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CONTENTS
-Meaning of strike and lockout
-Types of strikes
-Reasons for strikes and lockouts
-Advantages and disadvantages of strikes
-Effects of strikes to workers, employer, consumer and
the government.
-Weapons used by employer to get employees agree to
their conditions
-Weapons used by employees to get their needs and
demands accepted by employer
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS
INTRODUCTION
 STRIKE
A strike is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to
work whether total or partial stoppage of work due to their dispute with
the employer
A strike is a very powerful weapon to get employees demand accepted by
the management
A strike is based on the workers refusing to work in an effect to accomplish
financial and personal gain from the employer, it arises due to
unsatisfactory employment terms and conditions such as excessive
working hours without overtime payments or payment of poor salaries
TYPES OF STRIKES
 1.PRIMARY STRIKES( FACE TO FACE STRIKES)
Primary strikes are generally against employer on
whom the dispute exist. They are of the following
types
(i)Stay away strike: in this strike workmen stay away
from workplace. They organize rallies, demonstrations
etc.
(ii)Stay in or sit down strikes: in this strike workers come
to the place, they stay at workplace but they don’t
work.
(iii)Token or protest strikes: it is of very short duration. in
this strike workers do not work for an hour or a day.
(iv) Go-slow: in this strike, the workers intentionally
reduces the speed of work
(V)Lightening or wild cat strike: in this strike, the strike is
done without any prior notice or with a shortest notice.
SECONDARY STRIKES
A secondary strike is a strike by a body of workers for the purpose of supporting a
cause or another group of strikers
These strikes are sympathetic strikes (describes or shows someone that they
understand and care about someone’s (employees) sufferings.
REASONS FOR STRIKES
 1.LOW PAY
Employees may strike due to low pay, they want to
be paid fair and equitable remuneration. If they
believe that they need to be paid more but the
employer does not agree, it may results to strikes
Example: striking due to issues of overtime
payments, difference in salary pay sometimes for
people with the same knowledge.
Also in times of inflation, wages a likely to seek
increase in salary to maintain their standard of
living.
2.BAD WORKING CONDITIONS
Employees strike for improvement of their working conditions. Working
conditions relates to health and safety at work place.
If production tools are not safe, poor or fewer than the actual work to be
done daily, if there are fewer or no protection tools such as coats and
gloves. Workers may strike to demand sufficient tools needed.
3.DISSATISFACTION ON ISSUES RELATED TO
MANAGEMENT/COMPANY POLICIES
Dissatisfaction of policies includes policies related to leave entitlement
such as sick leave, holiday leave, promotion and redundancy.
For example strike due to demand for leave pay; if companies do not pay
their employees when they are on leave, or unsatisfactory payment
related to leave then workers may strike
4.UNFAIR TERMINATION OF EMPLOYEES
If termination of employment is not of proper reasons, such employment
termination based on discrimination on color, sex or tribe, termination
without following proper procedures , or termination of employees who are
exercising labour rights then employees may strike
5.EXCESSIVE WORKING HOURS
If employees are working more than established hours set by the
government as per industrial relation and labour act, Also if there is no
overtime payments for such excessive hours work it will results to strikes
6.NO RESPONSE FROM MANAGEMENT INSPITE OF REFERING A
DEMAND AND ISSUING A REMINDER OF A CERTAIN MATTER THAT
NEEDS TO BE ADRESSED
If there is a dispute between employees and management in which
employees believe there is a need for change on a certain matter and
management has been notified, reminded of such demand, yet
management do nothing( I.e. no response from management).
Employees may strike to get their demands settled
7.DIVERTION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
When management goes against the collective agreement between them
and employees, it may result to strike.
8.DISCRIMINATION
The existence of discrimination highly encourages strikes .
Example if part wages were treated more fairly than fulltime wages in
terms of payment, wages may strike to demand an equal pay for both
fulltime and part time wages
9.AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR OF MANAGER TOWARDS
EMPLOYEES.
Most managers do not consider employees, they just look on their own
side.
For example managers may use abusive languages to their employees
and sometimes even hit workers that in return create a desire for
revenge on workers towards management.
Also the behavior of managers to discourage labour unions and their
rights contributes towards strike.
10.POOR COMMUNICATION
The lack of transparency between management and employees due to
levels of hierarchy between them can lead to strike as matters may take
time to be solved due to the presence of slower or poor communication
between employees and management.
ADVANTAGES OF STRIKES
 1.IT HELPS WORKERS IN NEGOTIATION
Due to strikes employer will be under pressure fearing the impact/results of a
strike, hence it will force the employer to negotiate with the trade union in
order to provide better deal for workers
2.IMMEDIATE REALIZATION OF WORKER’S DEMAND
Through strikes , demands of employees can be full field immediately because
employer worries about losses that the company will face due to strike.
Example poor company image, lost of sales and profit from the lost output.
3.TO PROTECT WORKERS ABOUT UNFAIR ACTIONS
Through strikes workers can prevent themselves about unfair actions.
Example; protection against unfair termination, unsatisfactory remuneration
and poor working conditions
4.IT BRINGS DEMOCARCY
Strikes gives power, authority for workers to plan something. it enable workers
to participate in management decision making
DISADVANTAGES OF
STRIKES/DYSFUNCTIONAL OF
STRIKES
1.POOR WORKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND
LABOUR
Strikes results to poor working relationship, the damaged relationship with
the staff/labours may adversely affect motivation and productivity of
employees.
2.DISTURBANCE OF PEACE ON A SOCIETY
Strike can result to peace disturbance , it may involve engaging the police
to ensure that there is no harmful to the society. Individuals may be
arrested if they are practicing restricted acts of strikes.
Due to strike people’s life are at risk, It can lead to physical injury or death
due to violence of strike.
3.IT AFFECT THE ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY
Through strike there may be damage to national properties which may
need repair in the future.
There is also revenue loss to country since the companies no longer
continue its activities, hence there will be no wages to employees, Also
no production/sales for company hence no taxation for the company
4.TOURISM INDUSTRY AND SMALL BUSINESS ARE AFFECTED
Tourists gets bad impression when they see the evil of strikes, tourist may fear for
their safety which in turn causes loss of lots of revenue to the country.
Small business are also hit by these strikes since they heavily depend on their
daily sales or turnover. Due to strikes it will results to loss of sales by these
business
5.IT AFFECTS ON THE PROVISION OR AVAILABILITY OF SOCIAL
SERVICES
Due to strikes there may be problems with transportation system as
workers may go in the middle of the roads. This can result to inability of
patients not to reach hospitals on time and have horrible outcomes.
Also on education side, schools and colleges may be closed due to strike
for the fear of safety if the strike is happening near the education institute.
6.IT AFFECTS THE CONSUMERS
Due to strike there may be scarcity of goods, rise in prices and effect on
the quality of goods
7.THERE IS ADVERSE EFFECT ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Strike can cause fall of exports and rise in imports
8.Wastage of time
EFFECTS/DISADVANTAGES OF
STRIKE TO WORKERS
1.LOSS OF WAGES
Employees do not work when they are on strike, hence no income
generation on their side but simply just small allowances from
the union.
2.PHYSICAL INJURY OR DEATH DUE TO VIOLENCE DURING
STRIKE
During strikes normally people’s live are at risk, a strike often turns
into violent protests and people get injured. The injuries may
become so serious that results to loss of lives.
3.ADVERSE EFFECT ON CARRIER
A strike has an impact on employee’s carrier, employees may be
perceived differently with other employers due to the strike. A
strike can also lead to potential job losses.
4.Poor relationship between employee and employer
5.Economic losses
EFFECTS/DISADVANTAGES OF
STRIKES TO EMPLOYER
1.Damages to machines and equipments
2.It impacts the image of the company
3.Poor relationship between employer
and employee. The damaged
relationship affect the motivation and
productivity of employees
4.Decreased profit since there is no
production
5.Burden of fixed expenses
DISADVANTAGES/EFFECTS OF
STRIKE TO CONSUMER
1.Rise in prices
2.Scarcity of goods
3.Bad effect on quality of goods
DISADVANTAGES/EFFECT OF
STRIKE TO THE GOVERMENT
1.Loss of revenue, i.e income tax
and VAT
2.Lack of order in a society
3.Blame by different parties
DEFINITION
A lockout is a temporary work stoppage of
employment initiated by the management of the
company during a labour dispute.
Factory lockout is the ultimate weapon in the hands
of management when uncontrolled situation arise in
the factory.
The major objective of lockout is to force employees
to agree to employer demands.
LOCKOUTS
REASONS FOR LOCKOUTS
1.Dispute between workers and management. It may arise due to
unsatisfied working conditions such as lower bargaining power
2.Failure in maintaining proper industrial relations.(industrial peace
and harmony)
3.Continuous or accumulated financial losses of industry can lead
to opt for lockout by the management
4.If there is illegal strikes, continuous strikes by workers, it may
lead to lockout of an industry
5.If there is unrest, dispute between workers and workers. For
example workers in the same department having same
experience and education being paid differently a dispute may
arise among them due to payment differences. This can result to
poor work performance leading to inability to achieve
organizational objectives.
Generally lockout is used to enforce terms of
employment upon a group of employees during a
dispute.
A lockout can be used to force unionized workers
to accept changed conditions such as lower wages,
promotion conditions, work hours and so on.
For example if a union is asking for higher wages,
better benefits. An employer may use the threat of
lockout or an actual lockout to convince the union
to back down
WEAPONS USED BY EMPLOYER’S TO GET EMPLOYEES AGREE TO
THEIR CONDITIONS
1.Lockout
2.Strike breakers
3.Relocation: company moves the factory to a location that has a weaker or
non existent union
4.Yellow dog contract: Agreement between employee and employer that
employee will not join a trade union
WEAPONS USED BY EMPLOYEES TO GET THEIR DEMANDS AND
NEEDS ACCEPTED BY THE EMPLOYER
1.Strikes
2.Boycots:Workers and sympathizers refuse to buy the products of a
company which is in a dispute with its workers.
3.Political influence
4.Sabotage: Malicious destruction or willful waste of company properties.
5.Check off: Deduction are regularly taken from workers pay check to cover
union dues
6.Collective bargaining
7.Lobbying: union efforts to influence law makers

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Strikes and lockouts, weapons used by employer and employee, advantages and disadvantages of strike and lockout

  • 1. CONTENTS -Meaning of strike and lockout -Types of strikes -Reasons for strikes and lockouts -Advantages and disadvantages of strikes -Effects of strikes to workers, employer, consumer and the government. -Weapons used by employer to get employees agree to their conditions -Weapons used by employees to get their needs and demands accepted by employer STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  STRIKE A strike is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work whether total or partial stoppage of work due to their dispute with the employer A strike is a very powerful weapon to get employees demand accepted by the management A strike is based on the workers refusing to work in an effect to accomplish financial and personal gain from the employer, it arises due to unsatisfactory employment terms and conditions such as excessive working hours without overtime payments or payment of poor salaries
  • 3. TYPES OF STRIKES  1.PRIMARY STRIKES( FACE TO FACE STRIKES) Primary strikes are generally against employer on whom the dispute exist. They are of the following types (i)Stay away strike: in this strike workmen stay away from workplace. They organize rallies, demonstrations etc. (ii)Stay in or sit down strikes: in this strike workers come to the place, they stay at workplace but they don’t work. (iii)Token or protest strikes: it is of very short duration. in this strike workers do not work for an hour or a day. (iv) Go-slow: in this strike, the workers intentionally reduces the speed of work (V)Lightening or wild cat strike: in this strike, the strike is done without any prior notice or with a shortest notice.
  • 4. SECONDARY STRIKES A secondary strike is a strike by a body of workers for the purpose of supporting a cause or another group of strikers These strikes are sympathetic strikes (describes or shows someone that they understand and care about someone’s (employees) sufferings.
  • 5. REASONS FOR STRIKES  1.LOW PAY Employees may strike due to low pay, they want to be paid fair and equitable remuneration. If they believe that they need to be paid more but the employer does not agree, it may results to strikes Example: striking due to issues of overtime payments, difference in salary pay sometimes for people with the same knowledge. Also in times of inflation, wages a likely to seek increase in salary to maintain their standard of living.
  • 6. 2.BAD WORKING CONDITIONS Employees strike for improvement of their working conditions. Working conditions relates to health and safety at work place. If production tools are not safe, poor or fewer than the actual work to be done daily, if there are fewer or no protection tools such as coats and gloves. Workers may strike to demand sufficient tools needed. 3.DISSATISFACTION ON ISSUES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT/COMPANY POLICIES Dissatisfaction of policies includes policies related to leave entitlement such as sick leave, holiday leave, promotion and redundancy. For example strike due to demand for leave pay; if companies do not pay their employees when they are on leave, or unsatisfactory payment related to leave then workers may strike 4.UNFAIR TERMINATION OF EMPLOYEES If termination of employment is not of proper reasons, such employment termination based on discrimination on color, sex or tribe, termination without following proper procedures , or termination of employees who are exercising labour rights then employees may strike
  • 7. 5.EXCESSIVE WORKING HOURS If employees are working more than established hours set by the government as per industrial relation and labour act, Also if there is no overtime payments for such excessive hours work it will results to strikes 6.NO RESPONSE FROM MANAGEMENT INSPITE OF REFERING A DEMAND AND ISSUING A REMINDER OF A CERTAIN MATTER THAT NEEDS TO BE ADRESSED If there is a dispute between employees and management in which employees believe there is a need for change on a certain matter and management has been notified, reminded of such demand, yet management do nothing( I.e. no response from management). Employees may strike to get their demands settled 7.DIVERTION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING When management goes against the collective agreement between them and employees, it may result to strike. 8.DISCRIMINATION The existence of discrimination highly encourages strikes . Example if part wages were treated more fairly than fulltime wages in terms of payment, wages may strike to demand an equal pay for both fulltime and part time wages
  • 8. 9.AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR OF MANAGER TOWARDS EMPLOYEES. Most managers do not consider employees, they just look on their own side. For example managers may use abusive languages to their employees and sometimes even hit workers that in return create a desire for revenge on workers towards management. Also the behavior of managers to discourage labour unions and their rights contributes towards strike. 10.POOR COMMUNICATION The lack of transparency between management and employees due to levels of hierarchy between them can lead to strike as matters may take time to be solved due to the presence of slower or poor communication between employees and management.
  • 9. ADVANTAGES OF STRIKES  1.IT HELPS WORKERS IN NEGOTIATION Due to strikes employer will be under pressure fearing the impact/results of a strike, hence it will force the employer to negotiate with the trade union in order to provide better deal for workers 2.IMMEDIATE REALIZATION OF WORKER’S DEMAND Through strikes , demands of employees can be full field immediately because employer worries about losses that the company will face due to strike. Example poor company image, lost of sales and profit from the lost output. 3.TO PROTECT WORKERS ABOUT UNFAIR ACTIONS Through strikes workers can prevent themselves about unfair actions. Example; protection against unfair termination, unsatisfactory remuneration and poor working conditions 4.IT BRINGS DEMOCARCY Strikes gives power, authority for workers to plan something. it enable workers to participate in management decision making
  • 10. DISADVANTAGES OF STRIKES/DYSFUNCTIONAL OF STRIKES 1.POOR WORKING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LABOUR Strikes results to poor working relationship, the damaged relationship with the staff/labours may adversely affect motivation and productivity of employees. 2.DISTURBANCE OF PEACE ON A SOCIETY Strike can result to peace disturbance , it may involve engaging the police to ensure that there is no harmful to the society. Individuals may be arrested if they are practicing restricted acts of strikes. Due to strike people’s life are at risk, It can lead to physical injury or death due to violence of strike. 3.IT AFFECT THE ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY Through strike there may be damage to national properties which may need repair in the future. There is also revenue loss to country since the companies no longer continue its activities, hence there will be no wages to employees, Also no production/sales for company hence no taxation for the company
  • 11. 4.TOURISM INDUSTRY AND SMALL BUSINESS ARE AFFECTED Tourists gets bad impression when they see the evil of strikes, tourist may fear for their safety which in turn causes loss of lots of revenue to the country. Small business are also hit by these strikes since they heavily depend on their daily sales or turnover. Due to strikes it will results to loss of sales by these business 5.IT AFFECTS ON THE PROVISION OR AVAILABILITY OF SOCIAL SERVICES Due to strikes there may be problems with transportation system as workers may go in the middle of the roads. This can result to inability of patients not to reach hospitals on time and have horrible outcomes. Also on education side, schools and colleges may be closed due to strike for the fear of safety if the strike is happening near the education institute. 6.IT AFFECTS THE CONSUMERS Due to strike there may be scarcity of goods, rise in prices and effect on the quality of goods 7.THERE IS ADVERSE EFFECT ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE Strike can cause fall of exports and rise in imports 8.Wastage of time
  • 12. EFFECTS/DISADVANTAGES OF STRIKE TO WORKERS 1.LOSS OF WAGES Employees do not work when they are on strike, hence no income generation on their side but simply just small allowances from the union. 2.PHYSICAL INJURY OR DEATH DUE TO VIOLENCE DURING STRIKE During strikes normally people’s live are at risk, a strike often turns into violent protests and people get injured. The injuries may become so serious that results to loss of lives. 3.ADVERSE EFFECT ON CARRIER A strike has an impact on employee’s carrier, employees may be perceived differently with other employers due to the strike. A strike can also lead to potential job losses. 4.Poor relationship between employee and employer 5.Economic losses
  • 13. EFFECTS/DISADVANTAGES OF STRIKES TO EMPLOYER 1.Damages to machines and equipments 2.It impacts the image of the company 3.Poor relationship between employer and employee. The damaged relationship affect the motivation and productivity of employees 4.Decreased profit since there is no production 5.Burden of fixed expenses
  • 14. DISADVANTAGES/EFFECTS OF STRIKE TO CONSUMER 1.Rise in prices 2.Scarcity of goods 3.Bad effect on quality of goods
  • 15. DISADVANTAGES/EFFECT OF STRIKE TO THE GOVERMENT 1.Loss of revenue, i.e income tax and VAT 2.Lack of order in a society 3.Blame by different parties
  • 16. DEFINITION A lockout is a temporary work stoppage of employment initiated by the management of the company during a labour dispute. Factory lockout is the ultimate weapon in the hands of management when uncontrolled situation arise in the factory. The major objective of lockout is to force employees to agree to employer demands. LOCKOUTS
  • 17. REASONS FOR LOCKOUTS 1.Dispute between workers and management. It may arise due to unsatisfied working conditions such as lower bargaining power 2.Failure in maintaining proper industrial relations.(industrial peace and harmony) 3.Continuous or accumulated financial losses of industry can lead to opt for lockout by the management 4.If there is illegal strikes, continuous strikes by workers, it may lead to lockout of an industry 5.If there is unrest, dispute between workers and workers. For example workers in the same department having same experience and education being paid differently a dispute may arise among them due to payment differences. This can result to poor work performance leading to inability to achieve organizational objectives.
  • 18. Generally lockout is used to enforce terms of employment upon a group of employees during a dispute. A lockout can be used to force unionized workers to accept changed conditions such as lower wages, promotion conditions, work hours and so on. For example if a union is asking for higher wages, better benefits. An employer may use the threat of lockout or an actual lockout to convince the union to back down
  • 19. WEAPONS USED BY EMPLOYER’S TO GET EMPLOYEES AGREE TO THEIR CONDITIONS 1.Lockout 2.Strike breakers 3.Relocation: company moves the factory to a location that has a weaker or non existent union 4.Yellow dog contract: Agreement between employee and employer that employee will not join a trade union WEAPONS USED BY EMPLOYEES TO GET THEIR DEMANDS AND NEEDS ACCEPTED BY THE EMPLOYER 1.Strikes 2.Boycots:Workers and sympathizers refuse to buy the products of a company which is in a dispute with its workers. 3.Political influence 4.Sabotage: Malicious destruction or willful waste of company properties. 5.Check off: Deduction are regularly taken from workers pay check to cover union dues 6.Collective bargaining 7.Lobbying: union efforts to influence law makers