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Unit 1 Notes
Day 1 - Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent)
Area between the Tigris River and Euphrates River
– unpredictable flooding
– no natural boundaries
– limited natural resources
– women had rights
•3 General Areas
– Assyria
– Akkad
– Sumer
Government
• City-States – a city with political and
economical control over the surrounding
countryside
– Surrounded by walls
Ziggurat
• Most prominent
building in the
city and was
dedicated to the
chief god or
goddess
Religion
• Polytheistic – belief in many Gods
• Theocracy – government by divine authority
– Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities
– Kings ruled the cites and derived their power from
the gods
Economy and Society
• Mesopotamians were well known for their
metal work and woolen textiles
• They traded with other civilizations such as
India and Egypt for fish, barley, and wheat
First Empire
• Sargon of Akkad
– From Akkad; a city-state north of Sumer
– Long adopted most Sumerian aspects
– Created 1st Empire: brings together several
peoples, nations, or previously independent states
under control of one ruler.
Hammurabi’s Code
• The Code of Hammurabi is one
of the oldest known set of laws
in human history.
• Based on a system of strict
justice
• Penalties for breaking these
laws were severe and varied
based on your social class
• “An Eye for an Eye”
• Men have more rights than
women
Cuneiform
• Cuneiform script is one of the earliest
known systems of writing distinguished by
its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets.
• Primarily used for record keeping
– Scribes
– Teachers
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
• The Epic of Gilgamesh,
an epic poem from
Mesopotamia is
considered the world's
first truly great work of
literature.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamia
A. Government: city-states
• like independent countries
B. Accomplishments:
1. Hammurabi’s Code
2. The Wheel
3. Cuneiform
4. Ziggurats
C. Religion: polytheism
• belief in more than one god
• Theocracy – government by divine authority
D. Decline: overtaken by new groups/breaks up
Judaism
• The first monotheistic religion forms in
Mesopotamia – Judaism
Day 3 – Indus River Valley
Sea People
Phoenicians:
• Most powerful sea traders along with the Minoans
• Alphabet is their greatest legacy - Phonics
Phoenician Alphabet
• Phoenicians
simplified their
writing by using 22
different signs to
represent the
sounds of their
speech
• Eventually passed
on to the Greeks
and eventually the
Romans – which we
still use today
Indo-Europeans Migrate
• Indo-Europeans: group of nomadic peoples; came from the
Steppes; ancestors of many modern languages
• Hittite Empire: lived in Anatolia, excelled in technology of war
(esp. chariots)
– 1st civilization to use Iron
• Aryans: lived between the Caspian and Aral Seas
– Vedas: four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for
performing rituals
– Castes: social system of Aryans
Empires Develop
Assyrian Empire
• Through war, and use of iron
weapons, created empire
• Glorified military strength
• Peak of empire included all of the
Fertile Crescent and Egypt
• Laid waste to conquered lands
• Eventually falls to Chaldeans who
make Babylon their capital.
Empires Develop
Persian Empire – Unified by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE
• Over took the Babylonians and took complete control of
Mesopotamia
• Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem
• Based on tolerance and diplomacy (instead of war)
• Cyrus: King who was a military genius; controlled land from the Indus
River to Anatolia
• Kind towards conquered peoples
• Allowed NO looting and burning
• Honored local customs
• Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
Empires Develop
• His successors would expand the Empire form the Indus River
all the way into Europe and Greece and as far south as Egypt
• Darius would help strengthen the gov’t by dividing the land into
20 provinces to govern with satraps (ruled locally)
• Roads and coins promoted trade that helped hold the empire
together. (Royal Road)
Decline of the Persians
• The empire weakens over time because of
internal struggle over the thrown.
• Six of the nine rulers after Darius were
murdered over competition for the throne
• Eventually Alexander the Great defeats the
Persians and takes control of their lands.
Persian Religion
Zoroaster: Persian prophet
who founded Zoroastrianism
• Taught belief in one god
• Earth is a battleground with a
great struggle between good
and evil
• Ahuramazda (the “Wise Lord”)
was supreme but not
unopposed
• Shares concept of Satan and
angels with Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam.
• Writings were written down in
the Zend Avesta the sacred
book of Zoroastrianism
Indus River Valley
• Indian Subcontinent
• Surrounded by mountains: Hindu Kush, Karakorum,
and Himalayan ranges
• Between Indus and Ganges Rivers
• Monsoons: seasonal winds from mid-June to Oct.
winds shift and blow east (from SW) bring rains
Indus River Valley
• Cities were carefully planned on a grid like
pattern
– Broad streets running North and South, while
smaller streets ran East and West
– Cities were divided into large walled
neighborhoods
– Had an advanced drainage system where waste
water was taken out of the city by underground
drains and carried to sewer pits outside the city
walls
Indus River Valley
• Government – Theocracy
– Religion and political power were closely linked
(the royal palace and the Holy Temple were the
same building)
The Aryans
• The Aryans came to the Indus River Valley
from the Steppes Region and conquered the
region.
– They brought with them new farming techniques
– The Aryans had no written language but
eventually developed the a writing system known
as Sanskrit around 1000 BCE
– The Conquest of the Aryans also brought the
Caste System to India
The Caste System
• The Caste System was
a set of rigid social
categories that
determined not only a
person’s occupation
and economic
potential but also his
or her position in
society
Hinduism
• a collection of beliefs; seeks to achieve moksha:
liberation from desires and suffering
– Teach from Vedas (became Upanishads once written
down)
– Reincarnation: individual soul or spirit is born again until
achieves moksha
– Karma: good or bad deeds
• Strengthened caste system
– Dhrma – divine law, requires people to do their duties
– Brahman: world soul seen in 3 main gods
• Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha
Gautama (Buddha: enlightened one)
• Went out seeking the cure for human
suffering
– Became an ascetic
– Eventually turned to the ideas of meditation
– While sitting under a tree the Buddha reached
enlightenment as the meaning of life
– Spent the rest of his life preaching his message
Buddhism
Buddhism
• Achieving wisdom is a key step to achieving
Nirvana or ultimate reality
• Four Noble Truths:
1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow
2.The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire
for the temporary pleasures of this world
3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires
4.The way to overcome such desires and attain
enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path,
which is called the Middle Way b/t desires and
self-denial
Buddhism
• Eightfold Path: guide to behavior mastered
one step at a time, over many lifetimes
• Originated in India, spread worldwide
• Siddhartha accepted the ideas of
Reincarnation but rejected the ideas of the
Caste System
• TRADE played a crucial role in the spread of
Buddhism.
Mauryan Dynasty
• Founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 BCE
• He helped drive out the foreign forces and
established the capital along the Ganges river
• Divided the Empire into providences that were
ruled by Governors
• VERY PARANIOD!!!!
Ashoka
• Grandson of Chandragupta
• Considered the greatest ruler
of the Mauryan empire
• Converts to Buddhism and used these ideas to
rule
• After his death the empire declines into a
period of chaos
Indus River Valley
A. Government: Theocracy
B. Religion: Hinduism
C. Accomplishments:
• Language—Sanskirt
• City-planning/grids
D. Decline: earthquakes and floods alter Indus
River; trade became impossible
Day 4 - China
China
• Natural Barriers isolate China
 Yellow Sea, Pacific Ocean, East China Sea (East), Mt ranges
and deserts dominate 2/3 of its land mass, Taklimakan
Desert and Plateau of Tibet (West), Himalayas (SW), Gobi
Desert and Mongolian Plateau (North)—No trade
• Huang He River (Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang River
(Yangtze)
• Family more important than individual
• Women have no rights; considered inferior
• Hierarchy of classes
The Shang Dynasty
• 2nd Dynasty in Chinese history (1750 – 1122 BCE)
• Mostly a farming civilization ruled by the
aristocracy
• Built huge city walls – ruled by Kings
• Practiced Ancestor worship – the practice of
burning replicas of physical objects to accompany
the departed on their journey to the
afterlife
The Zhou Dynasty
• Began as a revolt against the Shang rulers
• Zhou rule would last for almost 900 years
• Still ruled by a king
– Mandate of Heaven – it was believed that order
was kept in the universe through the King, thus he
ruled over all humanity
Zhou Dynasty
• The King was not a representative of Heaven
• It was the King’s duty to rule the proper
“Way” called the Dao.
• If a natural disaster occurred or crops failed
the King could be overthrown and replaced
• Led to a “right of revolution” mentality
– Only way to determine who the proper King was,
was to fight.
Life during the Zhou
• Trade was very prominent during this time
• New Technologies
– Irrigation was introduced into farming
– Canals were built to control the flow of water
– Improved farming method allowed the Zhou
dynasty to grow to 50 Million people
– The most important crop grown in China was Silk
• The making a silk was a highly regarded secret
The Family
• The family is the basic economic and social unit
• Filial piety – it was the duty of the family to put
the needs of the elder males in front of their
own
The Fall of the Zhou
• The empire was divided into territories to
more easily rule
• Some of the territories became to powerful
and it led to Civil War
• In 403 BCE a the “Period of Warring States”
breaks out
– Iron is introduced
– Calvary units
– Crossbow
Confucius
• China’s first teacher – up until the 20th century
school children studied the saying of Confucius
• He was upset by the violence and moral decay
• Traveled around China trying to convince
political leaders to follow his ways
• Established Confucianism
– The system of Confucian
ideas
Confucianism
• His whole mission became how to restore order
in China
• His interest were not spiritual but political/ethical
• Two elements of Confucianism
– Dao or duty – people had to put the interest of the
family ahead of their own
– Everyone should be governed by the Five Constant
• Parent – Child
• Husband – Wife
• Sibling – Younger Sibling
• Older Friend – Younger Friend
• Ruler - Subject
Other Philosophies
– Daoism: philosophy of Laozi; taught that people
should be guided by an invisible force known as the
Dao.
• Tries to set proper way of living for the people
– Legalism: proposed that humans were evil by nature
and they could only be controlled by harsh laws and
stiff punishments.
• Believed that a strong leader was needed to create an
ideal society
Qin Dynasty
• Created a new dynasty in 221 BCE
• Drastically changed Chinese Philosophy – adopted
Legalism as the gov’t’s official policy
• Created a gov’t where that was constantly checked
for corruption
• Created a single monetary system and built roads
connecting the Empire
The Great Wall of China
• The great wall was built to keep out invaders
from the North (Mongolians)
China
1. Government: Monarchy (Dynasties)
– Rule by one
– Mandate of Heaven
2. Accomplishments:
– Chinese characters (written language)
– Roads and canals
– Coined money
– Cast iron weapons (not seen elsewhere until
middle ages)
3. Religion: polytheism
– family spirits consulted supreme gods
4. Decline: Nomads attack and kill monarch
– Enter “period of warring states”
Students Note

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Students Note

  • 2. Day 1 - Mesopotamia
  • 3. Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent) Area between the Tigris River and Euphrates River – unpredictable flooding – no natural boundaries – limited natural resources – women had rights •3 General Areas – Assyria – Akkad – Sumer
  • 4. Government • City-States – a city with political and economical control over the surrounding countryside – Surrounded by walls
  • 5. Ziggurat • Most prominent building in the city and was dedicated to the chief god or goddess
  • 6. Religion • Polytheistic – belief in many Gods • Theocracy – government by divine authority – Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities – Kings ruled the cites and derived their power from the gods
  • 7. Economy and Society • Mesopotamians were well known for their metal work and woolen textiles • They traded with other civilizations such as India and Egypt for fish, barley, and wheat
  • 8. First Empire • Sargon of Akkad – From Akkad; a city-state north of Sumer – Long adopted most Sumerian aspects – Created 1st Empire: brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under control of one ruler.
  • 9. Hammurabi’s Code • The Code of Hammurabi is one of the oldest known set of laws in human history. • Based on a system of strict justice • Penalties for breaking these laws were severe and varied based on your social class • “An Eye for an Eye” • Men have more rights than women
  • 10. Cuneiform • Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known systems of writing distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets. • Primarily used for record keeping – Scribes – Teachers
  • 13. • The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia is considered the world's first truly great work of literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • 14. Mesopotamia A. Government: city-states • like independent countries B. Accomplishments: 1. Hammurabi’s Code 2. The Wheel 3. Cuneiform 4. Ziggurats C. Religion: polytheism • belief in more than one god • Theocracy – government by divine authority D. Decline: overtaken by new groups/breaks up
  • 15. Judaism • The first monotheistic religion forms in Mesopotamia – Judaism
  • 16. Day 3 – Indus River Valley
  • 17. Sea People Phoenicians: • Most powerful sea traders along with the Minoans • Alphabet is their greatest legacy - Phonics
  • 18. Phoenician Alphabet • Phoenicians simplified their writing by using 22 different signs to represent the sounds of their speech • Eventually passed on to the Greeks and eventually the Romans – which we still use today
  • 19. Indo-Europeans Migrate • Indo-Europeans: group of nomadic peoples; came from the Steppes; ancestors of many modern languages • Hittite Empire: lived in Anatolia, excelled in technology of war (esp. chariots) – 1st civilization to use Iron • Aryans: lived between the Caspian and Aral Seas – Vedas: four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals – Castes: social system of Aryans
  • 20. Empires Develop Assyrian Empire • Through war, and use of iron weapons, created empire • Glorified military strength • Peak of empire included all of the Fertile Crescent and Egypt • Laid waste to conquered lands • Eventually falls to Chaldeans who make Babylon their capital.
  • 21. Empires Develop Persian Empire – Unified by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE • Over took the Babylonians and took complete control of Mesopotamia • Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem • Based on tolerance and diplomacy (instead of war) • Cyrus: King who was a military genius; controlled land from the Indus River to Anatolia • Kind towards conquered peoples • Allowed NO looting and burning • Honored local customs • Allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
  • 22. Empires Develop • His successors would expand the Empire form the Indus River all the way into Europe and Greece and as far south as Egypt • Darius would help strengthen the gov’t by dividing the land into 20 provinces to govern with satraps (ruled locally) • Roads and coins promoted trade that helped hold the empire together. (Royal Road)
  • 23. Decline of the Persians • The empire weakens over time because of internal struggle over the thrown. • Six of the nine rulers after Darius were murdered over competition for the throne • Eventually Alexander the Great defeats the Persians and takes control of their lands.
  • 24. Persian Religion Zoroaster: Persian prophet who founded Zoroastrianism • Taught belief in one god • Earth is a battleground with a great struggle between good and evil • Ahuramazda (the “Wise Lord”) was supreme but not unopposed • Shares concept of Satan and angels with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. • Writings were written down in the Zend Avesta the sacred book of Zoroastrianism
  • 25. Indus River Valley • Indian Subcontinent • Surrounded by mountains: Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges • Between Indus and Ganges Rivers • Monsoons: seasonal winds from mid-June to Oct. winds shift and blow east (from SW) bring rains
  • 26. Indus River Valley • Cities were carefully planned on a grid like pattern – Broad streets running North and South, while smaller streets ran East and West – Cities were divided into large walled neighborhoods – Had an advanced drainage system where waste water was taken out of the city by underground drains and carried to sewer pits outside the city walls
  • 27. Indus River Valley • Government – Theocracy – Religion and political power were closely linked (the royal palace and the Holy Temple were the same building)
  • 28. The Aryans • The Aryans came to the Indus River Valley from the Steppes Region and conquered the region. – They brought with them new farming techniques – The Aryans had no written language but eventually developed the a writing system known as Sanskrit around 1000 BCE – The Conquest of the Aryans also brought the Caste System to India
  • 29. The Caste System • The Caste System was a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential but also his or her position in society
  • 30. Hinduism • a collection of beliefs; seeks to achieve moksha: liberation from desires and suffering – Teach from Vedas (became Upanishads once written down) – Reincarnation: individual soul or spirit is born again until achieves moksha – Karma: good or bad deeds • Strengthened caste system – Dhrma – divine law, requires people to do their duties – Brahman: world soul seen in 3 main gods
  • 31. • Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha: enlightened one) • Went out seeking the cure for human suffering – Became an ascetic – Eventually turned to the ideas of meditation – While sitting under a tree the Buddha reached enlightenment as the meaning of life – Spent the rest of his life preaching his message Buddhism
  • 32. Buddhism • Achieving wisdom is a key step to achieving Nirvana or ultimate reality • Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow 2.The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world 3. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires 4.The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way b/t desires and self-denial
  • 33. Buddhism • Eightfold Path: guide to behavior mastered one step at a time, over many lifetimes • Originated in India, spread worldwide • Siddhartha accepted the ideas of Reincarnation but rejected the ideas of the Caste System • TRADE played a crucial role in the spread of Buddhism.
  • 34. Mauryan Dynasty • Founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 BCE • He helped drive out the foreign forces and established the capital along the Ganges river • Divided the Empire into providences that were ruled by Governors • VERY PARANIOD!!!!
  • 35. Ashoka • Grandson of Chandragupta • Considered the greatest ruler of the Mauryan empire • Converts to Buddhism and used these ideas to rule • After his death the empire declines into a period of chaos
  • 36. Indus River Valley A. Government: Theocracy B. Religion: Hinduism C. Accomplishments: • Language—Sanskirt • City-planning/grids D. Decline: earthquakes and floods alter Indus River; trade became impossible
  • 37. Day 4 - China
  • 38. China • Natural Barriers isolate China  Yellow Sea, Pacific Ocean, East China Sea (East), Mt ranges and deserts dominate 2/3 of its land mass, Taklimakan Desert and Plateau of Tibet (West), Himalayas (SW), Gobi Desert and Mongolian Plateau (North)—No trade • Huang He River (Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang River (Yangtze) • Family more important than individual • Women have no rights; considered inferior • Hierarchy of classes
  • 39. The Shang Dynasty • 2nd Dynasty in Chinese history (1750 – 1122 BCE) • Mostly a farming civilization ruled by the aristocracy • Built huge city walls – ruled by Kings • Practiced Ancestor worship – the practice of burning replicas of physical objects to accompany the departed on their journey to the afterlife
  • 40. The Zhou Dynasty • Began as a revolt against the Shang rulers • Zhou rule would last for almost 900 years • Still ruled by a king – Mandate of Heaven – it was believed that order was kept in the universe through the King, thus he ruled over all humanity
  • 41. Zhou Dynasty • The King was not a representative of Heaven • It was the King’s duty to rule the proper “Way” called the Dao. • If a natural disaster occurred or crops failed the King could be overthrown and replaced • Led to a “right of revolution” mentality – Only way to determine who the proper King was, was to fight.
  • 42. Life during the Zhou • Trade was very prominent during this time • New Technologies – Irrigation was introduced into farming – Canals were built to control the flow of water – Improved farming method allowed the Zhou dynasty to grow to 50 Million people – The most important crop grown in China was Silk • The making a silk was a highly regarded secret
  • 43. The Family • The family is the basic economic and social unit • Filial piety – it was the duty of the family to put the needs of the elder males in front of their own
  • 44. The Fall of the Zhou • The empire was divided into territories to more easily rule • Some of the territories became to powerful and it led to Civil War • In 403 BCE a the “Period of Warring States” breaks out – Iron is introduced – Calvary units – Crossbow
  • 45. Confucius • China’s first teacher – up until the 20th century school children studied the saying of Confucius • He was upset by the violence and moral decay • Traveled around China trying to convince political leaders to follow his ways • Established Confucianism – The system of Confucian ideas
  • 46. Confucianism • His whole mission became how to restore order in China • His interest were not spiritual but political/ethical • Two elements of Confucianism – Dao or duty – people had to put the interest of the family ahead of their own – Everyone should be governed by the Five Constant • Parent – Child • Husband – Wife • Sibling – Younger Sibling • Older Friend – Younger Friend • Ruler - Subject
  • 47. Other Philosophies – Daoism: philosophy of Laozi; taught that people should be guided by an invisible force known as the Dao. • Tries to set proper way of living for the people – Legalism: proposed that humans were evil by nature and they could only be controlled by harsh laws and stiff punishments. • Believed that a strong leader was needed to create an ideal society
  • 48. Qin Dynasty • Created a new dynasty in 221 BCE • Drastically changed Chinese Philosophy – adopted Legalism as the gov’t’s official policy • Created a gov’t where that was constantly checked for corruption • Created a single monetary system and built roads connecting the Empire
  • 49. The Great Wall of China • The great wall was built to keep out invaders from the North (Mongolians)
  • 50. China 1. Government: Monarchy (Dynasties) – Rule by one – Mandate of Heaven 2. Accomplishments: – Chinese characters (written language) – Roads and canals – Coined money – Cast iron weapons (not seen elsewhere until middle ages) 3. Religion: polytheism – family spirits consulted supreme gods 4. Decline: Nomads attack and kill monarch – Enter “period of warring states”