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Strategic Management ... 100 Slides Powered by  www.drawpack.com . All rights reserved. Export Licensing / Foreign subsidiary Joint venture Licensing / Joint venture Foreign branch Joint venture Foreign branch High Low Low High PRODUCT DIVERSITY MARKET COMPLEXITY
Strategic Pyramid  –  Strategic Vision  –  Strategy Alternatives  –  Five Forces Model  –  Competitive Advantage  –  Generic Strategies  –  Growth Strategies  –  Diversification Strategy  –  BCG Matrix  –  GE Business Screen  –  Cost Strategies  –  Exit/Entry Barriers  –  Resource Analysis  –  Core Competencies  –  Product-Life-Cycle  –  Top-Down-Management  –  Industry Analysis  –  International Strategies  –  SWOT Analysis  –  Portfolio Analysis  –  McKinsey’s 7-S Framework  –  Five-Phase Growth Model  –  Strategy Development  –  Merger&Acquisitions  –  Technology Strategies  –  Value Propositions  –  Ansoff Matrix  –  Experience Curve  –  Strategic Options  –  Window of Opportunity   Key Words ...
The Five Tasks of Strategic Management Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Developing a strategic vision and business mission Setting objectives Crafting a strategy to achieve the objectives Implementing and executing the strategy Evaluating performance, monitoring new developments,  and initiating corrective adjustments Revise as needed Revise as needed Improve/ change as needed Recycle to tasks 1, 2, 3 or 4 as needed Improve/ change as needed
Strategic Approaches to Preparing for Future Market Conditions Rushing to catch up to keep from  being swamped by the waves Aggressively altering strategy to make waves and  drive change Revising strategy to catch the waves An ti cipating change and initiating strategic actions to ride the crest of the waves COMPANY APPROACHES FUTURE MARKET CONDITIONS Reactive/Follower Proactive/Leader Rapid Revolutionary Change Gradual Evolutionary Change
The Strategic-Making Pyramid  I Corporate Strategy Business Strategies Functional Strategies (R & D, manufacturing, marketing, finance, human re s our c es, etc.) Operating Strategies (regions and districts, plants, departments within functional areas) Responsibility of corporate-level managers Responsibility of business-level general managers Responsibility of heads of major functional activities within a business unit or division Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and lower- level supervisors Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence A DIVERSIFIED COMPANY
The Strategic-Making Pyramid  II Business Strategy Functional Strategies (R & D, manufacturing, marketing, finance, human re s ources, etc.) Responsibility of executive-level managers Responsibility of heads  of major functional activities within a  business Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and lower- level supervisors Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence A SINGLE – BUSINESS COMPANY Operating Strategies (regions and districts, plants, departments within functional areas)
Identifying Strategy for a Single Business Efforts to build competitive advantage Planned, proactive moves to outcompete rivals Moves to respond and react to changing conditions in the macroenvironment and in industry and competitive conditions Scope of geographic  coverage Collaborative partnerships and strategic alliances  with others Financial strategy Human resources strategy Sales,  marketing, promotion &  distribution strategies Manufacturing strategy Supply chain management strategy R & D,  technology, engineering strategy BUSINESS STRATEGY Key functional strategies to build competitively valuable recource strengths and capabilities
The Networking of Strategic Visions, Missions, Objectives, and Strategies Overall Corporate Scope and Strategic Vision Corporate-Level Objectives Corporate-Level Strategy Business-Level Strategic Vision and Mission Business-Level Objectives Business-Level Strategy Functional Area Missions Functional Objectives Functional Strategies Operating Unit Missions Operating Unit Objectives Operating Strategies Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence LEVEL 1 Responsibility of  corporate-level managers LEVEL 2 Responsibility of  business-level general managers LEVEL 3 Responsibility of heads of major functional  activities within a  business unit or division LEVEL 4 Responsibility of plant  managers, geographic unit managers, and managers of front-line operating units
Factors Shaping the Choice of Company Strategy STRATEGY-SHAPING FACTORS EXTERNAL TO THE COMPANY STRATEGY-SHAPING FACTORS INTERNAL TO THE COMPANY The mix of considerations that determines a company‘s strategic situation Conclusions concerning how internal & external factors stack up Identification and evaluation of strategy alternatives Crafting a  strategy that fits the overall situation Economic social, political, regulatory and community citizenship considerations Competitive conditions and overall industry attractiveness Company opportunities and threats to the company‘s well-being Company resource strengths,  weaknesses, competencies, competitive capabilities Personal ambitions, business philosophies,  ethical principles of  key executives Shared values and  company culture
A Company‘s Macroenvironment COMPANY Substitute Buyers New Entrants Rival Firms Suppliers IMMEDIATE INDUSTRY  & COMPETITVE ENVIRONMENT MACROENVIRONMENT The Economy at large Social Values and Lifestyles Population demographics Technology Legislation and regulations
The Five-Forces Model of Competition RIVALRY AMONG COMPETING SELLERS Potential  New Entrants Buyers Suppliers of raw materials, parts,  components or  other resource inputs Firms in other industries offering  Substitute Products
Mobilizing Company Resources to Produce Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage Strategic Assets and Market Achievements Core and Distinctive Competencies Competitive Capabilities Company Resources
Representative Company Value Chain Purchased Supplies and Inbound Logistics Operations Distribution and  Outbound Logistics Sales and Marketing Service Profit  Margin Product R & D, Technology and Systems Development Human Resources Management General Administration Support Activities and Costs Primary Activities and Costs
Representative Value Chain for an Entire Industry Activities, Costs, and  Margins of  Suppliers Activities,  Costs and Margins of Forward Channel Allies and  Strategic Partners Buyer/End User Value Chains Internally Performed Activities, Costs and Margins Supplier-Related Value Chains Company Value Chain Distribution Related Value Chains Customer Related Value Chains
The Five Generic Competitive Strategies Overall Low-Cost Leadership Strategy Broad Differentiation Strategy Focused Low-Cost Strategy Focused Differentiation Strategy Best-Cost Provider Strategy A Narrow Buyer-Segment (or Market Niche) A Broad Cross-Section of Buyers Lower Cost Differentiation TYPE OF COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE BEING PURSUED MARKET  TARGET
The Building and Eroding of Competitive Advantage Strategic moves are successful in producing a competitive advantage Size of advantage achieved Imitation, duplication, and „attacks“ by rivals erode the advantage Buildup Period Benefit Period Erosion Period Size of Competitive Advantage Time
Strategy Options for Local Companies in Competing against Global Challengers Dodge Rivals by shifting to  a new Business Model or Market Niche Contend on a  Global Level Defend by using „ Home-Field“ Advantages Transfer  Company Expertise to Cross-Border Markets Tailored for home Market Transferable to  other Countries High Low RESOURCES AND COMPETITIVE CAPABILITIES INDUSTRY PRESSURES TO GLOBALIZE
The Three Strategy Horizons for Sustaining Rapid Growth  „ Short-Jump“ initiative to fortify  and extend current businesses  Immediate gains in revenues and profits  „ Medium-Jump“ initiatives to leverage existing resources and capabilities to  pursue growth in  new businesses  Moderate revenue and profit gains now, but foundation laid  for sizable gains over next 2-5 years  „ Long-Jump“ initiatives to sow the seeds for growth in in businesses of  the future  Minimal revenue gains now and likely losses, but potential for significant contribution to revenues and profits in 5-10 years Portfolio of  Strategy Initiatives Strategy Horizon 1 Strategy Horizon 2 Strategy Horizon 3 Time
Value Chains for Related Businesses Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and  Marketing Distribution Customer Service Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and  Marketing Distribution Customer Service Competitively valuable opportunities for  technology  or  skills transfer ,  cost reduction, common brand name usage , and  cross-business collaboration  exist at  one  or  more  points along the value chains of A and B. Support Activities Support Activities Representative Value Chain Activities Business A Business B
Value Chains for Unrelated Businesses Support Activities Support Activities Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and  Marketing Distribution Customer Service Technology Operations Sales and  Marketing Distribution Customer Service An absence of competitively valuable strategic fits between the value chain for Business A and the value chain for Business B Business A Business B Supply Chain Activities Representative Value Chain Activities
Strategy Options for a Company that is Already Diversified  To build positions in new related/ unrelated industries  To strengthen the position of business units in industries where the firm  already has a stake Make New Acquisitions and/or Enter into Additional Strategic Partnerships  To narrow the company‘s business  base and scope of operations  To eliminate weak-performing businesses from portfolio  To eliminate businesses that no  longer fit Divest Some of the Company‘s Existing Business  By selling poorly performing or noncore business units  By using cash from divestitures plus unused debt capacity to make new acquisitions Restructuring the Company‘s  Portfolio of Businesses  To succeed in globally competitive core businesses against international rivals  To capture strategic fit benefits and win a competitive advantage via  multinational diversification Become a Multinational, Multi-Industry Enterprise Strategy Options for a  Diversified Company
Identifying a Diversified Company‘s Strategy – What to Look for A Diversified Company‘s Strategy Approach to allocating investment capital and resources across business units Whether diversification is based narrowly in a  few industries or broadly in many industries Whether the businesses the  company has diversified into are related, unrelated, or a  mixture of both Whether the scope of company operations is mostly domestic, increasingly multinational or global Moves to strengthen positions in existing businesses via new acquisitions Moves to build positions in new industries via  acquisitions, merger, internal start-up, or alliances Moves to divest weak or unattractive businesses Efforts to capture cross-business strategic fits
A Representative Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix Business C Business E Strong Average High Low Business F Business A Business B Business D Weak Medium Low priority for investment Medium priority for investment High priority for investment COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS/BUSINESS POSITION LONG-TERM INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
The Eight Big Managerial Components of Implementing Strategy Exercising the strategic leadership needed to drive implementation forward Building an organisation  with competencies,  capabilities, and resource  strengths Allocating ample resources to  strategy-critical activities Establishing strategy- supportive policies Instituting best practices and pushing for  continuous improvement Installing  information, communication, and operating systems Tyring rewards and incentives to the achievement  of key strategic  targets Shaping the work environment  and corporate culture  to fit the strategy The Strategy implementer‘s  action agenda  What to do now vs. later    What requires much time and personal attention    What can be delegated to others
The Components of Building a Capable Organization Staffing the Organization  Putting together a strong management team  Recruiting and retaining talented employees Building Core Competencies and Competitive Capabilities  Developing a competence/capability portfolio suited  to current strategy  Updating and reshaping the portfolio as external  conditions and strategy change Structuring the Organization and Work Effort  Organizing business functions and processes, value chain activities, and decision making AN  ORGANIZATION CAPABLE  OF GOOD STRATEGY EXECUTION
Value Chain  (as a Percent of Total Price to the Consumer) Purchasing Production R & D Sales & Marketing Price to Consumer 45 18 6 31 100 31% 69% Value added related to distribution and marketing Value added related to supply and assembly
Why do Mergers Fail? Focusing on the old organizational chart rather than new business processes START Excessive competition for leading positions Conflicting goals among newly merged departments (76% of surveyed companies only focused on cost reductions) Disregard for the needs of employees  (61% of the companies  surveyed defined reduction in  headcount as the main goal  to produce quick success) Disregard for change in the process of integrating in new partner  (only 32% had an active risk  management in place) Concepts for integration are not detailed enough.  The acquired company is  supposed to accept the company culture of the  purchaser Length of the integration process  (86% of companies admitted  having inadequate communication channels) FINISH
The Value Chain Supplier Value Chains Channel Value Chains Buyer Value Chains Supplier Value Chains Channel Value Chains Buyer Value Chains Supplier Value Chains Business Unit Value Chain Business Unit Value Chain Business Unit Value Chain Single-Industry Firm Diversified Firm Firm Value Chain
The Generic Value Chain Marketing Management Advertising Sales Force Administration Sales Force Operations Technical Literature Promotion INBOUND LOGISTICS OPERATIONS OUTBOUND LOGISTICS MARKETING & SALES SERVICE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROCUREMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE MARGIN
Risks of the Generic Strategies Risks of Cost Leadership Risks of Cost Differentiation Risks of Cost Focus Cost leadership is not sustained  competitors imitate  technology changes  other bases for costs leadership erode Proximity in differentiation is lost Cost focuses achieve even lower cost in segments Differentiation is not sustained  competitors imitate  bases for differentiation become less important to buyers Cost proximity is lost Differentiation focuses achieve even greater differentiation in segments The focus strategy is imitated The target segment becomes structurally unattractive  structure erodes  demand disappears Broadly targeted competitors overwhelm the segment  the segment‘s differences from other segments narrow  the advantages of a broad line increase New focuses subsegment the industry
Three Generic Strategies 1. Cost Leadership 2. Differentiation 3A. Cost Focus 3B. Differentiation Focus Broad Target Narrow Target Lower Cost Differentiation COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE SCOPE
Operational Effectiveness Versus Strategic Positioning High Low High Low RELATIV COST POSITION NONPRICE BUYER VALUE DELIVERED Productivity Frontier
Competitor Configuration and Industry Stability Modest share difference needed for stability Large share difference needed for stability EXTENT OF DIFFERENTIATION/SEGMENTATION COMPETITORS Good  Competitions Bad Competitions Low High
Shared Value Activities and Cost Position Potentially important if cost behavior changes Unimportant interrelationships Strategic interrelationships Potentially important if cost structure changes High High Low Low PERCENTAGE OF OPERATING COSTS OR ASSETS  REPRESENTED BY THE VALUE ACTIVITY SENSITIVITY TO SCALE, LEARNING, OR UTILIZATION IN THE VALUE ACTIVITY
Alternative Scope of Leader and Challenger Strategies I Local Regional Segment Related Industries National Industry Global INDUSTRY SCOPE GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE Leader Scope Possible Challenger Scope
Alternative Scope of Leader and Challenger Strategies II More Extensive Backward Integration Average Integration Segment Related Industries More Extensive Forward  Integration Industry INDUSTRY SCOPE VERTICAL SCOPE Leader Scope Possible Challenger Scope
The Wheel of Competitive Strategy Product Line Target Market Marketing Sales Distribution Manufacturing Labor Purchasing R & D Finance and Control GOALS Definition of  how the business is  going to  compete Objectives for profitability, growth, market share, social responsiveness etc.
Barriers and Profitability Low, risky returns High, stable returns EXIT BARRIERS ENTRY BARRIERS Low High Low High Low, stable returns High, risky returns
Generic Competitive Strategies Return on  Investment Market Share
Firm‘s Strategic Needs to Remain in the Business Favorable Industry Structure for Decline Unfavorable Industry Structure for Decline Has Strengths Relative to Competitors for Remaining Pockets Lacks Strengths Relative to Competitors for Remaining Pockets Harvest or Divest Quickly Niche or Harvest Leadership or Niche Divest Quickly
Five Forces Determining Segment Structural Attractiveness High Low Medium High Medium Low Build Hold Harvest Industry Attractiveness Business Unit Position ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Quest for Competitiveness The Quest for Competitiveness Reengineering Process and  Continuous Improvement Reinventing Industries and  Regenerating Strategies Restructuring the Portfolio and Downsizing Headcount Smaller Better Different
Finding the Limits of the Current Economic Engine Concept of  „ Served Market“ Revenue and Margin Structure Configuration of Skills and Assets Flexibility and Adaptiveness What customers and needs aren‘t  we serving? Could profits be extracted at a different  point in the value chain? Might customers‘ needs be better served by an alternate  configuration of skills and assets? What is our  vulnerability  to „ new rules of the game?“
Beyond „Customer-Led“ Unexploited Opportunities Articulated Unarticulated Served Unserved CUSTOMER TYPES NEEDS
Why do Great Companies Fail? Unparalleled track record of success No gap between expectations and performance Contentment with current performance Accumulation of abundant resources A view that  resources will win out Resources substitute for creativity Optimized business system Deeply etched recipes Vulnerability to new rules Success confirms strategy Momentum is mistaken for leadership Failure to  „ reinvent leadership“ INABILITY TO ESCAPE THE PAST! INABILITY TO INVENT THE FUTURE!
Categories of Resource Leverage Concentrating Conserving Recovering Complementing Accumulating
Managing Migration Paths Creating and Managing Coalitions Learning and Experimentation in the Market Investing in Core Competencies Building Global Brand and Distribution Setting Standards and Influencing Regulation
Establishing the Core Competence Agenda Existing New New Existing Fill in the blanks What is the opportunity to improve our position in existing markets by better leveraging our existing core competencies? White spaces What new products  or services could we  create by creatively  redeploying or  recombining our  current core  competencies? Mega-opportunities What new core  competencies would we need to build to  participate in the most exciting markets of the  future? Premier plus 10 What new core  competencies will we need to build to  protect and extend  our franchise in  current markets? CORE COMPETENCIES MARKET
An Alternate Conception of the Diversified Firm Banner Brand Business Units Core Products (Platforms) Core Competencies
Criteria for Integration Decisions Setup Costs Transaction Costs Coordination Effectiveness Risk Capital (e.g., equipment, acquisitions) Systems development Training Information collection and  processing Legal Sales and purchasing Possibility for unreasonable price changes Supply or  outlet foreclosure Insulation from market (e.g., from technical changes, new products) Run lengths, inventory levels Capacity  utilization Delivery performance Quality
Vertical Market Structures Many One Few One Few Many High  trading risk Sellers dominate No one dominates Buyers dominate NUMBER OF BUYERS NUMBER  OF SELLERS
Transaction-Asset Matrix Detailed, standardized contracts (e.g., office lease, credit sale arrangements) Seldom Often Low High ASSET SPECIFICITY, DURABILITY, AND INDENSITY TRANSACTION FREQUENCY Standardized transactions (e.g., groceries) Detailed, probably unique contract (e.g., major public construction projects) Vertical integration (e.g., bauxite,  specialized auto  components)
Primary Influence Processes Suppliers Government Agencies and  Administrators Financial Intermediaries Activist Groups Competitors Customers Unions Local Communities OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Global Economic  Forces Sociocultural Forces Global Political/Legal Forces Technological Change The Organization BROAD ENVIRONMENT
The Product Life Cycle Introduction Growth Maturity Commodity or Decline Time Unit Sales Volume Note: A = Moderate Growth, B = Commodity, C = Decline A B C
Internal Venturing Alternatives Unrelated Related Important Not important No Control/ No Operational Coupling Complete Spinoff High Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Direct Integration High Control/ No Operational Coupling Special Business Units No Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Nurturing and Contracting STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OPERATIONAL IMPORTANCE
The Boston Consulting Group Matrix Stars Cash Cows Question Marks Dogs RELATIVE COMPETITIVE POSITION  (RELATIVE MARKET SHARE) BUSINESS GROWTH RATE 10X 4X  2X1.5X 1X .5X .2X .1X 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%
The General Electric Business Screen Low High Medium Strong Average Weak COMPETITIVE POSITION INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
The Top-Down Control Cycle Ownership of Accounting Information empowers Top Management to plan, analyze, and transmit instructions to the Workforce who manipulate processes and cajole customers to achieve accounting Results Feedback Read down from here
The Bottom-Up Empowerment Cycle Satisfying Customers to learn and make changes that continuously improve processes capable of Workforce to be responsive (listen) and flexible (change quickly) by empowering the Companies to choose among global  opportunities and requires Customers empowers Ownership of Information Feedback Read up from here
The Internal Diversification Process Diversification Decision Desire to expand into a broad area acceptable to key stakeholders Search and Idea Generation Development of  specific new business proposals based on  existing knowledge fused with newly developing knowledge Selection, Review,  and Development Ongoing selection of new products for  funding Institutionalization Test marketing and commercialization
Designs for Organizational Entrepreneurship Very Important Uncertain Unrelated Strongly Related 1. High Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Direct Integration Not Important Partly Related STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OPERATIONAL RELATEDNESS 4. Moderate Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Micro new ventures department 9.  No Control/ No Operational Coupling Complete spin-off 7.  No Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Nurturing and contracting 2. High Control/ Some Operational Coupling New product  business department 5.  Moderate Control/ Some Operational Coupling New venture division 8. No Control/ Some Operational Coupling Contracting 3.  High Control/ No Operational Coupling Special business units 6.  Moderate Control/ No Operational Coupling Independent  business units
The Firm‘s External Environment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],THE FIRM
Forces Driving Industry Competition Potential Entrants Industry competitors Rivalry among existing firms Substitutes Buyers Suppliers Threat of substitute products or services Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of new entrants
International Strategy Options I High Low Geographically  dispersed Geographically concentrated Global strategy Country-centered strategy by multinationals with a number of domestic firms operating only one  country High foreign investment with extensive coordination among subsidiaries Export-based strategy with decentralized marketing LOCATION OF ACTIVITIES COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES
International Strategy Options II Export Licensing / Foreign subsidiary Joint venture Licensing / Joint venture Foreign branch Joint venture Foreign branch High Low Low High PRODUCT DIVERSITY MARKET COMPLEXITY
SWOT Analysis Diagram Substantial internal strengths Critical internal weaknesses Numerous environmental opportunities Major environmental threats Cell 1:  Supports an aggressive strategy Cell 2:  Supports an diversification strategy Cell 3:  Supports a turnaround- oriented strategy Cell 4:  Supports a defensive strategy
Decay of New Product Ideas 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 60 55 20 15 10 5 CUMULATIVE TIME (PERCENT) NUMBER OF IDEAS Screening Business analysis Development Testing Commercialization One successful new product
Grand Strategy Selection Matrix External (acquisition or merger for resource capability) Internal (redirected resources within the  firm) Overcome weaknesses Maximize strengths Vertical integration Conglomerate  diversification Horizontal integration Concentric diversification Joint venture Turnaround or  retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation Concentrated growth Market development Product development Innovation I IV III II
BCG‘s Growth/Share Matrix I High Low High Low RELATIVE MARKET SHARE MARKET GROWTH RATE A B C E D F G Divest Divest Dog Cash Cows Question Mark Star Targeted future position in the corporate portfolio Present position in the corporate portfolio
BCG’s Growth/Share Matrix II Low High High Low Question marks Cash generating businesses Star businesses Dog businesses RELATIVE MARKET SHARE REAL  MARKET GROWTH 10x 1.0x 0.1x 10%
Underlying Relationship between ROI and Market Share in the New BCG Matrix Few Many Small Large SIZE OF THE ADVANTAGE NUMBER OF WAYS TO ACHIEVE  COMPETITVE  ADVANTAGE Market share Market share Volume Stalemate Specialization Fragmented Market share Market share ROI ROI ROI ROI
The Life-Cycle Portfolio Matrix Strong Average Weak Development Growth Competitive shakeout Maturity Decline Saturation THE BUSINESS UNIT‘S COMPETITIVE POSITION THE INDUSTRY‘S STAGE IN THE EVOLUTIONARY LIFE CYCLE C A E F D B H G
McKinsey 7-S Framework Strategy Systems Structure Style (leadership) Skills (management) Shared Values (culture) Staff (management)
Managing the Strategy-Culture Relationship Few Many High Low Manage around the culture Link changes to basic mission and fundamental organizational norms Synergistic – focus on reinforcing culture Reformulate strategy or prepare carefully for long-term, difficult change POTENTIAL COMPATIBILITY OF CHANGES WITH EXISTING CULTURE CHANGES IN KEY ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT ARE NECESSARY TO  IMPLEMENT THE NEW STRATEGY 3 4 1 2
A Typical Budgeting System for Controlling Strategy Implementation Long-term objectives Grand strategy Annual objectives Operating strategy Manufacturing Marketing R & D Administration Financial Capital- investment requirement Capital budget Sales forecasts Income goals Sales/revenue budgets Expenditure budgets and schedules Production Materials Personnel Capital Advertising Selling Personnel Research Overhead Cash flow Capital With which management develops Which are broken down into overall expense and cost goals Budgets and schedules in MONITOR,  EVALUATE, AND ADJUST Which are consolidated into Budgeted financial statements 1. Cash flows 2. Income statement 3. Balance sheet
Strategy is the Primary Determinant of Success or Failure Window of opportunity Tactics and operations (effectiveness and efficiency) Success Failure Mission, goals, and objectives Competitive advantage Strategy Distinctive competence, comparative advantage
Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Views at Various Organizational Levels Tactical Operational Strategic Upper management Middle management First-line suppervisory employees Tactical Operational Strategic Tactical Operational Strategic t 0 t +1 t +2+5 PLANNING HORIZON
Greiner‘s Five-Phase Growth Model 1. Crisis of LEADERSHIP 2. Crisis of AUTONOMY 3. Crisis of CONTROL 4. Crisis of RED TAPE 5. Crisis of ? 1. Growth through CREATVITY 2. Growth through DIRECTION 3. Growth through DELEGATION 4. Growth through COORDINATION 5. Growth through COLLABORATION Young Mature Small Large AGE OF ORGANIZATION SIZE OF ORGANIZATION Revolution stages Evolution stages Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
Firms Compete for Customers and Resources; Two Cases Little competition for resources Resource K Resource L Resource M Business A Business B Customer X Customer Y Customer Z Intense competition for customers Case 1 b Intense competition for resources Resource M Resource N Resource O Business A Business B Customer X Customer Y Customer Z Little competition for customers Case 2 Customer J Customer K Customer L
Intensity of Competition COMPETITION FOR CUSTOMERS COMPETITION FOR RESOURCES Intense competitive pressure Minimal Intense Moderate pressure (marketing) Case 1 Intense Minimal Moderate pressure (purchasing) Case 2 Little competitive pressure
Value and the Price-Performance Curve Loser Winner Economy Commodity Average Good Premium Lesser value Greater value High Low Low High RELATIVE QUALITY RELATIVE PRICE
Functional Strategy Areas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Basic Organizational Forms for Multinational Operations Minimum capital commitment Minimum long-term profits Risk of loss of license Minimum control over operations Low capital commitment Easy entry Risk of loss of franchise Long-term profitability is tentative Flexible capital commitment Relatively easy entry Local commitment Good opportunity for long-term profits Acquisition of local knowhow and management skills Risk of expropriation or discriminatory action Large capital commitment Long-term profit potential is high but so is risk Close control over operations Licensing Branch operations Joint ventures Subsidiary operations Main Characteristics Organizational Form Degree of parent company control Minimum Low Substantial Almost complete
Types of Acquisitions Aluminium ingot producer Concentric diversification Steel frabricator Steel  ingot producer A Electronics company Steel ingot producer B Unrelated diversification Horizontal diversification Vertical integration Mining
Strategic Options and the Life Cycle Embryonic or introduction Growth Maturity Aging or decline Dominant Strong Favorable Tenable Weak Wide range of strategic options Caution, selective development Danger zone, Retreat to niche, withdraw, or liquidate PRODUCT/MARKET STAGE COMPETITIVE POSITION
Attractiveness/Competitive Position Strategies High ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Medium Low Strong Average Weak COMPETITIVE POSITION INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
Technology Strategies for a Sustainable Competitive Advantage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Block Team-up Run Political/legal National endowments Technology change Customer preferences and expectations Macro-economic Competition Globalization
Value Propositions Across Four Quadrants Collaborate Create Control Compete ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Ansoff Matrix Existing New Existing New New product development Market development Market penetration Diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES MARKETS
The Customer Growth Matrix Existing New Existing New Customer extension Customer acquisition Customer loyalty Customer diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES CUSTOMERS
Combining Elements of the Customer  Growth Matrix Existing New Existing New Customer extension Customer acquisition Customer loyalty Customer diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES CUSTOMERS Acquisition through referral Loyalty through extension
Conceptual Model for the Evaluation of Product Innovation Projects PROJECT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT parent  organization holding organization subcontractors market client competitor formulate  specify  organize  realize
Alternative Aims in Various Stadia of Product Development What is possible? can we do it? how we gonna  do it? hope and  fear ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],making profit Cost Option Investment KNOWLEDGE BUILDING STRATEGIC POSITIONING BUSINESS INVESTMENT is it attractive? do we want it? CONCEPT MARKET COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES UNCERTAINTY
Core Competence Management Model Raw materials Country-specific Company-specific Learning from resource markets Internal alignment Competitive dynamics External interpretation Learning from output markets Internal learning Product positioning with intended competitive advantages The „intelligent enterprise“ Co-specialized assets Distinctive assets
Core Competencies: The Link between the Economics of the Firm & Management Cognition Flexible recipes and routines Shared values and beliefs Tacit knowledge and understandings Understanding internal dynamics Understanding competitive dynamics Interpreting the external environment CORE COMPETENCES
Technical Risk/Business Risk Model Business safe Very  risky Very safe Technically safe (Moderate Management Involvement) (Minimal Management Involvement) (Maximum Management Involvement) (Moderate Management Involvement) High Low Low High BUSINESS RISK TECHNICAL RISK
Typical Industry Experience Curve Strategies On-Line Inventory Bar Code Point-of-Sale Terminals People Systems Home Computers Retail On-Line Teller Terminals ATM, Customer Information Database People Systems Home Computers Banking Shop Floor Systems Just-in-Time Manufacturing CAD/CAM, CIM Robotics Manufacturing On-Line Inventory Personal Computers for Customers Interorganizational Systems Distribution Distribution through People Systems
The Cycle of Timing/Know-How Competition The Firm builds a Technological Resource Base to Create Advantage Then Moves into a New Market First Followers Imitate Products and Overcome Switching Costs and Brand Loyalties First Mover Throws Up Impediments to  Imitation of Subsequent Products Followers Overcome the Impediments and Replicate the Resource Base of the First Mover First Mover Uses a Transformation Strategy and Abandons Product Design/ Technology-based Approach Builds Resources to Match the Follower‘s Manufacuring Skills Price War First Mover Uses a Leapfrog Strategy to a New Resouce Base First Mover Moves Downstream into Higher Value-added Products Escalating Costs and Risks on Each Cycle
Disruption and the New 7-S’s ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Market  Disruption VISION PLANNING RESOURCE  PLANNING PUNCH-COUNTERPUNCH  PLANNING
The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder I Existing New Frequent Incremental Improvements Radically New Method Revolutionary Competition Niche Creation Rapid Evolutionary Competition Market Creation METHODS/TECHNOLOGIES USED TO SERVE CUSTOMERS CUSTOMER NEEDS SERVED
The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder II Core Values Risk to be avoided Critical Performance Variables Strategic Uncertainties Business Strategy Beliefs System Interactive Control Systems Boundary Systems Diagnostic Control Systems
The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder III Laissez-Faire Management Professional Management Entrepreneurial Management Bureaucratic Management Low High Low High USE OF FORMAL CONTROL MECHANISMS DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY
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Strategic Management models and diagrams

  • 1. Strategic Management ... 100 Slides Powered by www.drawpack.com . All rights reserved. Export Licensing / Foreign subsidiary Joint venture Licensing / Joint venture Foreign branch Joint venture Foreign branch High Low Low High PRODUCT DIVERSITY MARKET COMPLEXITY
  • 2. Strategic Pyramid – Strategic Vision – Strategy Alternatives – Five Forces Model – Competitive Advantage – Generic Strategies – Growth Strategies – Diversification Strategy – BCG Matrix – GE Business Screen – Cost Strategies – Exit/Entry Barriers – Resource Analysis – Core Competencies – Product-Life-Cycle – Top-Down-Management – Industry Analysis – International Strategies – SWOT Analysis – Portfolio Analysis – McKinsey’s 7-S Framework – Five-Phase Growth Model – Strategy Development – Merger&Acquisitions – Technology Strategies – Value Propositions – Ansoff Matrix – Experience Curve – Strategic Options – Window of Opportunity Key Words ...
  • 3. The Five Tasks of Strategic Management Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Developing a strategic vision and business mission Setting objectives Crafting a strategy to achieve the objectives Implementing and executing the strategy Evaluating performance, monitoring new developments, and initiating corrective adjustments Revise as needed Revise as needed Improve/ change as needed Recycle to tasks 1, 2, 3 or 4 as needed Improve/ change as needed
  • 4. Strategic Approaches to Preparing for Future Market Conditions Rushing to catch up to keep from being swamped by the waves Aggressively altering strategy to make waves and drive change Revising strategy to catch the waves An ti cipating change and initiating strategic actions to ride the crest of the waves COMPANY APPROACHES FUTURE MARKET CONDITIONS Reactive/Follower Proactive/Leader Rapid Revolutionary Change Gradual Evolutionary Change
  • 5. The Strategic-Making Pyramid I Corporate Strategy Business Strategies Functional Strategies (R & D, manufacturing, marketing, finance, human re s our c es, etc.) Operating Strategies (regions and districts, plants, departments within functional areas) Responsibility of corporate-level managers Responsibility of business-level general managers Responsibility of heads of major functional activities within a business unit or division Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and lower- level supervisors Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence A DIVERSIFIED COMPANY
  • 6. The Strategic-Making Pyramid II Business Strategy Functional Strategies (R & D, manufacturing, marketing, finance, human re s ources, etc.) Responsibility of executive-level managers Responsibility of heads of major functional activities within a business Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and lower- level supervisors Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence A SINGLE – BUSINESS COMPANY Operating Strategies (regions and districts, plants, departments within functional areas)
  • 7. Identifying Strategy for a Single Business Efforts to build competitive advantage Planned, proactive moves to outcompete rivals Moves to respond and react to changing conditions in the macroenvironment and in industry and competitive conditions Scope of geographic coverage Collaborative partnerships and strategic alliances with others Financial strategy Human resources strategy Sales, marketing, promotion & distribution strategies Manufacturing strategy Supply chain management strategy R & D, technology, engineering strategy BUSINESS STRATEGY Key functional strategies to build competitively valuable recource strengths and capabilities
  • 8. The Networking of Strategic Visions, Missions, Objectives, and Strategies Overall Corporate Scope and Strategic Vision Corporate-Level Objectives Corporate-Level Strategy Business-Level Strategic Vision and Mission Business-Level Objectives Business-Level Strategy Functional Area Missions Functional Objectives Functional Strategies Operating Unit Missions Operating Unit Objectives Operating Strategies Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence Two-Way Influence LEVEL 1 Responsibility of corporate-level managers LEVEL 2 Responsibility of business-level general managers LEVEL 3 Responsibility of heads of major functional activities within a business unit or division LEVEL 4 Responsibility of plant managers, geographic unit managers, and managers of front-line operating units
  • 9. Factors Shaping the Choice of Company Strategy STRATEGY-SHAPING FACTORS EXTERNAL TO THE COMPANY STRATEGY-SHAPING FACTORS INTERNAL TO THE COMPANY The mix of considerations that determines a company‘s strategic situation Conclusions concerning how internal & external factors stack up Identification and evaluation of strategy alternatives Crafting a strategy that fits the overall situation Economic social, political, regulatory and community citizenship considerations Competitive conditions and overall industry attractiveness Company opportunities and threats to the company‘s well-being Company resource strengths, weaknesses, competencies, competitive capabilities Personal ambitions, business philosophies, ethical principles of key executives Shared values and company culture
  • 10. A Company‘s Macroenvironment COMPANY Substitute Buyers New Entrants Rival Firms Suppliers IMMEDIATE INDUSTRY & COMPETITVE ENVIRONMENT MACROENVIRONMENT The Economy at large Social Values and Lifestyles Population demographics Technology Legislation and regulations
  • 11. The Five-Forces Model of Competition RIVALRY AMONG COMPETING SELLERS Potential New Entrants Buyers Suppliers of raw materials, parts, components or other resource inputs Firms in other industries offering Substitute Products
  • 12. Mobilizing Company Resources to Produce Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage Strategic Assets and Market Achievements Core and Distinctive Competencies Competitive Capabilities Company Resources
  • 13. Representative Company Value Chain Purchased Supplies and Inbound Logistics Operations Distribution and Outbound Logistics Sales and Marketing Service Profit Margin Product R & D, Technology and Systems Development Human Resources Management General Administration Support Activities and Costs Primary Activities and Costs
  • 14. Representative Value Chain for an Entire Industry Activities, Costs, and Margins of Suppliers Activities, Costs and Margins of Forward Channel Allies and Strategic Partners Buyer/End User Value Chains Internally Performed Activities, Costs and Margins Supplier-Related Value Chains Company Value Chain Distribution Related Value Chains Customer Related Value Chains
  • 15. The Five Generic Competitive Strategies Overall Low-Cost Leadership Strategy Broad Differentiation Strategy Focused Low-Cost Strategy Focused Differentiation Strategy Best-Cost Provider Strategy A Narrow Buyer-Segment (or Market Niche) A Broad Cross-Section of Buyers Lower Cost Differentiation TYPE OF COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE BEING PURSUED MARKET TARGET
  • 16. The Building and Eroding of Competitive Advantage Strategic moves are successful in producing a competitive advantage Size of advantage achieved Imitation, duplication, and „attacks“ by rivals erode the advantage Buildup Period Benefit Period Erosion Period Size of Competitive Advantage Time
  • 17. Strategy Options for Local Companies in Competing against Global Challengers Dodge Rivals by shifting to a new Business Model or Market Niche Contend on a Global Level Defend by using „ Home-Field“ Advantages Transfer Company Expertise to Cross-Border Markets Tailored for home Market Transferable to other Countries High Low RESOURCES AND COMPETITIVE CAPABILITIES INDUSTRY PRESSURES TO GLOBALIZE
  • 18. The Three Strategy Horizons for Sustaining Rapid Growth  „ Short-Jump“ initiative to fortify and extend current businesses  Immediate gains in revenues and profits  „ Medium-Jump“ initiatives to leverage existing resources and capabilities to pursue growth in new businesses  Moderate revenue and profit gains now, but foundation laid for sizable gains over next 2-5 years  „ Long-Jump“ initiatives to sow the seeds for growth in in businesses of the future  Minimal revenue gains now and likely losses, but potential for significant contribution to revenues and profits in 5-10 years Portfolio of Strategy Initiatives Strategy Horizon 1 Strategy Horizon 2 Strategy Horizon 3 Time
  • 19. Value Chains for Related Businesses Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and Marketing Distribution Customer Service Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and Marketing Distribution Customer Service Competitively valuable opportunities for technology or skills transfer , cost reduction, common brand name usage , and cross-business collaboration exist at one or more points along the value chains of A and B. Support Activities Support Activities Representative Value Chain Activities Business A Business B
  • 20. Value Chains for Unrelated Businesses Support Activities Support Activities Supply Chain Activities Technology Operations Sales and Marketing Distribution Customer Service Technology Operations Sales and Marketing Distribution Customer Service An absence of competitively valuable strategic fits between the value chain for Business A and the value chain for Business B Business A Business B Supply Chain Activities Representative Value Chain Activities
  • 21. Strategy Options for a Company that is Already Diversified  To build positions in new related/ unrelated industries  To strengthen the position of business units in industries where the firm already has a stake Make New Acquisitions and/or Enter into Additional Strategic Partnerships  To narrow the company‘s business base and scope of operations  To eliminate weak-performing businesses from portfolio  To eliminate businesses that no longer fit Divest Some of the Company‘s Existing Business  By selling poorly performing or noncore business units  By using cash from divestitures plus unused debt capacity to make new acquisitions Restructuring the Company‘s Portfolio of Businesses  To succeed in globally competitive core businesses against international rivals  To capture strategic fit benefits and win a competitive advantage via multinational diversification Become a Multinational, Multi-Industry Enterprise Strategy Options for a Diversified Company
  • 22. Identifying a Diversified Company‘s Strategy – What to Look for A Diversified Company‘s Strategy Approach to allocating investment capital and resources across business units Whether diversification is based narrowly in a few industries or broadly in many industries Whether the businesses the company has diversified into are related, unrelated, or a mixture of both Whether the scope of company operations is mostly domestic, increasingly multinational or global Moves to strengthen positions in existing businesses via new acquisitions Moves to build positions in new industries via acquisitions, merger, internal start-up, or alliances Moves to divest weak or unattractive businesses Efforts to capture cross-business strategic fits
  • 23. A Representative Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix Business C Business E Strong Average High Low Business F Business A Business B Business D Weak Medium Low priority for investment Medium priority for investment High priority for investment COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS/BUSINESS POSITION LONG-TERM INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
  • 24. The Eight Big Managerial Components of Implementing Strategy Exercising the strategic leadership needed to drive implementation forward Building an organisation with competencies, capabilities, and resource strengths Allocating ample resources to strategy-critical activities Establishing strategy- supportive policies Instituting best practices and pushing for continuous improvement Installing information, communication, and operating systems Tyring rewards and incentives to the achievement of key strategic targets Shaping the work environment and corporate culture to fit the strategy The Strategy implementer‘s action agenda  What to do now vs. later  What requires much time and personal attention  What can be delegated to others
  • 25. The Components of Building a Capable Organization Staffing the Organization  Putting together a strong management team  Recruiting and retaining talented employees Building Core Competencies and Competitive Capabilities  Developing a competence/capability portfolio suited to current strategy  Updating and reshaping the portfolio as external conditions and strategy change Structuring the Organization and Work Effort  Organizing business functions and processes, value chain activities, and decision making AN ORGANIZATION CAPABLE OF GOOD STRATEGY EXECUTION
  • 26. Value Chain (as a Percent of Total Price to the Consumer) Purchasing Production R & D Sales & Marketing Price to Consumer 45 18 6 31 100 31% 69% Value added related to distribution and marketing Value added related to supply and assembly
  • 27. Why do Mergers Fail? Focusing on the old organizational chart rather than new business processes START Excessive competition for leading positions Conflicting goals among newly merged departments (76% of surveyed companies only focused on cost reductions) Disregard for the needs of employees (61% of the companies surveyed defined reduction in headcount as the main goal to produce quick success) Disregard for change in the process of integrating in new partner (only 32% had an active risk management in place) Concepts for integration are not detailed enough. The acquired company is supposed to accept the company culture of the purchaser Length of the integration process (86% of companies admitted having inadequate communication channels) FINISH
  • 28. The Value Chain Supplier Value Chains Channel Value Chains Buyer Value Chains Supplier Value Chains Channel Value Chains Buyer Value Chains Supplier Value Chains Business Unit Value Chain Business Unit Value Chain Business Unit Value Chain Single-Industry Firm Diversified Firm Firm Value Chain
  • 29. The Generic Value Chain Marketing Management Advertising Sales Force Administration Sales Force Operations Technical Literature Promotion INBOUND LOGISTICS OPERATIONS OUTBOUND LOGISTICS MARKETING & SALES SERVICE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROCUREMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE MARGIN
  • 30. Risks of the Generic Strategies Risks of Cost Leadership Risks of Cost Differentiation Risks of Cost Focus Cost leadership is not sustained  competitors imitate  technology changes  other bases for costs leadership erode Proximity in differentiation is lost Cost focuses achieve even lower cost in segments Differentiation is not sustained  competitors imitate  bases for differentiation become less important to buyers Cost proximity is lost Differentiation focuses achieve even greater differentiation in segments The focus strategy is imitated The target segment becomes structurally unattractive  structure erodes  demand disappears Broadly targeted competitors overwhelm the segment  the segment‘s differences from other segments narrow  the advantages of a broad line increase New focuses subsegment the industry
  • 31. Three Generic Strategies 1. Cost Leadership 2. Differentiation 3A. Cost Focus 3B. Differentiation Focus Broad Target Narrow Target Lower Cost Differentiation COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE SCOPE
  • 32. Operational Effectiveness Versus Strategic Positioning High Low High Low RELATIV COST POSITION NONPRICE BUYER VALUE DELIVERED Productivity Frontier
  • 33. Competitor Configuration and Industry Stability Modest share difference needed for stability Large share difference needed for stability EXTENT OF DIFFERENTIATION/SEGMENTATION COMPETITORS Good Competitions Bad Competitions Low High
  • 34. Shared Value Activities and Cost Position Potentially important if cost behavior changes Unimportant interrelationships Strategic interrelationships Potentially important if cost structure changes High High Low Low PERCENTAGE OF OPERATING COSTS OR ASSETS REPRESENTED BY THE VALUE ACTIVITY SENSITIVITY TO SCALE, LEARNING, OR UTILIZATION IN THE VALUE ACTIVITY
  • 35. Alternative Scope of Leader and Challenger Strategies I Local Regional Segment Related Industries National Industry Global INDUSTRY SCOPE GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE Leader Scope Possible Challenger Scope
  • 36. Alternative Scope of Leader and Challenger Strategies II More Extensive Backward Integration Average Integration Segment Related Industries More Extensive Forward Integration Industry INDUSTRY SCOPE VERTICAL SCOPE Leader Scope Possible Challenger Scope
  • 37. The Wheel of Competitive Strategy Product Line Target Market Marketing Sales Distribution Manufacturing Labor Purchasing R & D Finance and Control GOALS Definition of how the business is going to compete Objectives for profitability, growth, market share, social responsiveness etc.
  • 38. Barriers and Profitability Low, risky returns High, stable returns EXIT BARRIERS ENTRY BARRIERS Low High Low High Low, stable returns High, risky returns
  • 39. Generic Competitive Strategies Return on Investment Market Share
  • 40. Firm‘s Strategic Needs to Remain in the Business Favorable Industry Structure for Decline Unfavorable Industry Structure for Decline Has Strengths Relative to Competitors for Remaining Pockets Lacks Strengths Relative to Competitors for Remaining Pockets Harvest or Divest Quickly Niche or Harvest Leadership or Niche Divest Quickly
  • 41.
  • 42. The Quest for Competitiveness The Quest for Competitiveness Reengineering Process and Continuous Improvement Reinventing Industries and Regenerating Strategies Restructuring the Portfolio and Downsizing Headcount Smaller Better Different
  • 43. Finding the Limits of the Current Economic Engine Concept of „ Served Market“ Revenue and Margin Structure Configuration of Skills and Assets Flexibility and Adaptiveness What customers and needs aren‘t we serving? Could profits be extracted at a different point in the value chain? Might customers‘ needs be better served by an alternate configuration of skills and assets? What is our vulnerability to „ new rules of the game?“
  • 44. Beyond „Customer-Led“ Unexploited Opportunities Articulated Unarticulated Served Unserved CUSTOMER TYPES NEEDS
  • 45. Why do Great Companies Fail? Unparalleled track record of success No gap between expectations and performance Contentment with current performance Accumulation of abundant resources A view that resources will win out Resources substitute for creativity Optimized business system Deeply etched recipes Vulnerability to new rules Success confirms strategy Momentum is mistaken for leadership Failure to „ reinvent leadership“ INABILITY TO ESCAPE THE PAST! INABILITY TO INVENT THE FUTURE!
  • 46. Categories of Resource Leverage Concentrating Conserving Recovering Complementing Accumulating
  • 47. Managing Migration Paths Creating and Managing Coalitions Learning and Experimentation in the Market Investing in Core Competencies Building Global Brand and Distribution Setting Standards and Influencing Regulation
  • 48. Establishing the Core Competence Agenda Existing New New Existing Fill in the blanks What is the opportunity to improve our position in existing markets by better leveraging our existing core competencies? White spaces What new products or services could we create by creatively redeploying or recombining our current core competencies? Mega-opportunities What new core competencies would we need to build to participate in the most exciting markets of the future? Premier plus 10 What new core competencies will we need to build to protect and extend our franchise in current markets? CORE COMPETENCIES MARKET
  • 49. An Alternate Conception of the Diversified Firm Banner Brand Business Units Core Products (Platforms) Core Competencies
  • 50. Criteria for Integration Decisions Setup Costs Transaction Costs Coordination Effectiveness Risk Capital (e.g., equipment, acquisitions) Systems development Training Information collection and processing Legal Sales and purchasing Possibility for unreasonable price changes Supply or outlet foreclosure Insulation from market (e.g., from technical changes, new products) Run lengths, inventory levels Capacity utilization Delivery performance Quality
  • 51. Vertical Market Structures Many One Few One Few Many High trading risk Sellers dominate No one dominates Buyers dominate NUMBER OF BUYERS NUMBER OF SELLERS
  • 52. Transaction-Asset Matrix Detailed, standardized contracts (e.g., office lease, credit sale arrangements) Seldom Often Low High ASSET SPECIFICITY, DURABILITY, AND INDENSITY TRANSACTION FREQUENCY Standardized transactions (e.g., groceries) Detailed, probably unique contract (e.g., major public construction projects) Vertical integration (e.g., bauxite, specialized auto components)
  • 53. Primary Influence Processes Suppliers Government Agencies and Administrators Financial Intermediaries Activist Groups Competitors Customers Unions Local Communities OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Global Economic Forces Sociocultural Forces Global Political/Legal Forces Technological Change The Organization BROAD ENVIRONMENT
  • 54. The Product Life Cycle Introduction Growth Maturity Commodity or Decline Time Unit Sales Volume Note: A = Moderate Growth, B = Commodity, C = Decline A B C
  • 55. Internal Venturing Alternatives Unrelated Related Important Not important No Control/ No Operational Coupling Complete Spinoff High Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Direct Integration High Control/ No Operational Coupling Special Business Units No Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Nurturing and Contracting STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OPERATIONAL IMPORTANCE
  • 56. The Boston Consulting Group Matrix Stars Cash Cows Question Marks Dogs RELATIVE COMPETITIVE POSITION (RELATIVE MARKET SHARE) BUSINESS GROWTH RATE 10X 4X 2X1.5X 1X .5X .2X .1X 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%
  • 57. The General Electric Business Screen Low High Medium Strong Average Weak COMPETITIVE POSITION INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS
  • 58. The Top-Down Control Cycle Ownership of Accounting Information empowers Top Management to plan, analyze, and transmit instructions to the Workforce who manipulate processes and cajole customers to achieve accounting Results Feedback Read down from here
  • 59. The Bottom-Up Empowerment Cycle Satisfying Customers to learn and make changes that continuously improve processes capable of Workforce to be responsive (listen) and flexible (change quickly) by empowering the Companies to choose among global opportunities and requires Customers empowers Ownership of Information Feedback Read up from here
  • 60. The Internal Diversification Process Diversification Decision Desire to expand into a broad area acceptable to key stakeholders Search and Idea Generation Development of specific new business proposals based on existing knowledge fused with newly developing knowledge Selection, Review, and Development Ongoing selection of new products for funding Institutionalization Test marketing and commercialization
  • 61. Designs for Organizational Entrepreneurship Very Important Uncertain Unrelated Strongly Related 1. High Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Direct Integration Not Important Partly Related STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OPERATIONAL RELATEDNESS 4. Moderate Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Micro new ventures department 9. No Control/ No Operational Coupling Complete spin-off 7. No Control/ Strong Operational Coupling Nurturing and contracting 2. High Control/ Some Operational Coupling New product business department 5. Moderate Control/ Some Operational Coupling New venture division 8. No Control/ Some Operational Coupling Contracting 3. High Control/ No Operational Coupling Special business units 6. Moderate Control/ No Operational Coupling Independent business units
  • 62.
  • 63. Forces Driving Industry Competition Potential Entrants Industry competitors Rivalry among existing firms Substitutes Buyers Suppliers Threat of substitute products or services Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of new entrants
  • 64. International Strategy Options I High Low Geographically dispersed Geographically concentrated Global strategy Country-centered strategy by multinationals with a number of domestic firms operating only one country High foreign investment with extensive coordination among subsidiaries Export-based strategy with decentralized marketing LOCATION OF ACTIVITIES COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES
  • 65. International Strategy Options II Export Licensing / Foreign subsidiary Joint venture Licensing / Joint venture Foreign branch Joint venture Foreign branch High Low Low High PRODUCT DIVERSITY MARKET COMPLEXITY
  • 66. SWOT Analysis Diagram Substantial internal strengths Critical internal weaknesses Numerous environmental opportunities Major environmental threats Cell 1: Supports an aggressive strategy Cell 2: Supports an diversification strategy Cell 3: Supports a turnaround- oriented strategy Cell 4: Supports a defensive strategy
  • 67. Decay of New Product Ideas 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 60 55 20 15 10 5 CUMULATIVE TIME (PERCENT) NUMBER OF IDEAS Screening Business analysis Development Testing Commercialization One successful new product
  • 68. Grand Strategy Selection Matrix External (acquisition or merger for resource capability) Internal (redirected resources within the firm) Overcome weaknesses Maximize strengths Vertical integration Conglomerate diversification Horizontal integration Concentric diversification Joint venture Turnaround or retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation Concentrated growth Market development Product development Innovation I IV III II
  • 69. BCG‘s Growth/Share Matrix I High Low High Low RELATIVE MARKET SHARE MARKET GROWTH RATE A B C E D F G Divest Divest Dog Cash Cows Question Mark Star Targeted future position in the corporate portfolio Present position in the corporate portfolio
  • 70. BCG’s Growth/Share Matrix II Low High High Low Question marks Cash generating businesses Star businesses Dog businesses RELATIVE MARKET SHARE REAL MARKET GROWTH 10x 1.0x 0.1x 10%
  • 71. Underlying Relationship between ROI and Market Share in the New BCG Matrix Few Many Small Large SIZE OF THE ADVANTAGE NUMBER OF WAYS TO ACHIEVE COMPETITVE ADVANTAGE Market share Market share Volume Stalemate Specialization Fragmented Market share Market share ROI ROI ROI ROI
  • 72. The Life-Cycle Portfolio Matrix Strong Average Weak Development Growth Competitive shakeout Maturity Decline Saturation THE BUSINESS UNIT‘S COMPETITIVE POSITION THE INDUSTRY‘S STAGE IN THE EVOLUTIONARY LIFE CYCLE C A E F D B H G
  • 73. McKinsey 7-S Framework Strategy Systems Structure Style (leadership) Skills (management) Shared Values (culture) Staff (management)
  • 74. Managing the Strategy-Culture Relationship Few Many High Low Manage around the culture Link changes to basic mission and fundamental organizational norms Synergistic – focus on reinforcing culture Reformulate strategy or prepare carefully for long-term, difficult change POTENTIAL COMPATIBILITY OF CHANGES WITH EXISTING CULTURE CHANGES IN KEY ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT ARE NECESSARY TO IMPLEMENT THE NEW STRATEGY 3 4 1 2
  • 75. A Typical Budgeting System for Controlling Strategy Implementation Long-term objectives Grand strategy Annual objectives Operating strategy Manufacturing Marketing R & D Administration Financial Capital- investment requirement Capital budget Sales forecasts Income goals Sales/revenue budgets Expenditure budgets and schedules Production Materials Personnel Capital Advertising Selling Personnel Research Overhead Cash flow Capital With which management develops Which are broken down into overall expense and cost goals Budgets and schedules in MONITOR, EVALUATE, AND ADJUST Which are consolidated into Budgeted financial statements 1. Cash flows 2. Income statement 3. Balance sheet
  • 76. Strategy is the Primary Determinant of Success or Failure Window of opportunity Tactics and operations (effectiveness and efficiency) Success Failure Mission, goals, and objectives Competitive advantage Strategy Distinctive competence, comparative advantage
  • 77. Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Views at Various Organizational Levels Tactical Operational Strategic Upper management Middle management First-line suppervisory employees Tactical Operational Strategic Tactical Operational Strategic t 0 t +1 t +2+5 PLANNING HORIZON
  • 78. Greiner‘s Five-Phase Growth Model 1. Crisis of LEADERSHIP 2. Crisis of AUTONOMY 3. Crisis of CONTROL 4. Crisis of RED TAPE 5. Crisis of ? 1. Growth through CREATVITY 2. Growth through DIRECTION 3. Growth through DELEGATION 4. Growth through COORDINATION 5. Growth through COLLABORATION Young Mature Small Large AGE OF ORGANIZATION SIZE OF ORGANIZATION Revolution stages Evolution stages Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
  • 79. Firms Compete for Customers and Resources; Two Cases Little competition for resources Resource K Resource L Resource M Business A Business B Customer X Customer Y Customer Z Intense competition for customers Case 1 b Intense competition for resources Resource M Resource N Resource O Business A Business B Customer X Customer Y Customer Z Little competition for customers Case 2 Customer J Customer K Customer L
  • 80. Intensity of Competition COMPETITION FOR CUSTOMERS COMPETITION FOR RESOURCES Intense competitive pressure Minimal Intense Moderate pressure (marketing) Case 1 Intense Minimal Moderate pressure (purchasing) Case 2 Little competitive pressure
  • 81. Value and the Price-Performance Curve Loser Winner Economy Commodity Average Good Premium Lesser value Greater value High Low Low High RELATIVE QUALITY RELATIVE PRICE
  • 82.
  • 83. Basic Organizational Forms for Multinational Operations Minimum capital commitment Minimum long-term profits Risk of loss of license Minimum control over operations Low capital commitment Easy entry Risk of loss of franchise Long-term profitability is tentative Flexible capital commitment Relatively easy entry Local commitment Good opportunity for long-term profits Acquisition of local knowhow and management skills Risk of expropriation or discriminatory action Large capital commitment Long-term profit potential is high but so is risk Close control over operations Licensing Branch operations Joint ventures Subsidiary operations Main Characteristics Organizational Form Degree of parent company control Minimum Low Substantial Almost complete
  • 84. Types of Acquisitions Aluminium ingot producer Concentric diversification Steel frabricator Steel ingot producer A Electronics company Steel ingot producer B Unrelated diversification Horizontal diversification Vertical integration Mining
  • 85. Strategic Options and the Life Cycle Embryonic or introduction Growth Maturity Aging or decline Dominant Strong Favorable Tenable Weak Wide range of strategic options Caution, selective development Danger zone, Retreat to niche, withdraw, or liquidate PRODUCT/MARKET STAGE COMPETITIVE POSITION
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88.
  • 89. The Ansoff Matrix Existing New Existing New New product development Market development Market penetration Diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES MARKETS
  • 90. The Customer Growth Matrix Existing New Existing New Customer extension Customer acquisition Customer loyalty Customer diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES CUSTOMERS
  • 91. Combining Elements of the Customer Growth Matrix Existing New Existing New Customer extension Customer acquisition Customer loyalty Customer diversification PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES CUSTOMERS Acquisition through referral Loyalty through extension
  • 92. Conceptual Model for the Evaluation of Product Innovation Projects PROJECT PROJECT ENVIRONMENT parent organization holding organization subcontractors market client competitor formulate specify organize realize
  • 93.
  • 94. Core Competence Management Model Raw materials Country-specific Company-specific Learning from resource markets Internal alignment Competitive dynamics External interpretation Learning from output markets Internal learning Product positioning with intended competitive advantages The „intelligent enterprise“ Co-specialized assets Distinctive assets
  • 95. Core Competencies: The Link between the Economics of the Firm & Management Cognition Flexible recipes and routines Shared values and beliefs Tacit knowledge and understandings Understanding internal dynamics Understanding competitive dynamics Interpreting the external environment CORE COMPETENCES
  • 96. Technical Risk/Business Risk Model Business safe Very risky Very safe Technically safe (Moderate Management Involvement) (Minimal Management Involvement) (Maximum Management Involvement) (Moderate Management Involvement) High Low Low High BUSINESS RISK TECHNICAL RISK
  • 97. Typical Industry Experience Curve Strategies On-Line Inventory Bar Code Point-of-Sale Terminals People Systems Home Computers Retail On-Line Teller Terminals ATM, Customer Information Database People Systems Home Computers Banking Shop Floor Systems Just-in-Time Manufacturing CAD/CAM, CIM Robotics Manufacturing On-Line Inventory Personal Computers for Customers Interorganizational Systems Distribution Distribution through People Systems
  • 98. The Cycle of Timing/Know-How Competition The Firm builds a Technological Resource Base to Create Advantage Then Moves into a New Market First Followers Imitate Products and Overcome Switching Costs and Brand Loyalties First Mover Throws Up Impediments to Imitation of Subsequent Products Followers Overcome the Impediments and Replicate the Resource Base of the First Mover First Mover Uses a Transformation Strategy and Abandons Product Design/ Technology-based Approach Builds Resources to Match the Follower‘s Manufacuring Skills Price War First Mover Uses a Leapfrog Strategy to a New Resouce Base First Mover Moves Downstream into Higher Value-added Products Escalating Costs and Risks on Each Cycle
  • 99.
  • 100. The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder I Existing New Frequent Incremental Improvements Radically New Method Revolutionary Competition Niche Creation Rapid Evolutionary Competition Market Creation METHODS/TECHNOLOGIES USED TO SERVE CUSTOMERS CUSTOMER NEEDS SERVED
  • 101. The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder II Core Values Risk to be avoided Critical Performance Variables Strategic Uncertainties Business Strategy Beliefs System Interactive Control Systems Boundary Systems Diagnostic Control Systems
  • 102. The Cycle Price-Quality Competition – Moving up an Escalation Ladder III Laissez-Faire Management Professional Management Entrepreneurial Management Bureaucratic Management Low High Low High USE OF FORMAL CONTROL MECHANISMS DELEGATION OF RESPONSIBILITY
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Editor's Notes

  1. Source: Strategic Management, Thompson/Strickland, 2001
  2. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  3. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40, 1999
  4. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  5. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  6. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  7. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  8. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40, 1999
  9. Source: How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy, Porter, 1979
  10. Source: Competing Today While Preparing for Tomorrow, Sloan Management Review 40 , 1999
  11. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  12. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  13. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  14. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  15. Source: Competing with Giants: Survival Strategies for Local Companies in Emerging Markets, Dawar/Frost, 1999
  16. Source: Robust Adaptive Strategies, Beinhocker, 1999
  17. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  18. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  19. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  20. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  21. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  22. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  23. Source: Competitive Advantage, Porter, 1985
  24. Source: McKinsey, A. T. Keamey, DaimlerChrysler, IMD Research, 1999
  25. Source: McKinsey, A. T. Keamey, DaimlerChrysler, IMD Research, 1999
  26. Source: Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Porter, 1985
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