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Strategies to promote the development of
     e-competencies in the next generation of professional:
              European and international trends



Dr. Cristóbal Cobo Romaní
SKOPE Visiting Researcher,
University of Oxford

  e-competencies.org




  Social Science Research                         Economic and Social
  Council (SSRC)                              Research Council (ESRC)
1. Knowledge economy demands
                                   a highly qualified labour force.
                                   Why HQ labour force?
                                   2. Relevance of ICT competence
                                   in a broad sense.
                                   What does e-competencies mean?

                                   3. Uneven impact of ICT
                                   in the educational sector.
                                   Do ICTs enrich the students’
                                   ability to learn?
[e-competent professionals 2020]
      :: 8~11 years old 2009 ::
                                   4. Best Practices.
                                    What are the next steps in
                                   e-competencies development?
                                   5. Conclusions
antecedents
labour market & knowledge based-economy:
Soft skills:
1.Knowledge economy demands
                                              a highly qualified labour force.


Relationship between global market and
up- skilled workers:
- Skills gap: Employers cannot find qualified workers.
- Pressure to upgrade the skills of domestic low-qualified workers.

Relationship between qualification and productivity:
- (R) Correlation between investment in the Human Capital and
a country’s future labour productivity & competitiveness.
- (R) Mismatch between skills taught (schools) & demanded (firms).

What are the challenges for the next 5 to 10 years?
- Young people: Being prepared for modern labour markets




       OECD. 2006. Skills Upgrading, New Policy Perspectives. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.   +
1.Knowledge economy demands
                                   a highly qualified labour force.




The Lisbon strategy and Education & Training 2010


-(2010) „Europe should become the most competitive and dynamic
knowledge based economy in the world”.

- Key skills: literacy in reading, mathematics and science; language
skills; ICT skills; civic skills & learning to learn.

                       Technology literacy (knowledgeable
                       workforce, add value, proficient ICT skills).
Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA): 90% World Econ.           1.Knowledge economy demands
60 countries, 5~50K students per country.    a highly qualified labour force.




Toward measuring ICT skills & a range of dynamic tasks.
PISA (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

- Reading, Math., Science & ICT cross-curricular competencies.
definitions
“Technology is invisible and intuitive;
                                    students don’t learn technology” [Oblinger, 2005]




“The workforce now requires employees […] who can recognize what
kind of information matters, why it matters, and how it connects and
applies to other information […] It is an emphasis on what students can
do with knowledge, rather than what units of knowledge they have”
                                                                 [Education sector, Silva, 2008].
e-competencies:                                                    - European e-competence Framework:
 Capabilities to manage                                   ICT user skills + e-Business skills + ICT Practitioner
 tacit and explicit
                                                                                                          - OECD:
 knowledge, enhanced                                                Basic skills + Advance skills + Specialist skills
 by the utilization of
                                                                      - ECDL/Council of European Professional
 ICT and the strategic                                                          Informatics Societies (CEPIS):
 use of information.                                                                           ICT practitioner /
                                                                                           ICT end-users-skills /
                                                                                              e-business skills /
 E-competence goes
 beyond the use of any
 specific ICT, it also
 includes working                                                                (underlying concepts)
 collaboratively, to
 constantly innovate and                                        -e-awareness (understanding)
 create new ideas while                                         -technological literacy (use ICT)
 facing problems in                                             -informational literacy(assess & use critically)
 unknown contexts.                                              -digital literacy (manage, integrate, create, share)
                                                                -media literacy (merging & message)
(Gilster, 1997; Peña, 2009; Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1989; CEDEFOP, 2004; Educational Testing Service, 2003;
Pernia 2008; OECD, 2007; Becta, 2009; UNESCO, 2008; Boles, 2009; Jenkins, 2008; Media Literacy, 2009 and Hjørland, 2008)
e-competence:
underlying concepts




                           E-Awareness:
                           Understanding framework
                           (knowledge-based-society).
                           Lifelong learning. ICT as a medium.
                           Digital Citizenship (legal & ethical).

 Informational Literacy:                                Technological Literacy:
 Read with meaning.                                     Confident & critical operation of ICT.
 Assess (reliability & quality).                        (information storage & management).
 Connect & critically use the information in            Acquired in a formal environment (ECDL)
 different formats depending on the context.            informal ways (self-learning or mates).




                                                       Media Literacy:
Digital Literacy:                                      Understanding how traditional
Integration of instrumental skills (information
                                                       mass media & digital media are merging
management) & strategic skills (critical
thinking). Create, adapt & share [R,M&B]               (new media landscape).
information/knowledge in multiple formats .            How are they adopting new formats
                                                       (implications).
research & trends
Reviewing of the primary curriculum in England.
How to raise standards in reading, writing and numeracy?

ICT as key element alongside literacy and maths.

+ “ICT is not yet providing value for money in
many schools” (Rose, 2008).
+ ICTs are not being employed appropriately to
support students' learning.

+ Currently only one in four primary schools is
taking full advantage of the ICT in the classroom.



       “Putting computers into schools has no measurable effect on children's learning
   [...] The political impetus behind ICT in schools is obvious. Politicians like a quick fix to every problem.
                                                    Spending a few millions on computers is relatively easy,
                   compared with tackling real problems in education. (02 May 2009. www.telegraph.co.uk)
Research:




 Territory size shows the proportion of all spending on primary education
  worldwide that is spent there (University of Michigan, 2002)




Critical & comparative studies                                              “access” to ICTs at school
Evaluating the impact of ICT in education                                            “use” of the ICT &
Current investigations (2001-2009)                                           “learning performance” of
Credibility (OECD, WB, EU)                                                                    students.
impact of ICT in education




“Access” (macro indicator) (e.g. number of computers, students per computer, average of Internet connection).
 “Use” (micro indicator) (e.g. type of use of the ICT, learning outcomes, place where the ICT is used).
“The results show no
  evidence that Internet
  investment had any
  measurable effect on
  student achievement”
      Goolsbee, A. and Guryan, J. (2005)
      “The Impact of Internet Subsidies in Public Schools”.
      University of Chicago.

USA
“Increasing levels of
   computers access does
   not bring about more
   learning experiences”.

     International Association for the Evaluation of Educational
     Achievement (2006). IEA SITES

22 Countries
“There is no consistent
   relationship between
   the mere availability
   or use of ICT and
   student learning”.
  The World Bank (2005) Monitoring & Evaluation of ICT in Education Projects.


Developing Countries
It is interesting to see
    (PISA, 2006) Finland
    and Sweden among
    the lowest users of
    ICT in Europe.
     European Commission (2008).
     The Education and Training Contribution to the Lisbon Strategy.




EU, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA and Korea
“Principals reported that
    less than half of
    teachers use computer
    applications, about
    four teachers in ten
    use the Internet”.
     OECD (2004).
     Completing the Foundation for Lifelong Learning.
     An OECD survey of upper secondary schools.
15 countires
“Computers in
  classroom have been
  oversold by promotors
  and policymakers and
  underused by teachers
  and students”.
      Cuban, L. (2001)
      Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom.
      Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
USA
“Connecting schools to the
  Internet, providing
  courseware and access to
  digital resources, and
  training teachers have not
  brought about the
  pedagogical innovations”
   Rosado and Bélisle (2006).
   Analysing Digital Literacy Frameworks.
   A European Framework for Digital Literacy.

EU & Australia
“The PISA evidence [...]
  particularly strong
  association of
  performance with
  home access & usage“.
   OECD (2005).
   Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World?
   What PISA Studies Tell Us.


41 Countries
“The highest performances
 in PISA 2003 were seen
 among those students
 with a medium level of
 computer use rather than
 among those using
 computers the most”.
    OECD (2005).
   Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World?
   What PISA Studies Tell Us.
41 Countries
“Use of ICT in education
 and training has been a
 priority in most European
 countries over the past
 decade, but progress has
 been patchy”.
   European Commission (2008).
   The Education and Training Contribution to the Lisbon Strategy.


EU, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA and Korea
“There is no evidence,
   however, that
   increased educational
   use of computers
   actually raised pupil
   test scores”.
     Angrist and Lavy (2002) “New evidence on classroom computers and pupil
     learning”. MIT & NBER, Hebrew University, 2002

Israel
bell curve




     Korte & Hüsing (2006) Benchmarking Access and
                      Use of ICT in European Schools




    “Some of the initial enthusiasm for
some of these activities is on the wane”
                           (Becta, 2006)



                          ICT and e-learning in further education:
        management, learning and improvement. A report on the
   further education sector’s engagement with technology. 2006.
                                                           Becta.
“Yet the educational consequences of the full




                                                                                      OECD. 2004
            use of ICT are far from clear […]
    The impact of new technology in schools
           ultimately relies on how it is used”




                                                              Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World?
                                               (Programme for International Students Assessment. OCDE, 2008).
    The frequency of ICTs does not determine
                       students performance.
[ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. UNESCO, 2008].




                                          There is a lack of coordination between
                                                the adoption of technology in the
                                         classroom and the embracing of flexible
                                      and innovative teaching-learning strategies.
best practices
Strategies to promote the development of e-competencies
Illustrator: Allan Stochholm




                                                                                   e-competencies agend
                               + Re-think the curriculum:
                               Stimulating higher-order thinking skills.
                               Invisible ICT. Adding other contexts of learning.

                               + New assessments:
                               Contextual & adaptive testing (e.g. creativity)
                               Not testing software but the use of information.


                                + Non-formal & informal learning:
                                ICTs as flexible tools for daily life.
                                Validating informal competencies.

                                + Bottom-up:
                                Participatory decision-making of
                                what kind of technology to adopt.


Dan Perjovschi
Illustrator: Allan Stochholm




                                                                            e-competencies agend
                               + Up-Skilling students:
                               Self-confidence. Information literacy. IP.
                               Encouraging peer learning.

                               + Teacher ICT standard:
                               Definition & adoption of e-competencies.
                               Consistency. Transitional. Updating.

                               + Pedagogical skills:
                               Know how to pedagogically integrate ICT.
                               Casual use of ICT. Promote networking.




Dan Perjovschi
conclusion
teach less, learn more...”
1. Access to & the use of ICT are no guarantees
for increased achievement of students.
2. e-maturity will not arrive without major
changes and improvements (collaboration of
e-competent policymakers, educators & employers).


3. 21st century labour market demands to
rethink creatively the way that individuals learn
and deal with information & knowledge.
4. Innovative Nordic Understanding of ICT:
Norway: 69% users acquired their ICT skills by
self-, informal learning.
Finland: 5,000 Net Geners will train teachers in
how to use computer.




                                                          “
teach less, learn more...”
5. Move from the digital divide [technology-centred]
towards the knowledge divide [learning-centred].

6. Technology evolves continuously 
Updating the definition of e-competencies.

7. New studies: Longitudinal. Critical.
Trans-nationals. Evidence-based policy.
(e.g. certify the informally acquired skills).



8. There is no such quot;one-size-fits-allquot; strategy
to embed innovation in the classroom from
one day to another.




                                                             “
Dr. Cristóbal Cobo Romaní. SKOPE Visiting Researcher.   e-competencies.org

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Strategies to promote the development of e-competencies

  • 1. Strategies to promote the development of e-competencies in the next generation of professional: European and international trends Dr. Cristóbal Cobo Romaní SKOPE Visiting Researcher, University of Oxford e-competencies.org Social Science Research Economic and Social Council (SSRC) Research Council (ESRC)
  • 2. 1. Knowledge economy demands a highly qualified labour force. Why HQ labour force? 2. Relevance of ICT competence in a broad sense. What does e-competencies mean? 3. Uneven impact of ICT in the educational sector. Do ICTs enrich the students’ ability to learn? [e-competent professionals 2020] :: 8~11 years old 2009 :: 4. Best Practices. What are the next steps in e-competencies development? 5. Conclusions
  • 4. labour market & knowledge based-economy:
  • 6. 1.Knowledge economy demands a highly qualified labour force. Relationship between global market and up- skilled workers: - Skills gap: Employers cannot find qualified workers. - Pressure to upgrade the skills of domestic low-qualified workers. Relationship between qualification and productivity: - (R) Correlation between investment in the Human Capital and a country’s future labour productivity & competitiveness. - (R) Mismatch between skills taught (schools) & demanded (firms). What are the challenges for the next 5 to 10 years? - Young people: Being prepared for modern labour markets OECD. 2006. Skills Upgrading, New Policy Perspectives. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. +
  • 7. 1.Knowledge economy demands a highly qualified labour force. The Lisbon strategy and Education & Training 2010 -(2010) „Europe should become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world”. - Key skills: literacy in reading, mathematics and science; language skills; ICT skills; civic skills & learning to learn. Technology literacy (knowledgeable workforce, add value, proficient ICT skills).
  • 8. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): 90% World Econ. 1.Knowledge economy demands 60 countries, 5~50K students per country. a highly qualified labour force. Toward measuring ICT skills & a range of dynamic tasks. PISA (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) - Reading, Math., Science & ICT cross-curricular competencies.
  • 10. “Technology is invisible and intuitive; students don’t learn technology” [Oblinger, 2005] “The workforce now requires employees […] who can recognize what kind of information matters, why it matters, and how it connects and applies to other information […] It is an emphasis on what students can do with knowledge, rather than what units of knowledge they have” [Education sector, Silva, 2008].
  • 11. e-competencies: - European e-competence Framework: Capabilities to manage ICT user skills + e-Business skills + ICT Practitioner tacit and explicit - OECD: knowledge, enhanced Basic skills + Advance skills + Specialist skills by the utilization of - ECDL/Council of European Professional ICT and the strategic Informatics Societies (CEPIS): use of information. ICT practitioner / ICT end-users-skills / e-business skills / E-competence goes beyond the use of any specific ICT, it also includes working (underlying concepts) collaboratively, to constantly innovate and -e-awareness (understanding) create new ideas while -technological literacy (use ICT) facing problems in -informational literacy(assess & use critically) unknown contexts. -digital literacy (manage, integrate, create, share) -media literacy (merging & message) (Gilster, 1997; Peña, 2009; Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1989; CEDEFOP, 2004; Educational Testing Service, 2003; Pernia 2008; OECD, 2007; Becta, 2009; UNESCO, 2008; Boles, 2009; Jenkins, 2008; Media Literacy, 2009 and Hjørland, 2008)
  • 12. e-competence: underlying concepts E-Awareness: Understanding framework (knowledge-based-society). Lifelong learning. ICT as a medium. Digital Citizenship (legal & ethical). Informational Literacy: Technological Literacy: Read with meaning. Confident & critical operation of ICT. Assess (reliability & quality). (information storage & management). Connect & critically use the information in Acquired in a formal environment (ECDL) different formats depending on the context. informal ways (self-learning or mates). Media Literacy: Digital Literacy: Understanding how traditional Integration of instrumental skills (information mass media & digital media are merging management) & strategic skills (critical thinking). Create, adapt & share [R,M&B] (new media landscape). information/knowledge in multiple formats . How are they adopting new formats (implications).
  • 14. Reviewing of the primary curriculum in England. How to raise standards in reading, writing and numeracy? ICT as key element alongside literacy and maths. + “ICT is not yet providing value for money in many schools” (Rose, 2008). + ICTs are not being employed appropriately to support students' learning. + Currently only one in four primary schools is taking full advantage of the ICT in the classroom. “Putting computers into schools has no measurable effect on children's learning [...] The political impetus behind ICT in schools is obvious. Politicians like a quick fix to every problem. Spending a few millions on computers is relatively easy, compared with tackling real problems in education. (02 May 2009. www.telegraph.co.uk)
  • 15. Research: Territory size shows the proportion of all spending on primary education worldwide that is spent there (University of Michigan, 2002) Critical & comparative studies “access” to ICTs at school Evaluating the impact of ICT in education “use” of the ICT & Current investigations (2001-2009) “learning performance” of Credibility (OECD, WB, EU) students.
  • 16. impact of ICT in education “Access” (macro indicator) (e.g. number of computers, students per computer, average of Internet connection). “Use” (micro indicator) (e.g. type of use of the ICT, learning outcomes, place where the ICT is used).
  • 17. “The results show no evidence that Internet investment had any measurable effect on student achievement” Goolsbee, A. and Guryan, J. (2005) “The Impact of Internet Subsidies in Public Schools”. University of Chicago. USA
  • 18. “Increasing levels of computers access does not bring about more learning experiences”. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (2006). IEA SITES 22 Countries
  • 19. “There is no consistent relationship between the mere availability or use of ICT and student learning”. The World Bank (2005) Monitoring & Evaluation of ICT in Education Projects. Developing Countries
  • 20. It is interesting to see (PISA, 2006) Finland and Sweden among the lowest users of ICT in Europe. European Commission (2008). The Education and Training Contribution to the Lisbon Strategy. EU, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA and Korea
  • 21. “Principals reported that less than half of teachers use computer applications, about four teachers in ten use the Internet”. OECD (2004). Completing the Foundation for Lifelong Learning. An OECD survey of upper secondary schools. 15 countires
  • 22. “Computers in classroom have been oversold by promotors and policymakers and underused by teachers and students”. Cuban, L. (2001) Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. USA
  • 23. “Connecting schools to the Internet, providing courseware and access to digital resources, and training teachers have not brought about the pedagogical innovations” Rosado and Bélisle (2006). Analysing Digital Literacy Frameworks. A European Framework for Digital Literacy. EU & Australia
  • 24. “The PISA evidence [...] particularly strong association of performance with home access & usage“. OECD (2005). Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World? What PISA Studies Tell Us. 41 Countries
  • 25. “The highest performances in PISA 2003 were seen among those students with a medium level of computer use rather than among those using computers the most”. OECD (2005). Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World? What PISA Studies Tell Us. 41 Countries
  • 26. “Use of ICT in education and training has been a priority in most European countries over the past decade, but progress has been patchy”. European Commission (2008). The Education and Training Contribution to the Lisbon Strategy. EU, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA and Korea
  • 27. “There is no evidence, however, that increased educational use of computers actually raised pupil test scores”. Angrist and Lavy (2002) “New evidence on classroom computers and pupil learning”. MIT & NBER, Hebrew University, 2002 Israel
  • 28. bell curve Korte & Hüsing (2006) Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in European Schools “Some of the initial enthusiasm for some of these activities is on the wane” (Becta, 2006) ICT and e-learning in further education: management, learning and improvement. A report on the further education sector’s engagement with technology. 2006. Becta.
  • 29. “Yet the educational consequences of the full OECD. 2004 use of ICT are far from clear […] The impact of new technology in schools ultimately relies on how it is used” Are Students Ready for a Technology-Rich World? (Programme for International Students Assessment. OCDE, 2008). The frequency of ICTs does not determine students performance.
  • 30. [ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. UNESCO, 2008]. There is a lack of coordination between the adoption of technology in the classroom and the embracing of flexible and innovative teaching-learning strategies.
  • 33. Illustrator: Allan Stochholm e-competencies agend + Re-think the curriculum: Stimulating higher-order thinking skills. Invisible ICT. Adding other contexts of learning. + New assessments: Contextual & adaptive testing (e.g. creativity) Not testing software but the use of information. + Non-formal & informal learning: ICTs as flexible tools for daily life. Validating informal competencies. + Bottom-up: Participatory decision-making of what kind of technology to adopt. Dan Perjovschi
  • 34. Illustrator: Allan Stochholm e-competencies agend + Up-Skilling students: Self-confidence. Information literacy. IP. Encouraging peer learning. + Teacher ICT standard: Definition & adoption of e-competencies. Consistency. Transitional. Updating. + Pedagogical skills: Know how to pedagogically integrate ICT. Casual use of ICT. Promote networking. Dan Perjovschi
  • 36. teach less, learn more...” 1. Access to & the use of ICT are no guarantees for increased achievement of students. 2. e-maturity will not arrive without major changes and improvements (collaboration of e-competent policymakers, educators & employers). 3. 21st century labour market demands to rethink creatively the way that individuals learn and deal with information & knowledge. 4. Innovative Nordic Understanding of ICT: Norway: 69% users acquired their ICT skills by self-, informal learning. Finland: 5,000 Net Geners will train teachers in how to use computer. “
  • 37. teach less, learn more...” 5. Move from the digital divide [technology-centred] towards the knowledge divide [learning-centred]. 6. Technology evolves continuously  Updating the definition of e-competencies. 7. New studies: Longitudinal. Critical. Trans-nationals. Evidence-based policy. (e.g. certify the informally acquired skills). 8. There is no such quot;one-size-fits-allquot; strategy to embed innovation in the classroom from one day to another. “
  • 38. Dr. Cristóbal Cobo Romaní. SKOPE Visiting Researcher. e-competencies.org