SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 17
VUPTA STUDENTS SEMINAR-2023
Date: 21 February 2023
Organized by S. S. Jaiswal college Arjuni-Morgaon, Gondia
Topic: f r equency modul a t ion
TANISHA SHUKLA (B.Sc. 3rd Year)
Shri Shivaji Education Society Amravati’s
Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur. 440012
SCHEMA
 What are Signals?
 Modulation
 Frequency Modulation
 It’s types
 Mini FM Transmitter
 Demodulation
 Application of FM
 A way forward
The transmission of information by communication systems over large distances is quite a feat of human ingenuity. We
can talk, video chat and text anyone on this planet! The communication system uses a very clever technique called
Modulation to increase the reach of the signals. In this presentation, we will acknowledge about what Frequency
Modulation is?
What is Signal?
A physical quantity that vary with time is known as signal.
Ex. Alternating current
AnalogSignal
 AnalogSignalisacontinuoussinusoidal waveformofaphysical
quantity.
 Unwanted(noise)signalalsohavesmallinterference
Ex.A.C.,temperature,etc.
Digitalsignal
 DigitalSignalisadiscretesquarepulsewaveformhavingonly
twomaximaandminimavaluesi.e.0or1
 Noisegetsnullifiedindigitalsignals
Ex.ComputerDataSignal,etc.
Modulation simply means ‘change’.
 It is the process of converting data into electrical signals optimized for transmission.
 Modulation is defined as the process of superimposing a low-frequency signal
on a high-frequency carrier signal.
Types of Modulation
Frequency
Modulation
Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a
carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of
the wave.
Frequency Modulation is of two types :
1. Analog frequency modulation
2. Digital frequency modulation
The technology is used in telecommunications, radio
broadcasting, signal processing, and computing.
Principle of Frequency Modulation
Use of information bearing signal by carrier signal to modulate the frequency
of message signal for transmission and proper end to end reception.
WHAT ARE CARRIER SIGNALS?
Carrier signals are high frequency signals that manipulate
low frequency message signals.
These are produced by electronic oscillator of a transmitter.
1 km FM Transmitter mini circuit
 Materials Required-
 2 100 ohm resistance, 104PF, 4.7 PF, 14 Gage, transistor,
microphone, 3to 6 volt DC, radio frequency source
 Working-
 Here we have adapted the same formula by first amplifying
the audio signal, generating a carrier signal using an
oscillating and then modulating the carrier signal with the
amplified audio signal.
 The amplification is done by an amplifier, whereas the
modulation and carrier signal generation is done by an
variable frequency oscillator circuit.
 The frequency is set at anywhere between the FM frequency
range from 88MHz to 108MHz.
 The power of the FM signal from the oscillator is then
amplified using a power amplifier to produce a low
impedance output, matching that with the antenna.
Transmitter
Receiver
FM Broadcasting:
Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio broadcasting. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic
prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, sound synthesis, magnetic
tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems. In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency
modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better
than an equal power amplitude modulation (AM) signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast .
Applicability of FM phenomenon
Doppler Radar:
 Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler
effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance
 It does this by bouncing a microwave signal off a desired
target and analyzing how the object's motion has altered
the frequency of the returned signal.
 This variation gives direct and highly accurate
measurements of the radial component of a target's
velocity relative to the radar.
Magnetic Tape Recording:
 The development is described of an FM system for the recording of pressures and
accelerations resulting from high explosive detonations.
 The intelligence from a pressure gage or accelerometer gage frequency modulates
a carrier frequency after being multiplexed, this FM signal is transmitted by cable
and remotely recorded on a magnetic tape recorder.
Stethoscope
 The bell is most effective at transmitting lower
frequency sounds, while the diaphragm is most effective
at transmitting higher frequency sounds.
Bluetooth FM Transmitter
 A Bluetooth transmitter enables devices to stream high-definition sound to
speakers and headphones. They send out a signal for you to control from a
phone or tablet.
 On the other hand, Bluetooth receivers attach to analog or digital stereo
systems and allow you to listen from your phone to the speaker.
Demodulation
Demodulation is defined as extracting the original information-carrying signal from
a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit that is mainly
used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave
Frequency demodulation importance can be used
at FM radio broadcasting, radar, seismic
prospecting, telemetry, and monitoring infants for
seizures using EEG.
Current Scenario of Great Indian Bustard
Problem:
High Tension Transmission
Lines are creating chaos and
threatening the lives of Great
Indian Bustard especially in
areas of Kutch,
Jaisalmer(Rajasthan).
Solution:
Chirping sound (low frequency) produced by birds can be modulated.
FM is used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. This technique, known as FM synthesis, was popularized by early
digital synthesizers. These electroacoustic devices should be cling on each antenna of transmission line .
These modulators modify low frequency into high frequency sound signals ,and enable synthesizers to generate
signals in the form of beep (or alert bell) that deviate their flight route away from poles and reduces the risk of
their collision or electrocution.
A Way Forward to modulate the concept of Frequency Modulation
The higher the frequency waves
oscillate, the higher the pitch of the
sound we hear.
Electroacoustic device:
An electroacoustic device used to generate SIGNALs with specific
WAVEFORMs. Oscillators are used, for example, to test electronic circuits,
to transmit radio signals, and to provide compositional material in the
production of ELECTRONIC MUSIC and SOUND SYNTHESIS.
Let’s Summarize
 Frequency Modulation
 It’s basic principle
 1 km FM mini transmitter circuit
 Analog and Digital Signal
 Modulation
 Applicability in various dimensions
 Demodulation
 A Way Forward
Thank You

More Related Content

Similar to Study of Frequency Modulation of waves and its application

Modulation seminar report
Modulation seminar reportModulation seminar report
Modulation seminar report
Amit Sahu
 
Introduction & Wireless Transmission
Introduction & Wireless TransmissionIntroduction & Wireless Transmission
Introduction & Wireless Transmission
Joe Christensen
 
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & NetworksRadio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
sameer farooq
 
Exp amplitude modulation (7)
Exp amplitude modulation (7)Exp amplitude modulation (7)
Exp amplitude modulation (7)
Sarah Krystelle
 
Exp amplitude modulation (1)
Exp amplitude modulation (1)Exp amplitude modulation (1)
Exp amplitude modulation (1)
Sarah Krystelle
 
Exp amplitude modulation (3)
Exp amplitude modulation (3)Exp amplitude modulation (3)
Exp amplitude modulation (3)
Sarah Krystelle
 

Similar to Study of Frequency Modulation of waves and its application (20)

Unit 1. chapter 2. presentation radio
Unit 1. chapter 2. presentation radioUnit 1. chapter 2. presentation radio
Unit 1. chapter 2. presentation radio
 
Modulation seminar report
Modulation seminar reportModulation seminar report
Modulation seminar report
 
Modulation seminar report
Modulation seminar reportModulation seminar report
Modulation seminar report
 
Am Power Point
Am Power Point Am Power Point
Am Power Point
 
Fm transmitter and receivers
Fm transmitter and receiversFm transmitter and receivers
Fm transmitter and receivers
 
Introduction & Wireless Transmission
Introduction & Wireless TransmissionIntroduction & Wireless Transmission
Introduction & Wireless Transmission
 
EM spectrum applications, Electromagnetic Wave Theory
EM spectrum applications, Electromagnetic Wave TheoryEM spectrum applications, Electromagnetic Wave Theory
EM spectrum applications, Electromagnetic Wave Theory
 
Rf fundamentals
Rf fundamentalsRf fundamentals
Rf fundamentals
 
Communications
CommunicationsCommunications
Communications
 
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & NetworksRadio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
Radio Frequency Waves ,Data communication & Networks
 
A Level Physics - Telecommunications
A Level Physics - TelecommunicationsA Level Physics - Telecommunications
A Level Physics - Telecommunications
 
Exp amplitude modulation (7)
Exp amplitude modulation (7)Exp amplitude modulation (7)
Exp amplitude modulation (7)
 
PULSE-MODULATION-TECHNIQUES (this is to introduce the pulse modulation techn...
PULSE-MODULATION-TECHNIQUES (this is to introduce the  pulse modulation techn...PULSE-MODULATION-TECHNIQUES (this is to introduce the  pulse modulation techn...
PULSE-MODULATION-TECHNIQUES (this is to introduce the pulse modulation techn...
 
Microwave radio link design
Microwave radio link designMicrowave radio link design
Microwave radio link design
 
Radio communication
Radio communication Radio communication
Radio communication
 
G10-Science-Q2-W1-2-Electromagnetic-Waves.ppt
G10-Science-Q2-W1-2-Electromagnetic-Waves.pptG10-Science-Q2-W1-2-Electromagnetic-Waves.ppt
G10-Science-Q2-W1-2-Electromagnetic-Waves.ppt
 
Wireless transmission
Wireless transmissionWireless transmission
Wireless transmission
 
Exp amplitude modulation (1)
Exp amplitude modulation (1)Exp amplitude modulation (1)
Exp amplitude modulation (1)
 
Communications
CommunicationsCommunications
Communications
 
Exp amplitude modulation (3)
Exp amplitude modulation (3)Exp amplitude modulation (3)
Exp amplitude modulation (3)
 

Recently uploaded

Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discsContinuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Sérgio Sacani
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Sérgio Sacani
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interactionGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 6) Human and Microbial interaction
 
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
Ostiguy & Panizza & Moffitt (eds.) - Populism in Global Perspective. A Perfor...
 
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCEPLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND ITS IMPORTANCE
 
Triploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptxTriploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptx
 
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
Gliese 12 b: A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 pc Ideal for Atmospheric Tr...
 
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
Jet reorientation in central galaxies of clusters and groups: insights from V...
 
National Biodiversity protection initiatives and Convention on Biological Di...
National Biodiversity protection initiatives and  Convention on Biological Di...National Biodiversity protection initiatives and  Convention on Biological Di...
National Biodiversity protection initiatives and Convention on Biological Di...
 
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discsContinuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
 
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection...
 
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
Virulence Analysis of Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citr...
 
Application of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In BiotechnologyApplication of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
Application of Mass Spectrometry In Biotechnology
 
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent UniversityNuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
NuGOweek 2024 full programme - hosted by Ghent University
 
B lymphocytes, Receptors, Maturation and Activation
B lymphocytes, Receptors, Maturation and ActivationB lymphocytes, Receptors, Maturation and Activation
B lymphocytes, Receptors, Maturation and Activation
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
 
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptxMETHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
METHODS OF TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS....pptx
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of CarbohydratesGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 4) Chemistry of Carbohydrates
 
Cell Immobilization Methods and Applications.pptx
Cell Immobilization Methods and Applications.pptxCell Immobilization Methods and Applications.pptx
Cell Immobilization Methods and Applications.pptx
 
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 RpWASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
WASP-69b’s Escaping Envelope Is Confined to a Tail Extending at Least 7 Rp
 
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere UniversityINSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
INSIGHT Partner Profile: Tampere University
 

Study of Frequency Modulation of waves and its application

  • 1. VUPTA STUDENTS SEMINAR-2023 Date: 21 February 2023 Organized by S. S. Jaiswal college Arjuni-Morgaon, Gondia Topic: f r equency modul a t ion TANISHA SHUKLA (B.Sc. 3rd Year) Shri Shivaji Education Society Amravati’s Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur. 440012
  • 2. SCHEMA  What are Signals?  Modulation  Frequency Modulation  It’s types  Mini FM Transmitter  Demodulation  Application of FM  A way forward
  • 3. The transmission of information by communication systems over large distances is quite a feat of human ingenuity. We can talk, video chat and text anyone on this planet! The communication system uses a very clever technique called Modulation to increase the reach of the signals. In this presentation, we will acknowledge about what Frequency Modulation is? What is Signal? A physical quantity that vary with time is known as signal. Ex. Alternating current
  • 4. AnalogSignal  AnalogSignalisacontinuoussinusoidal waveformofaphysical quantity.  Unwanted(noise)signalalsohavesmallinterference Ex.A.C.,temperature,etc. Digitalsignal  DigitalSignalisadiscretesquarepulsewaveformhavingonly twomaximaandminimavaluesi.e.0or1  Noisegetsnullifiedindigitalsignals Ex.ComputerDataSignal,etc.
  • 5. Modulation simply means ‘change’.  It is the process of converting data into electrical signals optimized for transmission.  Modulation is defined as the process of superimposing a low-frequency signal on a high-frequency carrier signal.
  • 7. Frequency Modulation Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. Frequency Modulation is of two types : 1. Analog frequency modulation 2. Digital frequency modulation The technology is used in telecommunications, radio broadcasting, signal processing, and computing.
  • 8. Principle of Frequency Modulation Use of information bearing signal by carrier signal to modulate the frequency of message signal for transmission and proper end to end reception. WHAT ARE CARRIER SIGNALS? Carrier signals are high frequency signals that manipulate low frequency message signals. These are produced by electronic oscillator of a transmitter.
  • 9. 1 km FM Transmitter mini circuit  Materials Required-  2 100 ohm resistance, 104PF, 4.7 PF, 14 Gage, transistor, microphone, 3to 6 volt DC, radio frequency source  Working-  Here we have adapted the same formula by first amplifying the audio signal, generating a carrier signal using an oscillating and then modulating the carrier signal with the amplified audio signal.  The amplification is done by an amplifier, whereas the modulation and carrier signal generation is done by an variable frequency oscillator circuit.  The frequency is set at anywhere between the FM frequency range from 88MHz to 108MHz.  The power of the FM signal from the oscillator is then amplified using a power amplifier to produce a low impedance output, matching that with the antenna.
  • 10. Transmitter Receiver FM Broadcasting: Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio broadcasting. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, sound synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems. In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an equal power amplitude modulation (AM) signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast . Applicability of FM phenomenon
  • 11. Doppler Radar:  Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance  It does this by bouncing a microwave signal off a desired target and analyzing how the object's motion has altered the frequency of the returned signal.  This variation gives direct and highly accurate measurements of the radial component of a target's velocity relative to the radar. Magnetic Tape Recording:  The development is described of an FM system for the recording of pressures and accelerations resulting from high explosive detonations.  The intelligence from a pressure gage or accelerometer gage frequency modulates a carrier frequency after being multiplexed, this FM signal is transmitted by cable and remotely recorded on a magnetic tape recorder.
  • 12. Stethoscope  The bell is most effective at transmitting lower frequency sounds, while the diaphragm is most effective at transmitting higher frequency sounds. Bluetooth FM Transmitter  A Bluetooth transmitter enables devices to stream high-definition sound to speakers and headphones. They send out a signal for you to control from a phone or tablet.  On the other hand, Bluetooth receivers attach to analog or digital stereo systems and allow you to listen from your phone to the speaker.
  • 13. Demodulation Demodulation is defined as extracting the original information-carrying signal from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit that is mainly used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave Frequency demodulation importance can be used at FM radio broadcasting, radar, seismic prospecting, telemetry, and monitoring infants for seizures using EEG.
  • 14. Current Scenario of Great Indian Bustard Problem: High Tension Transmission Lines are creating chaos and threatening the lives of Great Indian Bustard especially in areas of Kutch, Jaisalmer(Rajasthan). Solution: Chirping sound (low frequency) produced by birds can be modulated. FM is used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. This technique, known as FM synthesis, was popularized by early digital synthesizers. These electroacoustic devices should be cling on each antenna of transmission line . These modulators modify low frequency into high frequency sound signals ,and enable synthesizers to generate signals in the form of beep (or alert bell) that deviate their flight route away from poles and reduces the risk of their collision or electrocution.
  • 15. A Way Forward to modulate the concept of Frequency Modulation The higher the frequency waves oscillate, the higher the pitch of the sound we hear. Electroacoustic device: An electroacoustic device used to generate SIGNALs with specific WAVEFORMs. Oscillators are used, for example, to test electronic circuits, to transmit radio signals, and to provide compositional material in the production of ELECTRONIC MUSIC and SOUND SYNTHESIS.
  • 16. Let’s Summarize  Frequency Modulation  It’s basic principle  1 km FM mini transmitter circuit  Analog and Digital Signal  Modulation  Applicability in various dimensions  Demodulation  A Way Forward