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### Study of Frequency Modulation of waves and its application

• 1. VUPTA STUDENTS SEMINAR-2023 Date: 21 February 2023 Organized by S. S. Jaiswal college Arjuni-Morgaon, Gondia Topic: f r equency modul a t ion TANISHA SHUKLA (B.Sc. 3rd Year) Shri Shivaji Education Society Amravati’s Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur. 440012
• 2. SCHEMA  What are Signals?  Modulation  Frequency Modulation  It’s types  Mini FM Transmitter  Demodulation  Application of FM  A way forward
• 3. The transmission of information by communication systems over large distances is quite a feat of human ingenuity. We can talk, video chat and text anyone on this planet! The communication system uses a very clever technique called Modulation to increase the reach of the signals. In this presentation, we will acknowledge about what Frequency Modulation is? What is Signal? A physical quantity that vary with time is known as signal. Ex. Alternating current
• 4. AnalogSignal  AnalogSignalisacontinuoussinusoidal waveformofaphysical quantity.  Unwanted(noise)signalalsohavesmallinterference Ex.A.C.,temperature,etc. Digitalsignal  DigitalSignalisadiscretesquarepulsewaveformhavingonly twomaximaandminimavaluesi.e.0or1  Noisegetsnullifiedindigitalsignals Ex.ComputerDataSignal,etc.
• 5. Modulation simply means ‘change’.  It is the process of converting data into electrical signals optimized for transmission.  Modulation is defined as the process of superimposing a low-frequency signal on a high-frequency carrier signal.
• 7. Frequency Modulation Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. Frequency Modulation is of two types : 1. Analog frequency modulation 2. Digital frequency modulation The technology is used in telecommunications, radio broadcasting, signal processing, and computing.
• 8. Principle of Frequency Modulation Use of information bearing signal by carrier signal to modulate the frequency of message signal for transmission and proper end to end reception. WHAT ARE CARRIER SIGNALS? Carrier signals are high frequency signals that manipulate low frequency message signals. These are produced by electronic oscillator of a transmitter.
• 9. 1 km FM Transmitter mini circuit  Materials Required-  2 100 ohm resistance, 104PF, 4.7 PF, 14 Gage, transistor, microphone, 3to 6 volt DC, radio frequency source  Working-  Here we have adapted the same formula by first amplifying the audio signal, generating a carrier signal using an oscillating and then modulating the carrier signal with the amplified audio signal.  The amplification is done by an amplifier, whereas the modulation and carrier signal generation is done by an variable frequency oscillator circuit.  The frequency is set at anywhere between the FM frequency range from 88MHz to 108MHz.  The power of the FM signal from the oscillator is then amplified using a power amplifier to produce a low impedance output, matching that with the antenna.
• 10. Transmitter Receiver FM Broadcasting: Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio broadcasting. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, sound synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems. In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an equal power amplitude modulation (AM) signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast . Applicability of FM phenomenon
• 11. Doppler Radar:  Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance  It does this by bouncing a microwave signal off a desired target and analyzing how the object's motion has altered the frequency of the returned signal.  This variation gives direct and highly accurate measurements of the radial component of a target's velocity relative to the radar. Magnetic Tape Recording:  The development is described of an FM system for the recording of pressures and accelerations resulting from high explosive detonations.  The intelligence from a pressure gage or accelerometer gage frequency modulates a carrier frequency after being multiplexed, this FM signal is transmitted by cable and remotely recorded on a magnetic tape recorder.
• 12. Stethoscope  The bell is most effective at transmitting lower frequency sounds, while the diaphragm is most effective at transmitting higher frequency sounds. Bluetooth FM Transmitter  A Bluetooth transmitter enables devices to stream high-definition sound to speakers and headphones. They send out a signal for you to control from a phone or tablet.  On the other hand, Bluetooth receivers attach to analog or digital stereo systems and allow you to listen from your phone to the speaker.
• 13. Demodulation Demodulation is defined as extracting the original information-carrying signal from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit that is mainly used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave Frequency demodulation importance can be used at FM radio broadcasting, radar, seismic prospecting, telemetry, and monitoring infants for seizures using EEG.
• 14. Current Scenario of Great Indian Bustard Problem: High Tension Transmission Lines are creating chaos and threatening the lives of Great Indian Bustard especially in areas of Kutch, Jaisalmer(Rajasthan). Solution: Chirping sound (low frequency) produced by birds can be modulated. FM is used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. This technique, known as FM synthesis, was popularized by early digital synthesizers. These electroacoustic devices should be cling on each antenna of transmission line . These modulators modify low frequency into high frequency sound signals ,and enable synthesizers to generate signals in the form of beep (or alert bell) that deviate their flight route away from poles and reduces the risk of their collision or electrocution.
• 15. A Way Forward to modulate the concept of Frequency Modulation The higher the frequency waves oscillate, the higher the pitch of the sound we hear. Electroacoustic device: An electroacoustic device used to generate SIGNALs with specific WAVEFORMs. Oscillators are used, for example, to test electronic circuits, to transmit radio signals, and to provide compositional material in the production of ELECTRONIC MUSIC and SOUND SYNTHESIS.
• 16. Let’s Summarize  Frequency Modulation  It’s basic principle  1 km FM mini transmitter circuit  Analog and Digital Signal  Modulation  Applicability in various dimensions  Demodulation  A Way Forward
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