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Structure of DNA and RNA
WARM UP:
Look over the images below and create a list of similarities and differences that you
find. YOU MUST HAVE ATLEAST THREE OF EACH.
SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES
DNA vs. RNA
STRUCTURE AND
FUNCTION
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Nucleus
Chromosomes
Genes
Segments of
DNA
Portions of DNA are
called genes.
DNA is tightly wound
into chromosomes
and located in the
nucleus of cells.
DNA cannot leave
the nucleus.
DNA is DOUBLE
STRANDED(2 sides)
Ribonucleic Acid
RNA is SINGLE STRANDED and
does not have to stay in the
nucleus!
RNA is not found in chromosomes
because it does not carry the
genetic code, however it can read
the DNA code and take the
information out of the nucleus.
RNA’s main job is to build
proteins!
DNA Structure
The building blocks of DNA are
called Nucleotides.
One nucleotide is made of 3
important things:
1. 5-Carbon Sugar Deoxyribose
2. Phosphate
3. Nitrogen base
there are 4 nitrogen bases in
DNA: Adenine, Guanine,
Cytosine, and Thymine that
pair together)
A  T C G
RNA Structure
The building blocks of RNA are
Nucleotides, just like DNA.
A Nucleotide in RNA is still made of 3
important things:
1. 6-Carbon Sugar - Ribose (instead of
Deoxyribose)
2. Phosphate
3. Nitrogen base
there are 4 nitrogen bases in RNA,
A,G,C, and U that pair together)
A  U C G
DNA RNA
Both DNA and RNA:
a.are single stranded
b.contain the same four nitrogenous
bases
c.have the same five carbon sugars
d.contain phosphate groups
Three Main Types of RNA
1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Carries copies of
instructions for the assembly of amino acids into
proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell (serve as
“messenger”)
Three Main Types of RNA
2.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Makes up the major part of
ribosomes, which is where proteins are made.
Ribosomal
RNA
Three Main Types of RNA
3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Transfers amino acids to
ribosomes during protein synthesis
ProteinsProteins are made up of a chain of amino acids.
Proteins are enzymes, which catalyze and regulate
chemical reactions.
2 Steps to Make a Protein
1. Transcription
 DNA → RNA
1. Translation
 RNA Protein (Chain of→
amino acids)
When transcription needs to take place, DNA
must provide the code in order to create an
mRNA strand.
mRNA will be able to leave the nucleus and now
it has the code transcribed inside it’s base pairs!
Practice:
DNA strand: TTA ACG GGT CTA
Matching DNA strand: AAT TGC CCA GAT
mRNA: UUA ACG GGU CUA
A segment of DNA has one strand
with the following sequence of bases:
AGC GCA TAG CAA
The complimentary strand of RNA
would be
a.UCG CGU AUC GUU
b.TCG CGT ATC GTT
c.AGC GCA UAG CAA
d.CTA TAC GCT ACC

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Structure of dna and rna

  • 2. WARM UP: Look over the images below and create a list of similarities and differences that you find. YOU MUST HAVE ATLEAST THREE OF EACH.
  • 4. DNA vs. RNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
  • 5. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Nucleus Chromosomes Genes Segments of DNA Portions of DNA are called genes. DNA is tightly wound into chromosomes and located in the nucleus of cells. DNA cannot leave the nucleus. DNA is DOUBLE STRANDED(2 sides)
  • 6. Ribonucleic Acid RNA is SINGLE STRANDED and does not have to stay in the nucleus! RNA is not found in chromosomes because it does not carry the genetic code, however it can read the DNA code and take the information out of the nucleus. RNA’s main job is to build proteins!
  • 7. DNA Structure The building blocks of DNA are called Nucleotides. One nucleotide is made of 3 important things: 1. 5-Carbon Sugar Deoxyribose 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen base there are 4 nitrogen bases in DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine that pair together) A  T C G
  • 8. RNA Structure The building blocks of RNA are Nucleotides, just like DNA. A Nucleotide in RNA is still made of 3 important things: 1. 6-Carbon Sugar - Ribose (instead of Deoxyribose) 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen base there are 4 nitrogen bases in RNA, A,G,C, and U that pair together) A  U C G
  • 10. Both DNA and RNA: a.are single stranded b.contain the same four nitrogenous bases c.have the same five carbon sugars d.contain phosphate groups
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Three Main Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell (serve as “messenger”)
  • 14. Three Main Types of RNA 2.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Makes up the major part of ribosomes, which is where proteins are made. Ribosomal RNA
  • 15. Three Main Types of RNA 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
  • 16. ProteinsProteins are made up of a chain of amino acids. Proteins are enzymes, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.
  • 17. 2 Steps to Make a Protein 1. Transcription  DNA → RNA 1. Translation  RNA Protein (Chain of→ amino acids)
  • 18. When transcription needs to take place, DNA must provide the code in order to create an mRNA strand. mRNA will be able to leave the nucleus and now it has the code transcribed inside it’s base pairs! Practice: DNA strand: TTA ACG GGT CTA Matching DNA strand: AAT TGC CCA GAT mRNA: UUA ACG GGU CUA
  • 19. A segment of DNA has one strand with the following sequence of bases: AGC GCA TAG CAA The complimentary strand of RNA would be a.UCG CGU AUC GUU b.TCG CGT ATC GTT c.AGC GCA UAG CAA d.CTA TAC GCT ACC