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Structure Of DNA & RNA

By Himanshu Dev
VMMC & SJH
DNA
 DNA
 Deoxyribonucleic acid
 DNA - a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides.
 Usually double stranded.
 And have double-helix structure.
 found in chromosomes, mitochondria
and chloroplasts.
 It acts as the genetic material in most of
the organisms.
 Carries the genetic information
A Few Key Events Led to the
Discovery of the Structure of DNA
 DNA as an acidic substance present
in nucleus was first identified by
Friedrich Meischer in 1868.
 He named it as ‘Nuclein’.

Friedrich Meischer
In

1953 , James Watson and Francis Crick,
described a very simple but famous Double
Helix model for the structure of DNA.
FRANCIS CRICK AND JAMES WATSON


The scientific framework for their
breakthrough was provided by other
scientists including
 Linus Pauling
 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
 Erwin Chargaff
 Rosalind Franklin
 She worked in same laboratory as Maurice Wilkins.
 She study X-ray diffraction to study wet fibers of DNA.

X-ray diffraction
of wet DNA fibers

The diffraction pattern is interpreted
(using mathematical theory)
This can ultimately provide
information concerning the structure
of the molecule

X Ray
Crystallography
Rosalind
Franklin’s photo




She made marked advances in X-ray
diffraction techniques with DNA
The diffraction pattern she obtained
suggested several structural features of DNA





Helical
More than one strand
10 base pairs per complete turn
Rosalind Franklin

Maurice Wilkins
 DNA Structure


DNA structure is often divided into four
different levels primary, secondary,
tertiary and quaternary.

DNA

has three main components



1. Deoxyribose (a pentose sugar)



2. Base (there are four different ones)



3. Phosphate
A, G, C or T

O

Base

O P
O–

O CH2
5′
4′

Phosphate

H

H
3′

A, G, C or U

O

Base

O P

O
H

1′

H

2′

OH
H
Deoxyribose

DNA Nucleotide

O CH2

O–

5′

4′

Phosphate

H

H
3′

O
H

1′

H

2′

OH
OH
Ribose

RNA Nucleotide
 The Nitrogenous Bases
 THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS


Pyrimidines and purines

 PYRIMIDINES (MADE OF ONE 6 MEMBER RING)
 Thymine
 Cytosine
 PURINES (MADE OF A 6 MEMBER RING, FUSED
TO A 5 MEMBER RING)
 Adenine
 Guanine
 THE RINGS ARE NOT ONLY MADE OF CARBON
 Nitrogenous bases of DNA & RNA
 Nucleotide Structure
Nucleotides

are formed by the condensation of a
sugar, phosphate and one of the 4 bases
The following illustration represents one nucleotide
Phosphate
Nitrogenous
Bases

Deoxyribose
O
O P
O–

Base
O

CH2

5′
4′

Phosphate

H

H
3′

O

1′

H

H

2′

OH
H
Deoxyribose

DNA nucleotide


Base + sugar  nucleoside




Example
 Adenine + ribose = Adenosine
 Adenine + deoxyribose = Deoxyadenosine

Base + sugar + phosphate(s)  nucleotide


Example
 Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP)
 Deoxyadenosine diphosphate (dADP)
 Deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP)
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate
Doxyadenosine diphosphate
Deoxyadenosine monophosphate
Deoxyadenosine
Adenine

Phosphoester bond

NH2

N

N

H
O
–O

P
O–

O
O

P

O
O

O–

P

N
O

O–

CH2

5′
4′

H

H
Phosphate groups
Phosphates are
attached here

3

N

O
H
2′

HO
H
Deoxyribose

1′

H

Base always
attached here
 Nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds called
phosphodiester linkage.
A chemical bond that
involves sharing a pair of
electrons between atoms in
a molecule.
P
5

1

4

Base

Sugar

3

2

P
5

1

4

Sugar

3

2

Base
Backbone

Bases
O

5′

CH3

N

Thymine (T)
H

–

O
O

P

O
–

O

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

O

N

O
1′
H
2′
H
H

3′

NH2
N

Phosphodiester
linkage

N

Adenine (A)

H
N

O
O

P

O–

O

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

O
1′
H
2′
H
H

3′

P

O
–

O

NH2
H

N

H

O
O

N

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

Cytosine (C)
O

N

O
1′
H
2′
H
H

3′

Guanine (G)
O
H

N

N

H
N

O

Single
nucleotide

O

P

O

CH2
5′
O
4′
H
Phosphate H
–

3′
OH

3′

O
1′
H
2′
H
H

Sugar (deoxyribose)

N

NH2
DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding
Salient features of the Double-helix structure of DNA:
 It is made of two polynucleotide chains, where the backbone
is constituted by sugar-phosphate, and the bases project inside.
 The two chains have anti- parallel polarity. It means, if one chain
has the polarity 5’ 3’, the other has 3’ 5’.
5’

G
T

A

C

G

A
3’

C

3’

T
5’
DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding
 The bases in two strands are paired through hydrogen bond (H-bonds)
forming base pairs (bp). Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with
Thymine from opposite strand and vice-versa. Similarly, Guanine is
bonded with Cytosine with three H-bonds.
 Based on the observation of Erwin Chargaff that for a double stranded
DNA, the ratios between Adenine and Thymine; and Guanine and
Cytosine are constant and equals one.
 Hydrogen bond:-A chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom
between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with
one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond.

3 Hydrogen bonds

2 Hydrogen bonds
Erwin Chargaff’s Experiment
 Chargaff pioneered many of biochemical technique for
the isolation, purification and measurement of nucleic acids
from living cells.
 It was known that DNA contained the four bases: A, G, C & T.
 Chargaff analyzed the base composition DNA isolated from
many different species.
 THE HYPOTHESIS
 An analysis of the base composition of DNA in different
species may reveal important features about structure
of DNA.
y
Conceptual level

Experimental level

1. For each type of cell, extract the
chromosomal material. This can be
done in a variety of ways, including the
use of high salt, detergent, or mild alkali
treatment. Note: The chromosomes
contain both DNA and protein.

Solution of
chromosomal
extract

DNA +
proteins

Protease

2. Remove the protein. This can be done in
several ways, including treament with
protease.

DNA

Acid

3. Hydrolyze the DNA to release the bases
from the DNA strands. A common way
to do this is by strong acid treatment.

G

A

Individual
bases

T

A
C

C

G

T

C
G

4. Separate the bases by chromatography.
Paper chromatography provides an easy
way to separate the four types of bases.
(The technique of chromatography is
described in the Appendix.)

AA

A A
C

C

C

A

C CC C

G
G G GG G
5. Extract bands from paper into solutions
and determine the amounts of each base
by spectroscopy. Each base will absorb
light at a particular wavelength. By
examining the absorption profile of a
sample of base, it is then possible to
calculate the amount of the base.
(Spectroscopy is described in the
Appendix.)
6. Compare the base content in the DNA
from different organisms.

A

G

Origin
TT

T

T

T

T
The Data
Interpretation of Data
 The compelling observation was that:
 Percentage of adenine=percentage of thymine
 Percentage of Cytosine=percentage of Guanine
 This observation became known as a Chargaff’s Rule.
Erwin Chargaff
DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding
 The two strands are coiled in a right-handed fashion(Clockwise).
The pitch of the helix is 3.4 nm (a nanometer is one billionth of a
meter, that is 10-9 m) and there are roughly 10 bp in each turn.
Consequently, the distance between a bp in a helix is
approximately equal to 0.34 nm.

 The plane of one base pair stacks over the other in double helix.
This, in addition to H-bonds, confers stability of the helical structure.
3.4 nm

0.34 nm
DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding
 There are two asymmetrical grooves on the outside of the helix:
a) Major groove
b) Minor groove
Groove:-any furrow(slight depression in the smoothness of a surface)
or channel on a bodily structure or part.

 Certain proteins can bind within these groove
 They can thus interact with a particular sequence of bases.

Minor
groove
Minor
groove

Major
groove

Major
groove
(a) Ball-and-stick model of DNA

(b) Space-filling model of DNA
Structure of Double-helix
 Three major forms:
 B-DNA
 A-DNA
 Z-DNA

 B-DNA

is biologically THE MOST COMMON
 It is a -helix meaning that it has a Right handed, or
clockwise, spiral.
 Complementary base pairing
• A-T
• G-C
 Ideal B-DNA has 10 base pair per turn(360o rotation of helix)
 So each base is twisted 36o relative to adjacent bases.
 Base pair are 0.34 nm apart.
 So complete rotation of molecule is 3.4 nm.
 Axis passes through middle of each basepairs.
 B-DNA
 Minor Groove is Narrow, Shallow.
 Major Groove is Wide, Deep.
 This structure exists when plenty
of water surrounds molecule and
there is no unusual base sequence
in DNA-Condition that are likely to
be present in the cells.
 B-DNA structure is most stable
configuration for a random
sequence of nucleotides under
physiological condition.
A-DNA
Right-handed helix
Wider and flatter than B-DNA
11 bp per turn
Its bases are tilted away from
main axis of molecule
 Narrow Deep major Groove and
Broad, Shallow minor Groove.
 Observed when less water is
present. i.e.Dehydrating condition.
 A-DNA has been observed in
two context:





•
•

Active site of DNA polymerase
(~3bp)
Gram (+) bacteria undergoing
sporulation
Z-DNA
 A left-handed helix
 Seen in Condition of High salt
concentration.
 In this form sugar-phosphate
backbones zigzag back and
forth, giving rise to the name
Z-DNA(for zigzag).
 12 base pairs per turn.
 A deep Minor Groove.
 No Discernible Major Groove.
 Part of some active genes form
Z-DNA, suggesting that Z-DNA
may play a role in regulating
gene transcription.
Property

B-DNA

A-DNA

Z-DNA

Strand

Antiparallel

Antiparallel

Antiparallel

Type of Helix

Right-handed

Right-handed

Left-handed

Overall shape

Long and
narrow

Short and
wide

Elongated
and narrow

Base pair per turn

10

11

12

Distance between
adjacent bases

0.34 nm

0.23 nm

0.38 nm

Pitch/turn of helix

3.40 nm

2.82 nm

4.56 nm

Helical Diameter

2.0 nm

2.3 nm

1.8 nm

10

200

90

Tilt/inclination of bp to
axis
Property
Major Groove

Minor Groove

B-DNA

A-DNA

Z-DNA

Wide & Deep

Narrow &
Deep

No
discrenible

Narrow,
shallow

Broad,
Shallow

Narrow,
Deep
DNA Supercoiling
 DNA supercoiling refers to the over or under-winding
of strands.
 DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging
within all cells. Because the length of DNA can be
of thousands of times that of a cells, packaging this
material into the cell or nucleus (in Eukaryotes) is a
difficult feat.
 Supercoiling of DNA reduces the space and allows
for much more DNA to be packaged.
Radial loops
(300 nm in diameter)

Metaphase
chromosome
30 nm fiber

Nucleosomes
(11 nm in diameter)
DNA
(2 nm in diameter)

Histone
protein

Each chromatid
(700 nm in diameter)

DNA wound
around histone
proteins
Nucleosome Structure
 Nucleosome are the basic unit of the chromatin organization.
 In Eukaryotes DNA associated with Proteins.
(In prokaryotes DNA is naked)
 Nucleosomes= basic bead like unit of DNA packing
 Made of segment of DNA wound around a protein core
that is composed of 2 copies of each 4 types of Histones.
 Nucleosomes have:
 8 Histones in the core
 DNA wrapped twice around
the core
 One Histone holding the
Nucleosome together
 A DNA ‘linker’ continues
towards the next nucleosome.
 The DNA has a negatively charged
backbone(because of PO43- group)
 The Protein(Histones) are positively
charged.
 The DNA and Protein are
Electromagnetically attracted to
each other to form chromatin.
RNA
 RNA
 Ribonucleic Acid
 RNA is a polymer of ribonucleotides linked together by
phosphodiester linkage.
 RNA was first genetic material.
 In 1967 Carl Woese found the catalytic properties of RNA and
speculated that the earliest forms of life relied on RNA both
to carry genetic information and to catalyse biochemical
reactions.
 Their theories were not validated until the work of Nobel Prize
laureate Thomas R. Cech. In the 1970s, Cech was studying
the splicing of RNA in a single-celled organism, Tetrahymena
thermophila, when he discovered that an unprocessed RNA
molecule could splice itself. He announced his discovery in
1982 and became the first to show that RNA has catalytic
functions.
 Usually single stranded and helical in structure.
 But double stranded also present in some viruses.
 RNA exists in several different single-stranded structures, most of
which are directly or indirectly involved in protein synthesis or its
regulation.
 It also acts as the genetic material in some viruses.
 It function as messenger(mRNA), adapter(tRNA), structural(rRNA)
and in some cases as a catalytic molecule(Ribozyme).
 RNA strands are typically several hundred to several thousand
nucleotides in length.
 RNA V/S DNA
RNA structure
 There are also three main component
a) Phosphate Group
b) Sugar(Ribose)
c) And Nitrogenous base

The Nitrogenous Bases

 They are divided into two groups:

i. Purine
ii. Pyrimidine
 Purines (made of a 6 member ring, fused to a
5 member ring)
 Adenine
 Guanine
 Pyrimidine (made of a 6 member ring)
 Cytosine
 Uracil
RNA Structure
 Nucleotide
Nucleotides are formed by
the condensation of a
sugar, phosphate and one of
the 4 bases
The following illustration
represents one nucleotide

A, G, C or U

O

Base

O P

O CH2

O–

5′

4′

Phosphate

H

H
3′

O
H

1′

H

2′

OH
OH
Ribose

RNA Nucleotide


Base + sugar  nucleoside




Example

Adenine + ribose = Adenosine

Base + sugar + phosphate(s)  nucleotide


Example




Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate
Adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine
Adenine

Phosphoester bond

NH2

N

N

H
O
–O

P
O–

O
O

P

O
O

O–

P

N
O

O–

CH2

5′
4′

Phosphate groups
Phosphates are
attached here

O

H

H

N

H

1′

H

2′

3

HO

OH
Ribose

Base always
attached here
 Covalent bonding B/W Nucleotides
 Nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds called
phosphodiester linkage.
A chemical bond that
involves sharing a pair of
electrons between atoms in
a molecule.
P
5

1

4

Ribose

Base

Sugar

3

2

P
5

1

4

Ribose

Sugar

3

2

Base
Backbone

Bases

5′

O
H
O–
O

P
O–

O

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

H

N

H

Uracil (U)
O

N

O
1′
H
2′
OH
H

3′

NH2

N

Phosphodiester
linkage

N

H
N

O
O

P
O–

O

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

N

O
1′
H
2′
OH
H

3′

P

O
–

O

NH2
H

N

H

O
O

Adenine (A)
H

CH2
5′
4′
H
H

Cytosine (C)
O

N

O
1′
H
2′
OH

Guanine
(G)

H

3′

O

N

N

H
N

O

RNA
nucleotide

O

P

O

CH2
5′
O
4′
H
Phosphate H
–

3′
OH

3′

O
1′
H
2′
OH
H

Sugar (ribose)

N

H

NH2
 Hydrogen bonding


Usually RNA is single stranded, But in some viruses RNA
present in double stranded form.



The bases in two strands are paired through hydrogen
bond (H-bonds) forming base pairs (bp). Adenine forms
two hydrogen bonds with Uracil from opposite strand
and vice-versa. Similarly, Guanine is bonded with
Cytosine with three H-bonds.
dsRNA Structure
 There are double-stranded RNA structures

 RNA can fold back on itself
 Depends on base sequence
 Gives stem (double-strand) and loop (single-strand structures)

 ds RNA has an A-like conformation

 Steric clashes between 2’-OH groups prevent the B-like
conformation.
Complementary regions
Held together by
hydrogen bonds

U
U A

U A
A
A U
U A

A

G

G C
C

C G

C G
A U

A
C

(a) Bulge loop

U
G

C G

C G

G

U

C

U

U

C

A U

C G

C

C

C
G
A A G
C G U U C

A

G
C C
G A A
G G C U U

C

C
U

A
G

U

G C
A U

A

U A
C G

G C

C G

A U

C G

A U

(b) Internal loop

(c) Multibranched junction

Non-complementary regions
Have bases projecting away
from double stranded regions

U

G C
A U
A U

C G

G

C G

C
U
A
G
U G C A

(d) Stem-loop

Also called
hair-pin

C
G G
A
C C G U
 Types of RNA
 In all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, three main
classes of RNA molecules exist1) Messenger RNA(m RNA)
2) Transfer RNA (t RNA)
3) Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)
 The other are –
 small nuclear RNA (SnRNA),
 micro RNA(mi RNA) and
 small interfering RNA(Si RNA) and
 heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA).
 Messenger RNA (m-RNA)




All members of the class function
as messengers carrying the
information in a gene to the
protein synthesizing machinery

Structure
 The 5’ terminal end is capped by 7- methyl guanosine
triphosphate cap.
 The cap is involved in the recognition of mRNA by the
translating machinery.
 It stabilizes m RNA by protecting it from 5’ exonuclease.
 The 3’end of most m-RNAs have a polymer of Adenylate
residues( 20-250).
 The tail prevents the attack by 3’ exonucleases.
 On both 5’ and 3’ end there are non coding sequences which
are not translated (NCS)
 The intervening region between non coding sequences
present between 5’ and 3’ end is called coding region.
This region encodes for the synthesis of a protein.
 Heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) [Precursor mRNA]

 In mammalian nuclei , hnRNA is the immediate
product of gene transcription
 The nuclear product is heterogeneous in size
(Variable) and is very large.
 75 % of hnRNA is degraded in the nucleus,
only 25% is processed to mature m RNA.
 Mature m –RNA is formed from primary transcript
by capping, tailing, splicing and base modification.
 Transfer RNA (t-RNA)
 Transfer

RNA are the smallest of three major species
of RNA molecules
 They have 74-95 nucleotide residues
 They transfer the amino acids from cytoplasm to the
protein synthesizing machinery, hence the name t
RNA.
 They are also called Adapter molecules, since they
act as adapters for the translation of the sequence
of nucleotides of the m RNA in to specific amino
acids
 There are at least 20 species of tRNA one
corresponding to each of the 20 amino acids
required for protein synthesis.
 tRNA is the only RNA species that contains the
nucleoside thymidine.
 Structure
1) Primary structure- The nucleotide
sequence of all the t RNA molecules
allows
extensive
intrastand
complementarity that generates a
secondary structure.
2) Secondary structure- Each single
t- RNA shows extensive internal base
pairing and acquires a clover leaf
like structure. The structure is
stabilized by hydrogen bonding
between the bases and is a
consistent feature.
Secondary structure (Clover leaf
structure)
All t-RNA contain 5 main arms or
loops which are as followsa) Acceptor arm
b) Anticodon arm
c) D HU arm (DihydroUracil)
d) TΨ C arm Thymidine Pseudouridine Cytosine
e) Extra arm
Secondary structure of tRNA. CCA tail in yellow, Acceptor
stem in purple, Variable loop in orange, D arm in
red, Anticodon arm in blue with Anticodon in black, T
arm in green.
3) Tertiary structure of t-RNA
 The

L shaped tertiary structure is
formed by further folding of the
clover leaf due to hydrogen bonds
between T and D arms.
 The base paired double helical
stems get arranged in to two
double helical columns, continuous
and perpendicular to one another.
 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
 Ribosomal

ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of
the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living
organisms.
 The functions of the ribosomal RNA molecules in the ribosomal
particle are not fully understood, but they are necessary for
ribosomal assembly and seem to play key roles in the binding of
mRNA to ribosomes and its translation
 Recent studies suggest that an rRNA component performs the
peptidyl transferase activity and thus is an enzyme (a ribozyme).
 It constitutes the predominant material within the ribosome, which is
approximately 60% rRNA and 40% protein by weight.
 Ribosomes contain two major rRNAs and 50 or more proteins.
 The ribosomal RNAs form two subunits, the large subunit (LSU) and
small subunit (SSU). The LSU rRNA acts as a ribozyme,
catalysing peptide bond formation.
 Small RNA molecules
 Major

 Small

types of small RNA molecules:

nuclear RNA (snRNA) - involved in mRNA splicing.

 Small

nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) - directs the modification of
ribosomal RNAs.

 Micro

RNA (miRNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNA) regulate gene expression.
 Differences between RNA and DNA
S.No.

RNA

DNA

1)

Single stranded mainly
except when self
complementary sequences
are there it forms a double
stranded structure (Hair pin
structure)

Double stranded (Except
for certain viral DNA s which
are single stranded)

2)

Ribose is the main sugar

The sugar moiety is deoxy
ribose

3)

Pyrimidine components differ. Thymine is always there but
Thymine is never found
uracil is never found
(Except tRNA)

4)

Being single stranded
structure- It does not follow
Chargaff’s rule

It does follow Chargaff's
rule. The total purine
content in a double
stranded DNA is always
equal to pyrimidine
content.
S.No.

RNA

DNA

5)

RNA can be easily
destroyed by alkalies to
cyclic diesters of mono
nucleotides.

DNA resists alkali action
due to the absence of
OH group at 2’ position

6)

RNA is a relatively a labile
molecule, undergoes easy
and spontaneous
degradation

DNA is a stable molecule.
The spontaneous
degradation is very too
slow. The genetic
information can be stored
for years together without
any change.

7)

Mainly cytoplasmic, but
also present in nucleus
(primary transcript and
small nuclear RNA)

Mainly found in nucleus,
extra nuclear DNA is
found in mitochondria,
and plasmids etc

8)

The base content varies
from 100- 5000. The size is
variable.

Millions of base pairs are
there depending upon
the organism
S.No.

RNA

DNA

9)

There are various types of
RNA – mRNA, rRNA, tRNA,
SnRNA, SiRNA, miRNA and
hnRNA. These RNAs
perform different and
specific functions.

DNA is always of one type
and performs the function
of storage and transfer of
genetic information.

10)

No variable physiological
forms of RNA are found.
The different types of RNA
do not change their forms

There are variable forms
of DNA (A, B and Z)

11)

RNA is synthesized from
DNA, it can not form
DNA(except by the action
of reverse transcriptase). It
can not duplicate (except
in certain viruses where it is
a genomic material )

DNA can form DNA by
replication, it can also
form RNA by transcription.

12)

Many copies of RNA are
present per cell

Single copy of DNA is
present per cell.
Structure of dna and rna

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বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 

Structure of dna and rna

  • 1. Structure Of DNA & RNA By Himanshu Dev VMMC & SJH
  • 2. DNA
  • 3.  DNA  Deoxyribonucleic acid  DNA - a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides.  Usually double stranded.  And have double-helix structure.  found in chromosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts.  It acts as the genetic material in most of the organisms.  Carries the genetic information
  • 4. A Few Key Events Led to the Discovery of the Structure of DNA  DNA as an acidic substance present in nucleus was first identified by Friedrich Meischer in 1868.  He named it as ‘Nuclein’. Friedrich Meischer
  • 5. In 1953 , James Watson and Francis Crick, described a very simple but famous Double Helix model for the structure of DNA.
  • 6. FRANCIS CRICK AND JAMES WATSON
  • 7.  The scientific framework for their breakthrough was provided by other scientists including  Linus Pauling  Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins  Erwin Chargaff
  • 8.  Rosalind Franklin  She worked in same laboratory as Maurice Wilkins.  She study X-ray diffraction to study wet fibers of DNA. X-ray diffraction of wet DNA fibers The diffraction pattern is interpreted (using mathematical theory) This can ultimately provide information concerning the structure of the molecule X Ray Crystallography Rosalind Franklin’s photo
  • 9.   She made marked advances in X-ray diffraction techniques with DNA The diffraction pattern she obtained suggested several structural features of DNA    Helical More than one strand 10 base pairs per complete turn
  • 11.  DNA Structure  DNA structure is often divided into four different levels primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. DNA has three main components  1. Deoxyribose (a pentose sugar)  2. Base (there are four different ones)  3. Phosphate
  • 12. A, G, C or T O Base O P O– O CH2 5′ 4′ Phosphate H H 3′ A, G, C or U O Base O P O H 1′ H 2′ OH H Deoxyribose DNA Nucleotide O CH2 O– 5′ 4′ Phosphate H H 3′ O H 1′ H 2′ OH OH Ribose RNA Nucleotide
  • 13.  The Nitrogenous Bases  THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS  Pyrimidines and purines  PYRIMIDINES (MADE OF ONE 6 MEMBER RING)  Thymine  Cytosine  PURINES (MADE OF A 6 MEMBER RING, FUSED TO A 5 MEMBER RING)  Adenine  Guanine  THE RINGS ARE NOT ONLY MADE OF CARBON
  • 14.  Nitrogenous bases of DNA & RNA
  • 15.  Nucleotide Structure Nucleotides are formed by the condensation of a sugar, phosphate and one of the 4 bases The following illustration represents one nucleotide Phosphate Nitrogenous Bases Deoxyribose
  • 17.  Base + sugar  nucleoside   Example  Adenine + ribose = Adenosine  Adenine + deoxyribose = Deoxyadenosine Base + sugar + phosphate(s)  nucleotide  Example  Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP)  Deoxyadenosine diphosphate (dADP)  Deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP)
  • 18. Deoxyadenosine triphosphate Doxyadenosine diphosphate Deoxyadenosine monophosphate Deoxyadenosine Adenine Phosphoester bond NH2 N N H O –O P O– O O P O O O– P N O O– CH2 5′ 4′ H H Phosphate groups Phosphates are attached here 3 N O H 2′ HO H Deoxyribose 1′ H Base always attached here
  • 19.  Nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester linkage. A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule. P 5 1 4 Base Sugar 3 2 P 5 1 4 Sugar 3 2 Base
  • 20. Backbone Bases O 5′ CH3 N Thymine (T) H – O O P O – O CH2 5′ 4′ H H O N O 1′ H 2′ H H 3′ NH2 N Phosphodiester linkage N Adenine (A) H N O O P O– O CH2 5′ 4′ H H O 1′ H 2′ H H 3′ P O – O NH2 H N H O O N CH2 5′ 4′ H H Cytosine (C) O N O 1′ H 2′ H H 3′ Guanine (G) O H N N H N O Single nucleotide O P O CH2 5′ O 4′ H Phosphate H – 3′ OH 3′ O 1′ H 2′ H H Sugar (deoxyribose) N NH2
  • 21. DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding Salient features of the Double-helix structure of DNA:  It is made of two polynucleotide chains, where the backbone is constituted by sugar-phosphate, and the bases project inside.  The two chains have anti- parallel polarity. It means, if one chain has the polarity 5’ 3’, the other has 3’ 5’. 5’ G T A C G A 3’ C 3’ T 5’
  • 22.
  • 23. DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding  The bases in two strands are paired through hydrogen bond (H-bonds) forming base pairs (bp). Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with Thymine from opposite strand and vice-versa. Similarly, Guanine is bonded with Cytosine with three H-bonds.  Based on the observation of Erwin Chargaff that for a double stranded DNA, the ratios between Adenine and Thymine; and Guanine and Cytosine are constant and equals one.  Hydrogen bond:-A chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond. 3 Hydrogen bonds 2 Hydrogen bonds
  • 24. Erwin Chargaff’s Experiment  Chargaff pioneered many of biochemical technique for the isolation, purification and measurement of nucleic acids from living cells.  It was known that DNA contained the four bases: A, G, C & T.  Chargaff analyzed the base composition DNA isolated from many different species.  THE HYPOTHESIS  An analysis of the base composition of DNA in different species may reveal important features about structure of DNA.
  • 25. y Conceptual level Experimental level 1. For each type of cell, extract the chromosomal material. This can be done in a variety of ways, including the use of high salt, detergent, or mild alkali treatment. Note: The chromosomes contain both DNA and protein. Solution of chromosomal extract DNA + proteins Protease 2. Remove the protein. This can be done in several ways, including treament with protease. DNA Acid 3. Hydrolyze the DNA to release the bases from the DNA strands. A common way to do this is by strong acid treatment. G A Individual bases T A C C G T C G 4. Separate the bases by chromatography. Paper chromatography provides an easy way to separate the four types of bases. (The technique of chromatography is described in the Appendix.) AA A A C C C A C CC C G G G GG G 5. Extract bands from paper into solutions and determine the amounts of each base by spectroscopy. Each base will absorb light at a particular wavelength. By examining the absorption profile of a sample of base, it is then possible to calculate the amount of the base. (Spectroscopy is described in the Appendix.) 6. Compare the base content in the DNA from different organisms. A G Origin TT T T T T
  • 27. Interpretation of Data  The compelling observation was that:  Percentage of adenine=percentage of thymine  Percentage of Cytosine=percentage of Guanine  This observation became known as a Chargaff’s Rule.
  • 29. DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding  The two strands are coiled in a right-handed fashion(Clockwise). The pitch of the helix is 3.4 nm (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, that is 10-9 m) and there are roughly 10 bp in each turn. Consequently, the distance between a bp in a helix is approximately equal to 0.34 nm.  The plane of one base pair stacks over the other in double helix. This, in addition to H-bonds, confers stability of the helical structure.
  • 31. DNA Double Helix & Hydrogen bonding  There are two asymmetrical grooves on the outside of the helix: a) Major groove b) Minor groove Groove:-any furrow(slight depression in the smoothness of a surface) or channel on a bodily structure or part.  Certain proteins can bind within these groove  They can thus interact with a particular sequence of bases. Minor groove Minor groove Major groove Major groove (a) Ball-and-stick model of DNA (b) Space-filling model of DNA
  • 32. Structure of Double-helix  Three major forms:  B-DNA  A-DNA  Z-DNA  B-DNA is biologically THE MOST COMMON  It is a -helix meaning that it has a Right handed, or clockwise, spiral.  Complementary base pairing • A-T • G-C  Ideal B-DNA has 10 base pair per turn(360o rotation of helix)  So each base is twisted 36o relative to adjacent bases.  Base pair are 0.34 nm apart.  So complete rotation of molecule is 3.4 nm.  Axis passes through middle of each basepairs.
  • 33.  B-DNA  Minor Groove is Narrow, Shallow.  Major Groove is Wide, Deep.  This structure exists when plenty of water surrounds molecule and there is no unusual base sequence in DNA-Condition that are likely to be present in the cells.  B-DNA structure is most stable configuration for a random sequence of nucleotides under physiological condition.
  • 34. A-DNA Right-handed helix Wider and flatter than B-DNA 11 bp per turn Its bases are tilted away from main axis of molecule  Narrow Deep major Groove and Broad, Shallow minor Groove.  Observed when less water is present. i.e.Dehydrating condition.  A-DNA has been observed in two context:     • • Active site of DNA polymerase (~3bp) Gram (+) bacteria undergoing sporulation
  • 35. Z-DNA  A left-handed helix  Seen in Condition of High salt concentration.  In this form sugar-phosphate backbones zigzag back and forth, giving rise to the name Z-DNA(for zigzag).  12 base pairs per turn.  A deep Minor Groove.  No Discernible Major Groove.  Part of some active genes form Z-DNA, suggesting that Z-DNA may play a role in regulating gene transcription.
  • 36. Property B-DNA A-DNA Z-DNA Strand Antiparallel Antiparallel Antiparallel Type of Helix Right-handed Right-handed Left-handed Overall shape Long and narrow Short and wide Elongated and narrow Base pair per turn 10 11 12 Distance between adjacent bases 0.34 nm 0.23 nm 0.38 nm Pitch/turn of helix 3.40 nm 2.82 nm 4.56 nm Helical Diameter 2.0 nm 2.3 nm 1.8 nm 10 200 90 Tilt/inclination of bp to axis
  • 37. Property Major Groove Minor Groove B-DNA A-DNA Z-DNA Wide & Deep Narrow & Deep No discrenible Narrow, shallow Broad, Shallow Narrow, Deep
  • 38. DNA Supercoiling  DNA supercoiling refers to the over or under-winding of strands.  DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells. Because the length of DNA can be of thousands of times that of a cells, packaging this material into the cell or nucleus (in Eukaryotes) is a difficult feat.  Supercoiling of DNA reduces the space and allows for much more DNA to be packaged.
  • 39. Radial loops (300 nm in diameter) Metaphase chromosome 30 nm fiber Nucleosomes (11 nm in diameter) DNA (2 nm in diameter) Histone protein Each chromatid (700 nm in diameter) DNA wound around histone proteins
  • 40.
  • 41. Nucleosome Structure  Nucleosome are the basic unit of the chromatin organization.  In Eukaryotes DNA associated with Proteins. (In prokaryotes DNA is naked)  Nucleosomes= basic bead like unit of DNA packing  Made of segment of DNA wound around a protein core that is composed of 2 copies of each 4 types of Histones.  Nucleosomes have:  8 Histones in the core  DNA wrapped twice around the core  One Histone holding the Nucleosome together  A DNA ‘linker’ continues towards the next nucleosome.  The DNA has a negatively charged backbone(because of PO43- group)  The Protein(Histones) are positively charged.  The DNA and Protein are Electromagnetically attracted to each other to form chromatin.
  • 42. RNA
  • 43.  RNA  Ribonucleic Acid  RNA is a polymer of ribonucleotides linked together by phosphodiester linkage.  RNA was first genetic material.  In 1967 Carl Woese found the catalytic properties of RNA and speculated that the earliest forms of life relied on RNA both to carry genetic information and to catalyse biochemical reactions.  Their theories were not validated until the work of Nobel Prize laureate Thomas R. Cech. In the 1970s, Cech was studying the splicing of RNA in a single-celled organism, Tetrahymena thermophila, when he discovered that an unprocessed RNA molecule could splice itself. He announced his discovery in 1982 and became the first to show that RNA has catalytic functions.  Usually single stranded and helical in structure.  But double stranded also present in some viruses.
  • 44.  RNA exists in several different single-stranded structures, most of which are directly or indirectly involved in protein synthesis or its regulation.  It also acts as the genetic material in some viruses.  It function as messenger(mRNA), adapter(tRNA), structural(rRNA) and in some cases as a catalytic molecule(Ribozyme).  RNA strands are typically several hundred to several thousand nucleotides in length.
  • 45.  RNA V/S DNA
  • 46. RNA structure  There are also three main component a) Phosphate Group b) Sugar(Ribose) c) And Nitrogenous base The Nitrogenous Bases  They are divided into two groups: i. Purine ii. Pyrimidine  Purines (made of a 6 member ring, fused to a 5 member ring)  Adenine  Guanine  Pyrimidine (made of a 6 member ring)  Cytosine  Uracil
  • 47. RNA Structure  Nucleotide Nucleotides are formed by the condensation of a sugar, phosphate and one of the 4 bases The following illustration represents one nucleotide A, G, C or U O Base O P O CH2 O– 5′ 4′ Phosphate H H 3′ O H 1′ H 2′ OH OH Ribose RNA Nucleotide
  • 48.  Base + sugar  nucleoside   Example  Adenine + ribose = Adenosine Base + sugar + phosphate(s)  nucleotide  Example    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • 49. Adenosine triphosphate Adenosine diphosphate Adenosine monophosphate Adenosine Adenine Phosphoester bond NH2 N N H O –O P O– O O P O O O– P N O O– CH2 5′ 4′ Phosphate groups Phosphates are attached here O H H N H 1′ H 2′ 3 HO OH Ribose Base always attached here
  • 50.  Covalent bonding B/W Nucleotides  Nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester linkage. A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule. P 5 1 4 Ribose Base Sugar 3 2 P 5 1 4 Ribose Sugar 3 2 Base
  • 52.  Hydrogen bonding  Usually RNA is single stranded, But in some viruses RNA present in double stranded form.  The bases in two strands are paired through hydrogen bond (H-bonds) forming base pairs (bp). Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with Uracil from opposite strand and vice-versa. Similarly, Guanine is bonded with Cytosine with three H-bonds.
  • 53. dsRNA Structure  There are double-stranded RNA structures  RNA can fold back on itself  Depends on base sequence  Gives stem (double-strand) and loop (single-strand structures)  ds RNA has an A-like conformation  Steric clashes between 2’-OH groups prevent the B-like conformation.
  • 54. Complementary regions Held together by hydrogen bonds U U A U A A A U U A A G G C C C G C G A U A C (a) Bulge loop U G C G C G G U C U U C A U C G C C C G A A G C G U U C A G C C G A A G G C U U C C U A G U G C A U A U A C G G C C G A U C G A U (b) Internal loop (c) Multibranched junction Non-complementary regions Have bases projecting away from double stranded regions U G C A U A U C G G C G C U A G U G C A (d) Stem-loop Also called hair-pin C G G A C C G U
  • 55.  Types of RNA  In all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, three main classes of RNA molecules exist1) Messenger RNA(m RNA) 2) Transfer RNA (t RNA) 3) Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)  The other are –  small nuclear RNA (SnRNA),  micro RNA(mi RNA) and  small interfering RNA(Si RNA) and  heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA).
  • 56.  Messenger RNA (m-RNA)   All members of the class function as messengers carrying the information in a gene to the protein synthesizing machinery Structure  The 5’ terminal end is capped by 7- methyl guanosine triphosphate cap.  The cap is involved in the recognition of mRNA by the translating machinery.  It stabilizes m RNA by protecting it from 5’ exonuclease.  The 3’end of most m-RNAs have a polymer of Adenylate residues( 20-250).  The tail prevents the attack by 3’ exonucleases.  On both 5’ and 3’ end there are non coding sequences which are not translated (NCS)
  • 57.  The intervening region between non coding sequences present between 5’ and 3’ end is called coding region. This region encodes for the synthesis of a protein.
  • 58.  Heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) [Precursor mRNA]  In mammalian nuclei , hnRNA is the immediate product of gene transcription  The nuclear product is heterogeneous in size (Variable) and is very large.  75 % of hnRNA is degraded in the nucleus, only 25% is processed to mature m RNA.  Mature m –RNA is formed from primary transcript by capping, tailing, splicing and base modification.
  • 59.  Transfer RNA (t-RNA)  Transfer RNA are the smallest of three major species of RNA molecules  They have 74-95 nucleotide residues  They transfer the amino acids from cytoplasm to the protein synthesizing machinery, hence the name t RNA.  They are also called Adapter molecules, since they act as adapters for the translation of the sequence of nucleotides of the m RNA in to specific amino acids  There are at least 20 species of tRNA one corresponding to each of the 20 amino acids required for protein synthesis.  tRNA is the only RNA species that contains the nucleoside thymidine.
  • 60.  Structure 1) Primary structure- The nucleotide sequence of all the t RNA molecules allows extensive intrastand complementarity that generates a secondary structure. 2) Secondary structure- Each single t- RNA shows extensive internal base pairing and acquires a clover leaf like structure. The structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonding between the bases and is a consistent feature. Secondary structure (Clover leaf structure) All t-RNA contain 5 main arms or loops which are as followsa) Acceptor arm b) Anticodon arm c) D HU arm (DihydroUracil) d) TΨ C arm Thymidine Pseudouridine Cytosine e) Extra arm
  • 61. Secondary structure of tRNA. CCA tail in yellow, Acceptor stem in purple, Variable loop in orange, D arm in red, Anticodon arm in blue with Anticodon in black, T arm in green.
  • 62. 3) Tertiary structure of t-RNA  The L shaped tertiary structure is formed by further folding of the clover leaf due to hydrogen bonds between T and D arms.  The base paired double helical stems get arranged in to two double helical columns, continuous and perpendicular to one another.
  • 63.  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.  The functions of the ribosomal RNA molecules in the ribosomal particle are not fully understood, but they are necessary for ribosomal assembly and seem to play key roles in the binding of mRNA to ribosomes and its translation  Recent studies suggest that an rRNA component performs the peptidyl transferase activity and thus is an enzyme (a ribozyme).  It constitutes the predominant material within the ribosome, which is approximately 60% rRNA and 40% protein by weight.  Ribosomes contain two major rRNAs and 50 or more proteins.  The ribosomal RNAs form two subunits, the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU). The LSU rRNA acts as a ribozyme, catalysing peptide bond formation.
  • 64.  Small RNA molecules  Major  Small types of small RNA molecules: nuclear RNA (snRNA) - involved in mRNA splicing.  Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) - directs the modification of ribosomal RNAs.  Micro RNA (miRNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNA) regulate gene expression.
  • 65.  Differences between RNA and DNA S.No. RNA DNA 1) Single stranded mainly except when self complementary sequences are there it forms a double stranded structure (Hair pin structure) Double stranded (Except for certain viral DNA s which are single stranded) 2) Ribose is the main sugar The sugar moiety is deoxy ribose 3) Pyrimidine components differ. Thymine is always there but Thymine is never found uracil is never found (Except tRNA) 4) Being single stranded structure- It does not follow Chargaff’s rule It does follow Chargaff's rule. The total purine content in a double stranded DNA is always equal to pyrimidine content.
  • 66. S.No. RNA DNA 5) RNA can be easily destroyed by alkalies to cyclic diesters of mono nucleotides. DNA resists alkali action due to the absence of OH group at 2’ position 6) RNA is a relatively a labile molecule, undergoes easy and spontaneous degradation DNA is a stable molecule. The spontaneous degradation is very too slow. The genetic information can be stored for years together without any change. 7) Mainly cytoplasmic, but also present in nucleus (primary transcript and small nuclear RNA) Mainly found in nucleus, extra nuclear DNA is found in mitochondria, and plasmids etc 8) The base content varies from 100- 5000. The size is variable. Millions of base pairs are there depending upon the organism
  • 67. S.No. RNA DNA 9) There are various types of RNA – mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, SnRNA, SiRNA, miRNA and hnRNA. These RNAs perform different and specific functions. DNA is always of one type and performs the function of storage and transfer of genetic information. 10) No variable physiological forms of RNA are found. The different types of RNA do not change their forms There are variable forms of DNA (A, B and Z) 11) RNA is synthesized from DNA, it can not form DNA(except by the action of reverse transcriptase). It can not duplicate (except in certain viruses where it is a genomic material ) DNA can form DNA by replication, it can also form RNA by transcription. 12) Many copies of RNA are present per cell Single copy of DNA is present per cell.