is fated to happen. With the trial being the main plotline of the last play, it reveals the scales tipping towards justice and leaves us with a sense of harmony. The two sides of justice are seen ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 26. Justice Is Not Rigid And Unchanging Like So Many People Justice is not rigid and unchanging like so many want to believe. For the Ancient Greeks in the 8th century, blood justice is the only way to settle disputes. By the mid–400s BCE, there are glimpses of what will later become a trial by jury in a democratic judicial system. Aeschylus' plays show a distinct shift from blood justice to a more democratic system. Even Homer, when writing his epic works, seems to hint at a better way to resolve conflict than the "eye for an eye" mentality. The Iliad acts as book ends to the transformation of blood justice to a trial by jury as presented by The Oresteia; and that transformation positively influences how Western culture deals with justice. Blood justice to the Ancient Greeks is their way of enacting retribution on parties that did them wrong. The punishment required by blood justice must fit the crime committed, "Act for act, wound for wound" life for a life; and that leads to many turning to their rage as a tool to help them justify their actions (Agamemnon 1555). The Iliad opens with "Rage–Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son Achilles" (Iliad i.1). It is Achilles' rage that is called upon and drives his actions through the entire work. Achilles' rage is to right a great wrong done to him, but it comes at a deadly cost. Patroclus begs to be sent into battle to help the Greeks fight. He wants to "bring some light of victory to the Argives" by donning Achilles' armor to boost morale and drive back the Trojans (Iliad xvi.43–49). ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 28. Summary Of The Net Imagery In Oresteia In the Oresteia, revenge drives the characters to act. Although they call it justice, it is not. Aeschylus uses net imagery to symbolize faith and destiny. When Clytemnestra murders Agamemnon and Cassandra, the net imagery acts as a symbol of terrible fate. However, then fate reverse. Now, Orestes is caught in Apollo's net and kills his own mother. Lastly, Athene changes the meaning of the net from one of chaos to that of order and justice. These uses of the net imagery help the reader focus on a crucial theme in the play: the superiority of a formal justice system to one based on the individual quest for revenge by progressively altering the nets meaning and its affect on those around it. Clytemnestra's use of the net imagery focuses the reader on the drawback, that is, collateral damage, of a justice system that is based on the individual quest for revenge by emphasizing the collateral damage associated with revenge. As she stands over the bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra she says: "I wrapped in a great net– not a fish could have slipped from the shoal" (69). Involving the shoal in Clytemnestra's speech explains that with every revenge quest there are innocent people who suffer the repercussions. An avenger does not consider the bystanders surrounding the guilty person. Clytemnestra states that the net was so large that the fish could not escape the shoal. If the fish's fate is to be caught in the net yet it cannot escape the shoal, that means the shoal suffers the same ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 30. Justice In The Odyssey After Orestes avenges his father's murder, he himself is now involved in the cyclic bloodshed; however, instead of him being killed by kin, he is hunted by the punishers of matricides, the Furies. The last play of Aeschylus I, The Eumenides, marks the change from antiquated Argos to abreast Athens. It also highlights the transition of men from upholding the violent, Lex Talionis tradition to a trial based system of justice. Though by thought this was an achievement, from barbaric to civilized thinking, but in truth justice was hardly practiced. In Athena's courtroom, justice was not unseeing. There is an apparent bigotry for life, and there were repercussions for the wrong verdict. For example, the life of Clytemnestra is seemingly less cherished than the life of King Agamemnon, who as a ruler is "honored with the king's staff given by the hand of god" (Line 626). Moreover, the life of Iphigenia was even less valuable since her death is not even mentioned in the trial. Bringing us to question why Orestes' was deemed most fit for receiving such a "just" trial. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Apollo goes to even greater lengths, he threatens, "I command you to fear...from Zeus and me" (Lines 713–714), when that was of no avail, he bribes the jury, hinting that he treats well, "the man who shows [him] worship" (Line 725). In similar fashion, before the jurors vote Athena herself exclaims to the jurors, "I am always for the male" (Line 737). The ballot vote for Orestes' fate was, "In equal number for each side" (Line 751), perhaps this number of jurors was another coy by Athena to choose the verdict that would align with her ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 32. The Means Of Potence In Agamemnon Agamemnon, she is viewed as haughty and despicable and everyone hates her for it. She walks out of the palace and starts talking about how her vengeance has been enacted and that it is justifiable. The chorus hears her and asks, "how you can swagger so over the butchered body of your husband" (Aeschylus, Agamemnon lines 1596–1597). They continue further saying", Woman, what foul food nursed deep in the earth, or what drink drawn from the flowing sea could you have tasted to take on yourself so horrible a sacrifice and the people's curse? You have cast away, you have cut away, and away will you go from the city, under the full weight of the city's hate" (Aeschylus, Agamemnon lines 1604–1611). She shows the difference in the way her husband was treated for killing someone then how she is treated by saying basically you condemn me and curse me while no one said anything about my husband killing my daughter as if "...it were a beast he slaughtered..." ,and all to "charm the winds of Thrace? Why wasn't he the one you banished from the land in punishment for that foul act? Yet you hear my case and all at once you are a ruthless judge" (Aeschylus, Agamemnon lines 1612–1629). Everyone is reproachful of her actions and part of this has to do with her being a woman. One reason why everyone is so critical about Clytemnestra's actions is because she is going outside society's gender role for her and taking charge. She "...breaks with tradition and takes on an active role in avenging ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 34. Aeschylus's The Oresteia Maintaining the rule of law is central to most societies ability to remain orderly. Initially, derived from the family, a transition occurred driving the origins of the rule of law to occur within society as a whole. Aeschylus's The Oresteia provides an excellent illustration of this change from the instinctual law within the family to the positive law of society. Aeschylus shows this transition through the example of the aristocratic family of Argo's, which culminates in a murder trial in the city of Athens. The Oresteia provides an excellent starting point for understanding the evolution of the rule of law from natural law to societal law through the breakdown of the family roles, the obligations of fate and duty, and the calming of the furies. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The action in this court scene is set up by the opening scene which happened in the temple of Apollo. This instance helps to show the usurpation of one set of gods over another, in that the Furies were lulled to sleep by Apollo to protect Orestes from their torment. The Furies are used to represent instinctual justice because the ghost of Clytaemnestra awakes them by charging them to fulfill their duty to torment Orestes for committing matricide. A requirement to complete the evolution of justice to be based in society is that the Furies current capacity is in need of elimination, which is what takes place during the trial in Athens. In the trial, the Furies' case hinges on the concept that Clytaemnestra the same blood as Orestes, but Apollo counters that, "The man is the source of life – the one who mounts. She, like a stranger for a stranger, keeps the shoot alive unless god hurts the roots" (Lines 669–671). Apollo is saying that the Furies claim that Orestes and Clytaemnestra share the same blood is meaningless because the man is the source of life, while the woman is merely a vehicle. To contrast, this Orestes builds the case for his innocence on the premise that he was commanded by the seer of Apollo to avenge his father's death since he had just returned a hero in the Trojan War. Both parties were able to make sound cases, which ultimately led to the jury splitting evenly down the middle, which shows the complexity of the situation. Given a vote, in this case, I would have voted for Orestes, because the implications of changing the role of the Furies to occur more peacefully in society will help for all to flourish. In the end, Athena voted for Orestes because "she killed her husband, guardian of their house." While Orestes freed of his guilt, however, it was not a defeat for the Furies as they received a new role ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35.
  • 36. Libation Bearers 'By Aeschylus' The Oresteia The Libation Bearers Summary Libation Bearers is part of The Oresteia that Aeschylus wrote. The Greek plays included in The Oresteia were Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. They are in sequential order. In Agamemnon it tells you about his life as a king until his murder. In Aeschylus Libation Bearers in beginning Orestes and Pylades go to Argos to visit Agamemnon in his grave. Agamemnon was killed by Clytemnestra (his wife) and Aegisthus a few years before. Orestes was ordered to go to Argos by the oracle of Apollo that sent him to get revenge on the killers on Agamemnon. Orestes son of Agamemnon went to mourn for his fathers death and then saw a group of women dressed in black walking towards the grave. Orestes discovered that among those women was his sister Electra. Electra went to Agamemnon's grave because she was sent by her mother to bring libations to Agamemnon in his grave to stop the terrible dreams that Clytemnestra is having. Orestes and Electra finally talk at first Electra doesn't believe that Orestes is actually there. They both talk about the hatred towards their mother and how much they miss their father and love him. Orestes and Electra pray to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The house where Clytemnestra and Electra lived in was dark with all the past troubles that it had. Orestes was the one that was suppose to bring it light, make it have a new start. When the nurse first heard about Orestes' fake death she said "The old troubles of the house of Atreus, so hard to bear" (line 921). Nurse believes that there is no hope left for the house of Atreus. But when Orestes finally does kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus they would be able to see light again. The tyrant's will finally be dead and the house would be free from any darkness. Apollo the god of sun and illumination should help keep the house in light and not let it go so easy to darkness ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37.
  • 38. The Evolution Of Justice In AeschylusThe Oresteia The trilogy of Aeschylus' The Oresteia follows a bloody feud within the House of Atreus. With this feud there are many boundaries that get crossed and challenged dealing with revenge and murder. A clear shift in justice is observed over the course of the three plays and Aeschylus shows that this shift in justice as an evolution that must happen to shape a society. The Oresteia provides a message that a society must come together to define justice in order to become unified and it must protect the interests of everyone and not just a single case or person. Agamemnon provides two essential steps in the evolution of justice over these plays. The war in Troy is attributed to the abduction of Helen, upon which Agamemnon gathers his army to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The chorus exemplifies this plagued form of justice that continues to occur throughout the play in a cyclical manner by saying, "Justice brings new acts of agony, yes, on new grindstones Fate is grinding sharp the sword of justice" (Agamemnon 1564–1565). The retributive justice described by the chorus is extremely prominent throughout Agamemnon and provides a foundation for Aeschylus to show the change in justice from play to play in his trilogy. The Libation Bearers is a medial step in the evolution of justice in The Oresteia. When Orestes murders his mother Clytaemestra he exemplifies the justice imposed by the new gods which contradicts the principles in which the old gods ruled the land. Orestes is encouraged and aided by Apollo, a member of the new gods, the commit this matricide which opposes the will of The Furies, who believe in blood for blood justice. This is the first instance in which retributive justice is challenged because the higher authority is calling upon Orestes to carry out this act because they believe it is just. Orestes explains his feelings in The Libation Bearers when he says "So he may come, my witness when the day of judgment comes, that I pursued this bloody death with justice, mother's death" (978–981). He is describing how his acts are credited to some higher system of justice imposed by the gods which alerts a change in the personal retributive justice that is seen up until this point. Apollo believes that all ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39.
  • 40. The Myth Of Aeschylus The Eumenides From the classical period until present day, artists have attempted to portray Aeschylus' The Eumenides in various forms of art. However, in order to appreciate the work of these artist one must first become familiar with the subject of the myth they depict. According to Greek and Roman mythology, the Furies were female spirits of justice and vengeance. Known especially for pursuing people who had murdered family members, the Furies punished their victims by driving them mad. There are various stories on the origin of the Furies. According to Hesiod's Theogony, the Titan Cronus castrated and threw his father, Uranus, genitalia into the sea. When Cronus blood fell onto the earth, the Furies were born. Other stories circulated in Greek and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Currently housed in the Chrysler Museum of Art in Norfolk, Virginia is one of his most famous painting The Remorse of Orestes (1862). At the center of the painting, we have Orestes naked except for a discreet white drapery. With and look of pure anguish he attempts to cover his ears as the Furies appear to be screaming behind him. Behind him to the left of the painting, we see Clytemnestra in a white dress, draped in a disarranged red cloak, with a dagger in her heart. As Clytemnestra is falling, one of the Furies holds her up. It is as if the murder has just taken place and Orestes is immediately regretting his actions, and one of the Furies is refusing to let Orestes burry the sense of guilt he feels. Another of the Furies is holding a torch, which similarly to the last painting discussed, could be symbolic of the Furies enacting justice for the crime of matricide. All of the Furies are partially clothed and have their characteristic snake–like hair. The positioning of the Orestes body and face looking away from the Furies also adds to the overarching theme of the painting. It is as if he cannot face what he has done, he cannot even look at the Furies, let alone try to justify his actions. No matter how he tries to run from the crime, he will never be able to get away from it. This all–encompassing dread is not something that Orestes can escape even after being pardoned for his crime; it is something that he will have to live with for the rest of his life. The canvas is 7.5 feet by 9 feet and reflects how important the message of the painting that the guilty feel an unceasing torment that they cannot escape is to the artist. When submitting the painting Bouguereau wrote about his painting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41.
  • 42. Justice In Aeschylus's Oresteia "Eumenides", the third and final piece in Aeschylus's Oresteia trilogy, resumes the tale where "Choephoroe" left it as Orestes is pursued by the vengeful Erinyes. The primary plot point in "Eumenides" is the judgement Orestes undergoes for his act of matricide, and the conflicting ideas of justice provided by the various parties that are associated with it. Topic In "Eumenides", the best idea of justice Argument is Athena's Reason because her lack of a personal stake in the matter allows her to give a truly fair solution to the situation. (topic) The Erinyes do not have the best idea of justice because, as they have a personal stake in the matter, they twist their ideals to fit the situation and lean it in their favor. (point) Their manipulated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (point) When Orestes and the Erinyes cannot resolve their disagreements on their own, they turn to Athena, who chooses to establish a court of justice that will resolve the trial of bloodshed as well as provide protection in the future for her village, demonstrating the first and only sound idea of justice in the entire piece. (evidence)"People of Athens, hear my ordinance / At this first trial for bloodshed. Evermore / This great tribunal shall abide in power....I establish / This great tribunal to protect my people," (Aeschylus 362). (explanation 1) In this statement, Athena officially declares the creation of a court of justice that will solve the current issue of bloodshed as well as abide in power from then on to protect her people. (ex 2)The creation of this court, which is not only created by a party impartial to the issue but also composed of neutral judges, is a solution equally fair to all parties, unlike those proposed by the Erinyes or Apollo. (ex 3) Thus, Athena is the only character who demonstrates a reasonable idea of justice, and it is consequentially the best idea of justice found in the piece. (transition) Thanks to this idea of justice, the issue was finally resolved and the piece was able to avoid a tragic ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43.
  • 44. Comparing Hubris in Antigone and Oedipus Essay Hubris in Antigone and Oedipus The idea of hubris is monumental in a plethora of Greek mythological works. In many ways the excessive pride of certain characters fuels their own destruction. This is certainly true with respect to the characters of Pentheus, Antigone, and Oedipus. All three of these characters demonstrate, through their actions, various degrees of arrogance that seem to undercut the traditional role of the Gods, and thus largely contribute to their downfall. However, it should be noted that while each of these characters demonstrate hubris, they way in which their arrogance manifests itself is unique to each character. Pentheus, the authoritarian newly appointed king of Thebes is immediately troubled ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As Pentheus interrogates Dionysus he again is issued a direct warning not to go against the will of the gods by persecuting one whom the gods favor. As Dionysus calmly states, "Very well, I¹ll go along with this wrongful undestined destiny, but remember this: Dionysus, who you say does not exist, will wreak revenge on you for this" (Euripides 417). The story culminates in Dionysus playing on Pentheus¹ curiosity and voyeurism regarding the intoxicated hordes of Thebian women, by tricking him to go out to see them in action. Pentheus is brutally ripped apart by the possessed women, yet in effect it was his own actions that caused his destruction. As Dionysus directly addresses the hubris of Pentheus, "The sins of jealousy and anger made this Pentheus deal unjustly with one bringing blessings, whom he disgracefully imprisoned and insulted; and so he met his end at the hands of his own kin‹ an unnatural end and yet a just one" (Euripides 453). Antigone also over steps her bounds, yet in a drastically different way. Rather than embracing the authoritarian ideals and decrees of Creon, the Stalinist new leader of Thebes, Antigone¹s dual sense of pride and stubbornness fuels her personal reactions. Her belief that her brother deserves a proper burial seems to transcend logic and directly counter both temporal and divine authority. Antigone ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45.
  • 46. Justice In Oresteia, Libation Bearers, And Eumenides All three plays in the Oresteia, Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, and Eumenides, revolve around a central theme of justice. This theme reflects the socio–historical context in which Aeschylus wrote his plays; the beginning of a new age in Athens following its war with Persia marked the political shift to a society built on democracy and morality–governing laws. Now justice was institutionalized– a major shift from the personalized, blood–to–blood form of exacting justice that preceded it. Aeschylus depicts this new form of justice as a step forward in implementing an orderly society; however, the new justice system finds itself unable to overcome the sexism that tainted the old one, and male superiority continues to pervade decisions of justice. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... She addresses her own inclinations when she says, "I do so because there is no mother who gave me birth, and I approve the male in everything" (Eum. 736–37). Despite Athena's intentions of bringing peace by "resolv[ing] this matter in the truth" (Eum. 499), she pardons Orestes when making the deciding vote: "I will set higher value on the death of a woman who killed her husband, a house's guardian" (Eum. 739–40). Athena's confession of her own bias goes uncriticized, further legitimizing the systematic marginalization of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47.
  • 48. Justice In The Odyssey As Mahatma Gandhi once noted astutely, "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind." Gandhi's assertion challenges this moral code established in both the Odyssey and the Old Testament, just as Aeschylus challenges the validity of vendetta as a successful technique for maintaining societal order in his Oresteia trilogy. The revenge ethic plays a key role in the story because it makes justice the personal responsibility of the person insulted; the killer must be killed, and the act of retribution must be carried out by the most appropriate person––preferably a close blood relative. It is a radically straightforward basis for justice, linking retribution to the family and its collective honor. Like the storied blood feud between the Hatfields ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The chorus notes that for those who exact vengeance, "no cure whatever exists; and all ways which converge / in one road, to purify / blood on polluted hands, go straight onward in vain" (lines 71– 74). They appeal to the gods for some kind of remedy to the madness: "You great powers of Fate, may Zeus grant an ending here / in which justice changes to the other side" (lines 307–309). Nevertheless, the chorus seems to change its mind later on in the dialogue with Electra and recognizes that justice by retribution has been a valid way to keep the peace in the past. They note that "certainly there is a law that bloodshed / dripping to the ground demands another's blood. / The havoc from those slain before / shouts the Fury on / who brings fresh ruin upon ruin" (lines 400– 405). Orestes tells Clytemnestra that she "killed the man you ought not; so you must / suffer the thing you should not" (lines 929–230) and proceeds to commit matricide. At this point, the chorus laments that Orestes took his own mother's life, but they admit that their "choice is nevertheless for / this eye of the house not to fall utterly in destruction" (lines 933–934). Later on in Eumenides when ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49.
  • 50. Sleep Imagery in The Oresteia Essay examples Sleep Imagery in The Oresteia Sleep—it's what divides the day and the night; the conscious and the subconscious; the aware and the unaware. It's image, then, is a powerful tool for polarizing such extremes. In his trilogy, The Oresteia, Aeschylus utilizes sleep imagery to divide between those who are aware and those who aren't. Though sleep's meaning changes throughout the plays, Clytaemestra is always able to use it to her aid. Her story accompanies a shift in a justice system that defines right and wrong. Throughout the trilogy, the meaning of sleep evolves from a clear division into a more indefinite one as the definition of right and wrong becomes increasingly ambiguous. "…fear in sleep's place stands forever ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the second play, "The Libation Bearers", awareness occurs during sleep rather than during waking hours. When Clytaemestra dreams Orestes is a snake that draws blood from her breast, the chorus says, "She woke screaming out of her sleep, shaky with fear…" (The Libation Bearers 535) Her fear came as a result of the realization that Orestes, her son, would harm her. This image of evil came to her in sleep, rather than while she was awake. Because she was aware of potential harm, Clytaemestra was able to act more cautiously. But despite efforts to protect herself, Orestes ultimately takes his revenge on Clytaemestra. Though dreams are not representative of perception in the first play, in the second part of the trilogy, they are seen as a definite type of awareness. Although contrary to the original meaning of sleep, a clear division is still shown between consciousness and ignorance. Though sleep serves as a division between awareness and obliviousness in the first two plays, in the final play of The Oresteia, "The Eumenides", the role of sleep becomes more ambiguous. The ghost of Clytaemestra evokes the Furies from their sleep. She addresses them, "You would sleep then? And what use are you, if you sleep?" (The Eumenides 94) Clytaemestra makes them aware of her matricide though they sleep, and as she wakes them, the Furies are still aware of the existing situation. Thus sleep no longer sets the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. Essay about The Oresteia, Aeschylus In "The Oresteia" trilogy, the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus advocates the importance of the male role in society over that of the female. The entire trilogy can be seen as a subtle proclamation of the superiority of men over women. Yet, the women create the real interest in the plays. Their characters are the impetus that makes everything occur. The most complex and compelling character in the three plays is Clytaemnestra. Clytaemnestra is consumed with thoughts of revenge. She seeks vengeance on Agamemnon for the loss of their daughter, Iphigeneia whose life was forfeited in order to appease the goddess Artemis so that Agamemnon's troops would be allowed passage to the Trojan shore. Clytaemnestra ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In breaking away from the traditional female role, she sets up the scenario for the entire story to unfold. Clytaemnestra is thus the driving force behind the conflicts of the trilogy for it is her actions that spark the debate between the Furies and Apollo over whether or not Orestes is just in committing matricide. Where as Clytaemnestra breaks with female tradition, Electra is the preserver of the status quo. Because Clytaemnestra is not motherly, Electra who has already lost her father to the depths of Hades, loses her mother to that one's all–consuming hate of Agamemnon as well. And so she seeks revenge towards her mother, the cause of all her misery in taking away the only family she ever had. She desperately awaits the arrival of her brother, Orestes, who becomes the father figure she lost when Agamemnon was murdered. She says to Orestes on lines 241–242, "I have to call you father, it is fate;/ and I turn to you the love I gave my mother" (Aeschylus 189). In this way, she comes to revere the male over the female, the father over the mother. Another strong female character who is grossly underestimated is Cassandra, daughter of Priam, King of Troy. Cassandra is brought into this family feud when Agamemnon brings her back from Troy as his personal prize from the war. She has the gift of prophesy but her prophesies are never believed because she once angered Apollo by not submitting to him and has suffered ever ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53.
  • 54. Sophocles Vs. Euripides ' The Peloponnesian War When choosing a poet to give Athens much needed advice to hopefully save it from what seems to be the inevitable end to the Peloponnesian war, one might consider either Euripides or Aeschylus. Both are excellent tragedians. Based on one's political beliefs, one will probably easily choose one over because they stand on opposite sides of the political spectrum. Euripides is for a more socially progressive state whereas Aeschylus is for a more conservative form. However, there is a third, and in fact better option. Aristophanes, as a result of preferring comedy over tragedy and discussing more important issues within his works, such as the state of contemporary politics, is the obvious candidate who would give Athens the best, most convincing advice. Each poet has their own method of convincing people. Aeschylus appeals to the citizens' negative emotions, such as fear, melancholy, or hate by depicting the character Clytemnestra as completely evil and Agamemnon and Orestes as innocent and morally upright (Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, p.100–102). Aeschylus goes into great detail convincing the audience of the great injustice that Orestes went through and expects them to believe that his actions are, as a result, justifiable. He then presents Orestes fearful for his life but confident in what the gods have told him after he commits the murder as he flees from the Furies to seek help from Athena. While this method of storytelling can be convincing, it is not what people need. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55.
  • 56. Aeschylus Agamemnon Essay Analysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon Characters– The Watchman Clytaemnestra The Herald Agamemnon Cassandra Aegisthus The Chorus 1). The Watchman: The watchman sets the time and place for the play (Agamemnon's palace in Argos, the house of Atreus); he describes the many miserable nights he has spent on the rooftop of the palace watching for the signal fires that will herald the fall of Troy. The watchman is one Aeschylus's small characters, but like the herald he serves an important role as he not only sets the scene but also perhaps portrays the mood of Argos awaiting their king and soldiers return. "That woman – She manoeuvres like a man" is the important first reference to Clytaemnestra, it ominously ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Helens promiscuity is alluded to as she is described as a "woman manned by many" and the cause of the Trojan War. The chorus talks about the inevitability of crime and punishment by the gods. Zeus will punish Paris because he is the god of hospitality and it is his laws of hospitality that have been broken; they also suggest that there is no way to "enchant away the rigid fury". The Chorus introduce themselves as "the old dishonoured ones, the broken husks of men" alluding to the fact that they are the old men of Argos and could not go to war "old men are children once more" makes us sympathise with the Chorus in their old age. A change of pace in the chorus's speech signals that the chorus have become narrators outside the action of the play and are given divine wisdom and knowledge "The gods breathe power through my song" At this point the chorus narrates the omen of the birds and the hare; Agamemnon and Menelaus are likened this time to two eagles which fly from the palace west towards the sea (and Troy) and kill a pregnant hare which represents the city of Troy full of life and prosperity. The fact they are likened to eagles is important because eagles are the kings of birds and they have beaks just like the prow of
  • 57. a ship. There is a long section of praise to Zeus. The chorus then speak of a price to pay for the Trojan War (the sacrifice of the as yet unnamed Iphigenia) and hint at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Oresteia Oresteia – The Issue of Justice in Aeschylus' Eumenides The concept of justice is manifested through the three plays of Aeschylus' Oresteia. The old tradition of justice, the private blood feud, caused an ungoverned succession of violent acts that spiralled uncontrollably. Aegisthus, Clytemnestra's lover, is introduced in Agamemnon; he desires vengeance for the plot contrived by Agamemnon's father (Ag: 1605–1611).1 Neither Agamemnon nor Aegisthus took part in this "plot" and yet as the chorus explains (Ag: 755–6) 'But ancient Violence longs to breed, new violence comes when its fatal hour comes,' The justice system of this period demanded that one avenge the death of a family member, this can be seen in The Libation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, the violent acts of reprisal do not end with Agamemnon. With this act comes a twist within the traditional system of justice. In The Libation Bearers, Orestes must choose to avenge his father's murder. The twist comes in that by avenging his father, Orestes will be committing matricide, a crime revolting to the gods and especially to the Furies. Orestes is placed in a no win situation; he must avenge his father or else be plagued by (Lib: 285–6) '.................leprous boils that ride the flesh, their wild teeth gnawing the mother tissue,' Unfortunately, the same fate awaits him if he commits matricide, thereby avenging his father. Orestes chooses the latter and is besieged by 'the hounds of mother's hate.' (Lib: 1055–6). Through this sequence of murderous events, Aeschylus demonstrates the complexity and futility of the blood feud as a system of justice. There are no winners, and the cycle of violence does not end. Thus, this cycle of vengeance is not justice. In the Eumenides, Aeschylus manifests a new system of justice for the more civilised times. Orestes, plagued by the Furies, turns to Apollo (Eum: 88–90)
  • 60. 'Lord Apollo, you know the rules of justice know them well. Now learn ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. Justice and Gender in the Oresteia Justice and Gender in the Oresteia Justice and gender are put into relation with each other in Aeschylus' Oresteia. In this trilogy, Greek society is characterized as a patriarch, where the oldest male assumes the highest role of the oikos (household). The household consists of a twofold where the father is the head, and the wife and children are the extended family. The head of the oikos is the only one who possesses the authority to seek justice. This is because the father acquires the authority through the inheritance law or male lineage. On the contrary, Greek society seems to transform to a matriarch when Clytemnestra solely murders Agamemnon because she, like primitive males, exercises destructive justice and enters the cycle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Clytemnestra makes no implications of violence until she deceitfully welcomes Agamemnon, "For while the root still lives, the leaves bring cool shade to the house again. So coming back to hearth and home, you bring a summer's warmth to us in wintertime," (77: 1108–1112). This quote serves as the prelude to Clytemnestra finally utilizing destructive justice, and thus breaking the circle of violence. Clytemnestra destructiveness is intrinsic in the scene where she welcome home Agamemnon, who accompanied by Cassandra. Aeschylus writes, "You go inside now. I'm talking to you, Cassandra. Zeus, not unkindly, has determined you should share the lustral water of our house, standing where all our slaves crowd the altar of god who guards the house's wealth" (79:1173–78). In this excerpt, Clytemnestra shows that she is the head of her household because she can determine who is rightfully welcome. One might argue that Clytemnestra is not revealing destructive justice because of her calmness and generosity in this scene. However, the passage suggests that she is the head and Cassandra is the extended family, and therefore Clytemnestra shows a hint of her destructiveness as she enslaves Cassandra. Clytemnestra mercilessly tells Cassandra that it is "Here with us you'll be treated as custom warrants (1189). Destructive justice is first seen when Clytemnestra says, "My aim was so exact–I won't deny it–that he could ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63.
  • 64. Mirror Image Of Electra In Aeschylus The Libation Bearers In this paper I will discuss Aeschylus' The Libation Bearers. Close reading reveals that Electra is Orestes' mirror image of a Fury. This thesis will be demonstrated through the analysis of passages through the lens of the following principles of close reading: anomaly and parallel stories. To prove this theory, the interpreter needs to offer evidence to show that Electra is a mirror image of Orestes, a physical copy of himself meant to display his emotional and 'Fury–like' motivations towards killing his mother. Hence, the interpreter then also has to prove that Electra shares the same characteristics as a Fury. In this case, her parallel story with Orestes and the anomaly of their physical similarities proves the first condition. To demonstrate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Apollo focuses on the "oath to the Father" (p.259; 626–628) and the value of knowledge over kinship (p.260–261; 665–675), while the Furies focus on the "mother's rights" (p.259; 630–631) and the emotional values of kinship, "Disclaim your mother's blood? She gave you life." (p.258; 614) Athena weighs both of these arguments out and makes a compromise that takes in both sides (p.264–265; 748–758). In comparison, Orestes compromises Electra and Pylades' motivations in The Libation Bearers by killing Clytemnestra with motivations of emotion, "You flung me into a life of pain" (p.217; 900) as well as those of oaths and logic, "my father's destiny...decrees your death." (p.219; 913) Hence, what Apollo and the Furies are to Athena, is what Pylades and Electra are to Orestes. As discussed in class, Pylades is the disguise of Apollo, and Athena represents humanity. When combining these conclusions, Orestes also represents humanity, with Pylades as his Apollo, and Electra as his mirror image of a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65.
  • 66. The Aeschylus Trilogy And Sweat By Lynn Nottage The Aeschylus Trilogy and Sweat by Lynn Nottage, though written thousands of years apart, actually share the same underlying problems especially when it comes the the characters that drive the plot. In both plays, there is this very prominent character trait found in most, if not all, the characters, selfishness. These self centered characters actually create conflict simply by only thinking of themselves. The self–centered and selfish air in both time periods, whether brought up by individual characters or even character groups, drives the plot in both the Aeschylus Trilogy and Sweat. The mythical story of "Agamemnon" opens with an air of hope and fear as the very weary watchmen and city of Argos wait for the fall of Troy, a war that has been going on for ten years. After the signal is seen, Agamemnon's wife Clytemnestra, who has been ruling in his absence, appears from her home and tells the city the great news, they have won the war. Agamemnon arrives home and has brought the captured Trojan princess Cassandra, his concubine. Clytemnestra falsely welcomes him with gifts that will lead him to his death. After also being welcomed, Cassandra, moves into a state of frenzy, foreshadowing to Agamemnon's murder and her own. She enters the house, knowing it will lead to her death. Thc cries of the dying Agamemnon are heard by many, when the palace is revealed, Clytemnestra is joyfully standing over the bodies of her victims. She answers the elders' charges by claiming justice ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 68. Sophocles Vs. Euripides ' The Peloponnesian War When choosing a poet to give Athens much needed advice to hopefully save it from what seems to be the inevitable end to the Peloponnesian war, one might consider either Euripides or Aeschylus. Both are excellent tragedians. Based on one's political beliefs, one will probably easily choose one over because they stand on opposite sides of the political spectrum. Euripides is for a more socially progressive state whereas Aeschylus is for a more conservative form. However, there is a third, and in fact better option. Aristophanes, as a result of preferring comedy over tragedy and discussing more important issues within his works, such as the state of contemporary politics, is the obvious candidate who would give Athens the best, most convincing advice. Each poet has their own method of convincing people. Aeschylus appeals to the citizens' negative emotions, such as fear, melancholy, or hate by depicting the character Clytemnestra as completely evil and Agamemnon and Orestes as innocent and morally upright (Aeschylus, Libation Bearers, p.100–102). Aeschylus goes into great detail convincing the audience of the great injustice that Orestes went through and expects them to believe that his actions are, as a result, justifiable. He then presents Orestes fearful for his life but confident in what the gods have told him after he commits the murder as he flees from the Furies to seek help from Athena. While this method of storytelling can be convincing, it is not what people need. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. The Philosophy and Psychology of Sophocles’s Antigone and... The Philosophy and Psychology of Sophocles's Antigone and The Eumenides in Aeschylus' Oresteia There is a consensus among readers of the poetry or plays written in the fifth century that the plays succeed with inspiring profound movement on the audience. The methods or reasons for the reader to be moved by a text are often disputed. Specific to tragic works the concepts of philosophy and psychology are critical elements to understand the cause of the stirred emotions of individuals who response to classical tragedies in a similar manner. Philosophy helps to understand "why" and psychology "how" poetry affects and moves human emotion. Philosophy and poetry are united by a common intent. Each searches for an ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This logic is based on the universal principle, evidently accepted by Athena in the play, and supports the patriarchal ancient Greek society. The universal described by Aristotle was, "How a person of a certain type will on occasion speak or act, according to the law of probability or necessity" (Aristotle, 68). Aristotle identified the characters of tragedies with tragic flaws. These tragic flaws may be considered tragic qualities because it is the identification and sympathy of the audience for this quality that will have a profound impact. In his introduction of Oedipus the King, Bernard Knox identifies the similarity between values held by Oedipus and the people of Athens and modern readers. "The more important for the play's impact on the audience than this grim setting is the characterization of the play's central figure, Oedipus the King. The poet's language presents him to the audience not as a figure of the mythical past but as one fully contemporary" (Knox, 138). Oedipus' quick decisiveness, emphasis on intelligence and dedication are admirable qualities. Creon demonstrates great nationalism promoting, "The safety of our country is our safety" (Sophocles, 68). Agamemnon also has admirable nationalist qualities because of his willingness sacrifice his daughter for the future conquest of Troy. Each character is met with tragedy but has characteristics that are identified and even admired by the
  • 71. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Essay The Cycle of Vengeance in Aeschylus’s Oresteia The Cycle of Vengeance in Aeschylus's Oresteia The cyclic thread of vengeance runs like wild fire through the three plays in Aeschylus's Oresteia. This thread, with its complexity of contemporary and universal implications lends itself quite well to – in fact, almost necessitates – deeply interested study. While a brief summary of the Oresteia will inevitably disregard some if not much of the trilogy's essence and intent, on the positive side it will establish a platform of characters, events, and motives with which this paper is primarily concerned. As such, I begin with a short overview of the Oresteia and the relevant history that immediately precedes it. The house of Atreus is cursed, it would seem, with the perpetual cycle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Now joined together (amorously) by a common hatred for Agamemnon, Clytemnestra (Agamemnon's wife) and Aegisthus plot and execute the death of Agamemnon. As John H. Finley, Jr. has rightly put it, "Both Agamemnon and Aegisthus perpetuate their father's infections" – Agamemnon by the slaughter of innocents and Aegisthus by the adultery with Clytemnestra (Pindar 258). The Libation Bearers speaks of the remaining children of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, Orestes and Electra, who (with some urging from Apollo) avenge the death of their father by killing both Aegisthus and their own mother. The Furies, enraged by Orestes' violation of the filial bond, pursue his punishment. The Eumenides covers the taming of the Furies, the reconciliation of the dominant opposing forces in the trilogy, the establishment of Athena's court of law, and, as J. J. Pollitt argues, "brings us out of the earlier dark irrationality into what seems an enlightened world of order and reason" (30). Each of these acts, excepting the first and the last, is both a consequence and a cause: every individual involved sought to avenge the horrid act of an offender – each seemingly sought justice by way of retribution. By identifying only a single reason or cause each for the vengeful acts outlined above, it is easy to generalize this chain of events into cyclic manifestation of the age–old law "an eye for an eye." Much is lost in this simplification of the story; the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. The Oresteia By Sophocles, The Libation Bearers, And The... Aeschylus Writing Assignment "The Oresteia" written by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus, who showed three events of the play Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides. The three plays were performed at the annual Dionysia festival in Athens in 458 BCE. The play highlighted different types of themes but the most important one is the theme of justice and injustice. Both themes were seen in different parts of the play where even the gods played a role in determining the justice and injustice in the play. Justice is also divided into two types in the play as human and divine justice. This essay will talk about both justice, and injustice in the play, and the different parts of justice. In the beginning of "The Oresteia" it talks about how King Agamemnon gave his own daughter Iphigeneia as a sacrifice to Artemis so they could continue in proceeding with the war in Troy. Agamemnon's decision is considered as injustice since he gave his only daughter so he could enter the war. As the Chorus started the play they highlighted that the fact they were at war with Troy was justice to them. However, the way Agamemnon led the war was injustice for the way he sacrificed his daughter for the war. After the return of Agamemnon from the Trojan War he did not only return by himself but he bought Cassandra the princess of Trojan who he had taken as a concubine for him. Although by the Greeks is considered justice but, it is still injustice since her land was destroyed she ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 77. Life Lessons In Oresteia 4 Life Lessons From Aeschylus's Oresteia Greek tragedy contains valuable life advice. Revenge! Faster, Kill, Kill! Aeschylus (525–455 BC) retells a story first made popular by Homer. What develops in "Oresteia"'s three tragedies – "Agamemnon", "The Libation Bearers" and "The Eumenides" could be the plot of "Revenge! Faster, kill, kill!", but behind all this fun stuff philosophical questions peek out. Beyond the stories told in ancient tragedies, there are topics that were of interest and dispute in community. The Greeks did not believe in holy commandments to live by, they used the lives of their heroes as guidelines, myths were really just stories that, depending on the storyteller, could have a different emphasis. Aeschylus had the genius ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In "The Eumenides" Argos is free at last but left alone – awaiting for its ruler. Orestes left home in search of salvation: he is protected by Apollo but still pays for the murder he committed as the Furies keep him in a continuous hustle. Contact with humans decreases his pain but cannot redeem him. Only the intervention of another higher authority – goddess Athena, will put an end to this conflict. There are two sides and Athena can fight off the vengeance gods or rally with them. Instead of this traditional resolution of conflict, Athena calls on the Athenians to judge Orestes. They cannot decide if he was wrong or right and he is freed of condemnation. In the end Athena also convinces the Furies to change their ways and protect humans, they agree and change into The Eumenides, spirits of reason and democracy. 4. The moral applicable to Greek citizens was that they shouldn't be like Orestes, Clytemnestra and Electra and they should not take justice into their own hands but instead they should solve their conflicts through law and trials. Aeschylus lived in violent times, he himself thought in battles against the Persians. His work, of remarkable poetic intensity, is thus a search for meaning and the right ways to resolve ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 79. Democracy In The Oresteia Aeschylus was an ancient Greek playwright who wrote "The Oresteia" post Athens win over Persia, in the Persian War around 465 B.C. During that time Athens and democracy were seen as strong and Aeschylus portrays the strength of Athens and democracy in his plays. He wrote in hope of people understanding that for a society to work there have to be rules and force, but not so much of either that circumstances are not taken into account. Throughout "The Oresteia" there are family ties that take president with the gods of the underworld. These family ties are blood, being born into a bond with someone. Who your blood family is, is not something you can choose. In the book, Oresties is born into a family that has a curse placed on their household ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... She brings her husband to commit hubris against the gods by goading him to walk on a purple tapestry, here she again believes her actions justified by the gods and she has no blame to hold. She considers herself higher than even the gods and this is why her son is seen as the hero. Orestes sees himself as doing wrong when he has to avenge his father's murder, and never feels pride over taking his own mom's life. Apollo had asked him to avenge his father and in doing so Orestes would invoke the wrath of the furies. The furies are three horridly ugly women who will tear a person to shreds and leave them at the edge of death to heal, and then come back to repeat the process for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...