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Spot welding basic parameters setting - basic calculations / equations

Basic mathematical equations used to approximate the optimum spot welding parameters setting for AC & DC welding through Lobe Curve

Design for Short Axially Loaded Columns ACI318

This document discusses the design of columns. It begins by defining columns and classifying them as short or long based on their slenderness ratio. Columns can be reinforced with ties or a spiral. Equations are provided for calculating the nominal axial capacity of columns based on the concrete compressive strength and steel reinforcement area. Minimum requirements are specified for reinforcement ratios, number of bars, concrete cover, and lateral tie or spiral spacing. Spirally reinforced columns can develop higher strength due to concrete confinement by the spiral. Design of the spiral pitch is discussed based on providing equivalent confining pressure.

Study of Steel Moment Resisting Frame with Reduced Beam Section

This document summarizes a study on modeling and analyzing a 15-story steel building with and without reduced beam sections (RBS) using time history analysis. The study found that using RBS increased the building's time period by 25% and increased deflections and drifts compared to a building with regular beams. However, base shear was nearly identical between the two buildings. While RBS increased deformations, it also reduced the total steel material needed by about 11.5 tons, providing a cost savings of around $7,480. Therefore, RBS can improve seismic performance by shifting plastic hinging away from beam-column connections while also offering a cost benefit from reduced material.

Refurbishment of a Three-Phase Induction Motor Reflecting Local Voltage Condi...

This document summarizes the refurbishment of a 3-phase induction motor originally designed for 415V but operating in an area with a maximum supply of 380V. Key steps included:
1. Calculating new winding parameters for 380V operation, including number of poles, coils per phase, turns, etc.
2. Measuring the motor dimensions to inform the calculations.
3. Developing a double-layer lap winding with 12 phase groups of 44 turns each for the 380V design.
4. Rewinding the stator with the new winding configuration and testing the motor, which achieved satisfactory no-load speed.

Structural engineering i

Structural engineering i- Dr. Iftekhar Anam
Structural Stability and Determinacy,Axial Force, Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram of Frames,Axial Force, Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram of Multi-Storied Frames,Influence Lines of Beams using Müller-Breslau’s Principle,Influence Lines of Plate Girders and Trusses,Maximum ‘Support Reaction’ due to Wheel Loads,Maximum ‘Shear Force’ due to Wheel Loads,Calculation of Wind Load,Seismic Vibration and Structural Response
http://www.uap-bd.edu/ce/anam/

Structur e very helpfull

This document discusses structural stability, statical determinacy, and influence lines. It defines stability as a prerequisite for structures to carry loads, which depends on comparing equations and unknown forces through structural analysis. Statical determinacy determines if a structure remains in equilibrium through static concepts alone. The number of external reactions must exceed the number of equilibrium equations. Influence lines show the variation of reactions, shear, or bending moment due to moving loads and identify their critical positions producing greatest effects.

Reinforce Concrete Design I - By Dr. Iftekhar Anam

It's a lecture note by Prof, Dr, Iftekhar Anam. It will be helpfull for the designers of RCC building.

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

This document provides design calculations for beams in a health center project. It includes beam design parameters, load calculations, reinforcement requirements, and design checks for various beam sections. Key information includes:
- Beams are designed for 3 levels at heights of 7.2m, 10.2m, and 13.2m.
- Calculations are provided for longitudinal and transverse reinforcement requirements to resist bending moment, shear, and torsional loads.
- Reinforcement details including bar marks and areas are specified for different regions of the beams.
- Design checks are performed to ensure reinforcement satisfies code requirements.

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

This document provides design calculations for beams in a health center project. It includes beam design parameters, load calculations, reinforcement requirements, and design checks for various beam sections. Key information includes:
- Beams are designed for 3 levels at heights of 7.2m, 10.2m, and 13.2m.
- Calculations are provided for longitudinal and transverse reinforcement requirements to resist bending moment, shear, and torsional loads.
- Reinforcement details including bar marks and areas are specified for different regions of the beams.
- Design checks are performed to ensure reinforcement satisfies code requirements.

Steel strucure lec # (13)

The document discusses the benefits of exercise for mental health. Regular physical activity can help reduce anxiety and depression and improve mood and cognitive functioning. Exercise causes chemical changes in the brain that may help protect against mental illness and improve symptoms.

Column math

This document provides a summary of reinforced concrete columns (RCC columns). It defines a column and describes different types of columns based on reinforcement and length. Short columns are less than 12 times the minimum thickness, while long columns are greater than 12 times the thickness. The document outlines preliminary sizing of columns and the functions of tie/spiral reinforcement. It includes design equations for axially loaded columns in working stress design (WSD) and ultimate stress design (USD). Two sample problems are worked through demonstrating column design using both methods.

Rcs1-Chapter5-ULS

- Beam subjected to simple bending - Eurocode
- Design at Ultimate Limite State
- Rectangular Section without compression Steel (ULS)
- Rectangular Section with compression Steel (ULS)
- Design of T section (ULS)
- Particular rules
- Minimum Steel requirement

Conceps of RCC-PCC.pptx

This document discusses concepts related to the design of concrete beams including:
1. It introduces concepts like bending, shear, tension and compression as they relate to beam design.
2. It provides formulas for calculating reactions, shear forces, and bending moments in simply supported beams under different loading conditions.
3. It explains concepts like the neutral axis, stress blocks, and strain diagrams that are important to beam design.
4. It discusses factors that influence the strength of beams like the moment of inertia and reinforcement ratio.
5. It compares working stress and limit state methods of design.

Flexural design of Beam...PRC-I

Prepared by madam rafia firdous. She is a lecturer and instructor in subject of Plain and Reinforcement concrete at University of South Asia LAHORE,PAKISTAN.

Compression member

The document discusses the design of compression members according to IS 800:2007. It defines compression members as structural members subjected to axial compression/compressive forces. Their design is governed by strength and buckling. The two main types are columns and struts. Common cross-section shapes used include channels, angles, and hollow sections. The effective length of a member depends on its end conditions. Slenderness ratio is a parameter that affects the load carrying capacity, with higher ratios resulting in lower capacity. Design involves checking the member for short or long classification, buckling curve classification, and calculating the design compressive strength. Examples are included to demonstrate the design process.

Math cad embedded footing - combined (jcb-edited)

This document describes the properties and characteristics of a compressor, embedded footing foundation, and soil. It then determines parameters needed to calculate the foundation's stiffness and damping for vertical, horizontal, rocking, and torsional motion. Stiffness and damping coefficients are derived for the embedded footing considering interaction with the soil.

Esd ppt 150180106093,111,160183106008 GECDAHOD

The document discusses the design requirements for lacing, battening, and column bases according to IS 800-2007. It provides details on:
- Two types of lacing systems - single and double
- Design requirements for lacing including angle of inclination, slenderness ratio, effective lacing length, bar width and thickness
- Design of battening including number of battens, spacing, thickness, effective depth, and transverse shear
- Minimum thickness requirements for rectangular slab column bases
It also provides an example problem demonstrating the design of a slab base foundation for a column.

Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

The document discusses the behavior of reinforced concrete beams under flexure. It covers the basic assumptions in flexure theory including plane sections remaining plane, equal strains in concrete and steel, and modeling the concrete stress-strain relationship. It also discusses the stress block model used to calculate flexural strength and provides examples of calculating the centroid and moment of inertia for uncracked and cracked beam sections. The examples show how cracking causes the centroid to shift upward and the moment of inertia to decrease significantly.

Example314b taskgroupb-c-120730160543-phpapp01

This document provides a preliminary design for a 20-story reinforced concrete building in Los Angeles. It outlines the design process, including establishing seismic loading based on ASCE 7-05 and distributing forces. A dual structural system of concrete shear walls and special moment frames is proposed. Preliminary sizing of structural elements is presented, along with calculations for seismic base shear, story shear distribution, and building overturning moment.

Composite beams-and-slabs1

The document discusses composite beams, which combine steel beams with concrete slabs to act compositely. It provides examples and discusses the advantages of composite beams over normal steel beams. The performance of composite beams is similar to reinforced concrete beams, but differs in that the steel beam's properties cannot be ignored and shear connection is needed between the steel and concrete. Design of composite beams follows reinforced concrete design methods with modifications. An example problem is provided to demonstrate the design process for a composite beam, including checking the beam properties, shear connectors, and deflection.

Spot welding basic parameters setting - basic calculations / equations

Spot welding basic parameters setting - basic calculations / equations

Design for Short Axially Loaded Columns ACI318

Design for Short Axially Loaded Columns ACI318

Study of Steel Moment Resisting Frame with Reduced Beam Section

Study of Steel Moment Resisting Frame with Reduced Beam Section

Refurbishment of a Three-Phase Induction Motor Reflecting Local Voltage Condi...

Refurbishment of a Three-Phase Induction Motor Reflecting Local Voltage Condi...

Structural engineering i

Structural engineering i

Structur e very helpfull

Structur e very helpfull

Reinforce Concrete Design I - By Dr. Iftekhar Anam

Reinforce Concrete Design I - By Dr. Iftekhar Anam

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

3F TO 5F BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY.pdf

Steel strucure lec # (13)

Steel strucure lec # (13)

Column math

Column math

Rcs1-Chapter5-ULS

Rcs1-Chapter5-ULS

Conceps of RCC-PCC.pptx

Conceps of RCC-PCC.pptx

Flexural design of Beam...PRC-I

Flexural design of Beam...PRC-I

Compression member

Compression member

Math cad embedded footing - combined (jcb-edited)

Math cad embedded footing - combined (jcb-edited)

Esd ppt 150180106093,111,160183106008 GECDAHOD

Esd ppt 150180106093,111,160183106008 GECDAHOD

Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Example314b taskgroupb-c-120730160543-phpapp01

Example314b taskgroupb-c-120730160543-phpapp01

Composite beams-and-slabs1

Composite beams-and-slabs1

Lecture-4 EQ.pdf

Magnitude measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake at its source, using the Richter Scale. Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by an earthquake at a certain location, using the Mercalli Intensity Scale. Magnitude is a quantitative measure while intensity is qualitative and accounts for location and building resilience. Higher magnitudes indicate a more powerful quake with exponentially greater energy release.

highwaymaterials-soil-ppt_class_1.pdf

The document discusses various materials used in highway construction, including soil, stone aggregates, bituminous mixes, and Portland cement. It focuses on the properties and classification of soil, which serves as the base material for embankments and subgrades. Various classification systems are described, including those based on grain size, moisture content, liquid limit, plastic limit, and group index. Compaction and testing of soil, including CBR and plate bearing tests, are also summarized to evaluate the soil's strength and suitability for supporting highway loads.

admixturs66-160302190009.pdf

Design a suitable splice and bolted connection for extending a column of rolled steel cross section ISHB200@40 kg/m. The column is to support service axial compressive load, bending moment and shear force of 1000 KN, 50 KN and 90 KN respectively. The column ends are smooth finished. Ordinary bolts of M20 grade 4.6 are available for splicing.

Traffic engg_.pdf

Traffic engineering is that branch of engineering which deals with the improvement of
traffic performance on road network and terminals through systematic traffic studies,
scientific analysis and engineering applications which provide safe, rapid, efficient
convenient and economic transportation of persons and goods.
• Traffic engineering includes planning and geometric design on one hand and
regulation and control on the other.
• The road traffic is composed of different categories of vehicular traffic and pedestrian
traffic. Each category of vehicular traffic has two components, the human element as
the driver and the machine as the vehicle.

02Unit II.pdf

Transportation engineering, primarily involves planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of transportation facilities. The facilities support air, highway, railroad, pipeline, water, and even space transportation.

0204SelfHealing.pdf

Self-healing concrete is a concrete that repairs cracks through a biological reaction caused by bacteria in the concrete. When cracks form and air and water enter, bacteria produce limestone to fill the cracks. This allows the concrete to heal itself over time. The bacteria remain dormant for over 200 years but become active when cracks form. Self-healing concrete improves durability and reduces corrosion compared to normal concrete, though it has 20% lower strength and higher costs. Potential applications include tunnels, bridges, and marine structures.

Sifcon223.pdf

SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete) is a unique construction material with high strength and ductility due to a phenomenon called "fiber-lock". It consists of a cementitious slurry matrix reinforced with steel fibers. The slurry has no coarse aggregates but a high cement and fine sand content. Factors like slurry strength, fiber volume and alignment affect its properties. SIFCON has excellent durability and energy absorption and is used in applications like pavements, bridges, and blast-resistant structures.

Concrete Mix Proportioning.pdf

The document discusses mix proportioning for M25 grade concrete according to IS 10262:2019. It provides the stipulations and test data for materials used. The target strength is calculated as 31.6 N/mm2. The water-cement ratio is selected as 0.46. The proportions are calculated as 418 kg/m3 cement, 192 kg/m3 water, 657 kg/m3 fine aggregate, and 1127 kg/m3 coarse aggregate. Adjustments are made to account for moisture in dry aggregates. The presentation emphasizes using supplementary cementitious materials and admixtures to improve strength and durability.

Fiber reinforced conc.pdf

The document provides an overview of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), including its history, types of fibres used, mechanical properties, factors affecting properties, advantages, disadvantages, applications, and mixing/curing processes. Some key points:
- FRC has been used for over 3,500 years, starting with straw reinforcement in bricks. Modern usage began in the early 1900s with asbestos fibres and expanded in the 1950s with steel, glass, and synthetic fibres.
- Fibres improve properties like tensile strength, ductility, crack resistance, impact resistance, and durability. Different fibre types include steel, glass, carbon, natural fibres, and synthetics.
- Factors

irrigation.pptx.pdf

This document discusses various topics related to irrigation including:
1. The necessity of irrigation due to factors like low and uneven rainfall as well as growing multiple crops per year.
2. The advantages of irrigation such as fulfilling crop water requirements, improving yields and living standards, adding to national wealth and revenue, and enabling cash crops.
3. Key terms related to irrigation water requirements including consumptive use, net irrigation requirement, and gross irrigation requirement.
4. Factors that affect the duty of water applied such as irrigation methods, crop type, climate, canal conditions, water quality, soil characteristics, topography, and cultivation methods.

Non destructive tests on Concrete.pptx

This document provides an overview of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for concrete, including penetration tests, rebound hammer tests, pullout tests, and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests. It describes the procedures and objectives of each method. NDT methods allow evaluation of existing concrete structures to assess strength, durability, and quality without damaging the concrete. They provide rapid, on-site data to inform decisions about construction quality control, reinforcement location, and crack/defect detection. The document also discusses factors that influence NDT results and the cost-effectiveness of these non-destructive methods compared to destructive testing of concrete.

types of formwork.pdf

Formwork is used as a temporary mold for pouring concrete that will harden into the desired structural shape. There are various types of formwork classified by material (timber, plywood, steel, aluminum, plastic, magnesium) or purpose (slab formwork, beam formwork, column formwork). Proper formwork design is important to withstand loads, retain shape, prevent leakage, and allow removal without damage to concrete. The order and method of removing formwork is also important for safety.

UNIT V - HPC.pdf

High performance concrete (HPC) is a type of concrete mixture that possesses high workability, high strength, low permeability, and resistance to chemical attack. HPC uses carefully selected, high-quality ingredients and optimized mixture designs to produce concrete with a low water-cement ratio between 0.20 to 0.45. Plasticizers are used to make HPC fluid and workable. HPC exceeds the properties and constructability of normal concrete. It has been used in tunnels, bridges, tall buildings, shotcrete repair, poles, parking garages, and agricultural applications due to its strength, durability, and high modulus of elasticity.

Lecture-4 EQ.pdf

Lecture-4 EQ.pdf

highwaymaterials-soil-ppt_class_1.pdf

highwaymaterials-soil-ppt_class_1.pdf

admixturs66-160302190009.pdf

admixturs66-160302190009.pdf

Traffic engg_.pdf

Traffic engg_.pdf

02Unit II.pdf

02Unit II.pdf

0204SelfHealing.pdf

0204SelfHealing.pdf

Sifcon223.pdf

Sifcon223.pdf

Concrete Mix Proportioning.pdf

Concrete Mix Proportioning.pdf

Fiber reinforced conc.pdf

Fiber reinforced conc.pdf

irrigation.pptx.pdf

irrigation.pptx.pdf

Non destructive tests on Concrete.pptx

Non destructive tests on Concrete.pptx

types of formwork.pdf

types of formwork.pdf

UNIT V - HPC.pdf

UNIT V - HPC.pdf

How to Formulate A Good Research Question

How to Formulate A Research Question

NOVEC 1230 Fire Suppression System Presentation

NOVEC 1230 Fire Suppression System Presentation

The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air

To many of us Relative Humidity (RH%) & Moisture Content (g/ kg) are confusing terms & we often don't know which one of them to choose in order to highlight our "Humidity" issues!
This post is to briefly address the definition of Relative Humidity, Moisture Content , Moisture Load Sources & Humidity Control Hazard!

Safety Operating Procedure for Testing Lifting Tackles

Operating procedure for testing lifting tackles

Ebara corporation introduction. looking ahead, going beyond expectation

Ebara corporation introduction

"Operational and Technical Overview of Electric Locomotives at the Kanpur Ele...

"My Summer Report" provides a detailed account of the Indian Railways and the operations of electric locomotives at the Electric Loco Shed in Kanpur. It includes information on the history of Indian Railways, the establishment and functioning of the Electric Loco Shed, and technical descriptions of the components and operations of three-phase locomotives. The report discusses various parts of the locomotives such as the pantograph, servo motor, lightening arrester, circuit breaker, main transformer, harmonic filter, traction motor, battery, cooling fan, and compressor. It also explains the working of traction converters and provides circuit diagrams for different locomotive models.

AI chapter1 introduction to artificial intelligence

AI chapter1 introduction to artificial intelligence

TestRigor - Element Location Rules and UI Grid system

Element Location Rules of testRigor.

AFCAT STATIC Genral knowledge important CAPSULE.pdf

Pf about afcat exam , it helps in preparation of afcat exam, engineers can give that exam

System Analysis and Design in a changing world 5th edition

software engineering

Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...

Updated technical note

AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt

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Sustainable construction is the use of renewable and recyclable materials in ...

Sustainable construction is the use of renewable and recyclable materials in construction to reduce energy consumption and wastage

Kerong Gas Gas Recovery System Catalogue.pdf

We provide carbon-free and energy-saving solutions for industrial waste gas recovery, including hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, helium, and more. Our advanced technology ensures efficient and sustainable management of waste gases, contributing to a cleaner environment and reduced energy consumption.

Protect YugabyteDB with Hashicorp Vault.pdf

This presentation present how we can use Vault to secure DB credentials

How to Formulate A Good Research Question

How to Formulate A Good Research Question

NOVEC 1230 Fire Suppression System Presentation

NOVEC 1230 Fire Suppression System Presentation

The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air

The Control of Relative Humidity & Moisture Content in The Air

Safety Operating Procedure for Testing Lifting Tackles

Safety Operating Procedure for Testing Lifting Tackles

Ebara corporation introduction. looking ahead, going beyond expectation

Ebara corporation introduction. looking ahead, going beyond expectation

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Administration 9.0 RH134 pdf

JORC_Review_presentation. 2024 código jorcpdf

JORC_Review_presentation. 2024 código jorcpdf

"Operational and Technical Overview of Electric Locomotives at the Kanpur Ele...

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AI chapter1 introduction to artificial intelligence

AI chapter1 introduction to artificial intelligence

TestRigor - Element Location Rules and UI Grid system

TestRigor - Element Location Rules and UI Grid system

OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx

OME754 – INDUSTRIAL SAFETY - unit notes.pptx

AFCAT STATIC Genral knowledge important CAPSULE.pdf

AFCAT STATIC Genral knowledge important CAPSULE.pdf

System Analysis and Design in a changing world 5th edition

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Updated Limitations of Simplified Methods for Evaluating the Potential for Li...

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AI INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence.ppt

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III B.TECH CSE_flutter Lab manual (1).docx

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EAAP2023 : Durabilité et services écosystémiques de l'élevage ovin de montagne

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Kerong Gas Gas Recovery System Catalogue.pdf

Kerong Gas Gas Recovery System Catalogue.pdf

Protect YugabyteDB with Hashicorp Vault.pdf

Protect YugabyteDB with Hashicorp Vault.pdf

- 1. ENCE 710 Design of Steel Structures VI. Plate Girders C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department University of Maryland 2 Introduction Following subjects are covered: Moment strength Shear strength Intermediate transverse stiffener Bearing stiffener Reading: Chapters 11 of Salmon & Johnson AISC LRFD Specification Chapters B (Design Requirements) and F (Design of Members for Flexure) and G (Design of Members for Shear) 3 Typical Plate Girders 4 AISC Limiting Ratios
- 2. 5 AISC Design of Members for Flexure (about Major Axis) 6 Beam vs Plate Girder (for doubly symmetric I-shaped sections) Plate Girder: A deep beam “Slender” web problems: 1.Web buckling 2. Buckling of the compression flange due to inadequate stiffness of the web 3. Buckling due to shear 7 Vertical Buckling (the compression flange) (a) Lateral buckling (b) Torsional buckling (c) Vertical buckling 8 AISC Maximum Web h/tw Stiffened girder (for a/h ≤ 1.5) h/tw = 12.0 √E/Fy (AISC-F13.3) Stiffened girder (for a/h > 1.5) h/tw ≤ 0.40E/Fy (AISC-F13.4) (S & J Table 11.3.1) Unstiffened girder h/tw ≤ 260 (proportioning limits for I-shaped members)
- 3. 9 AISC Nominal Moment Strength If h/tw ≤ 5.70√E/Fy – AISC Table B4.1 treated as rolled beams If h/tw > 5.70√E/Fy Case 1 – Compression flange yielding Mn = RpgFySxc (F5-1) Case 2 – Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mn = RpgFcrSxc (F5-2) (a) Lp < Lb ≤ Lr (F5-3) (b) Lb > Lr (F5-4, 5, 6) (F4-11) (for WLB) aw = ratio of web area to compression flange area ( ≤10) hc = 2 x centroid to inside face of the compression flange y p r p b y y b cr F L L L L F F C F 3 . 0 2 2 t b b cr r L E C F y t r F E r L 7 . 0 1 70 . 5 300 1200 1 y w c w w pg F E t h a a R 6 / 1 ( 12 w fc t a b r 10 AISC Nominal Moment Strength (cont.) Case 3 - Compression flange local buckling Mn = RpgFcrSxc (F5-7) Fcr a. λ ≤ λp: Fcr = Fy b. λ p < λ ≤ λr : (F5-8) c. λ > λr : (F5-9) kc = 4/√(h/tw) and 0.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0.763 Case 4 – Tension-flange yielding (Sxt<Sxc) Mn = FySxt (F5-10) pf rf pf y y cr F F F 3 . 0 2 2 9 . 0 f f c cr t b k F Rpg bending strength reduction factor 11 Limit States in Flexure for plate girder with slender web (AISC-F5) 12 Comparison of LTB (AISC-F5 with AISC-F2)
- 4. 13 Classical Shear Theory (applied to plate girder web panel) 14 Intermediate Stiffener Spacing 15 AISC Nominal Shear Strength If h/tw ≤ 1.10 √(kvE/Fy) - Vn = 0.6 AwFy same as rolled beam (G3-1) If h/tw > 1.10 √(kvE/Fy) (G3-2) (S & J Figs. 11.8.1 & 11.8.2) Except (1) end panel (2) a/h > 3 or a/h > [260/(h/tw)]2 2 1 15 . 1 1 6 . 0 h a C C F A V v v yw w n 16 AISC Nominal Shear Strength (cont.) For 1.10 √(kvE/Fy) ≤ h/tw ≤ 1.37 √(kvE/Fy) Cv = 1.10 √(kvE/Fy) / (h/tw) (G2-4) For h/tw > 1.37 √(kvE/Fy) Cv = 1.51 kvE/[(h/tw)2Fy] (G2-5) kv = 5 + 5/(a/h)2 if a/h ≤ 3 and [260/(h/tw)]2 5 otherwise (S & J Fig. 11.8.3)
- 5. 17 Shear Capacity Available Figure 11.8.1 Shear capacity available, considering post-buckling strength. 18 Tension-Field Action. Figure 11.8.2 Tension-field action. 19 Buckling of Plate Girder Web Figure 11.7.3 Buckling of plate girder web resulting from shear alone—AISC-G2 20 Forces from Tension-Field
- 6. 21 Force in Stiffener (resulting from tension-field action) 22 State of Stress 23 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners (at nominal shear strength Vn including tension-field action) 24 Shear and Moment Strengths (under combined bending and shear)
- 7. 25 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners Intermediate Transverse Stiffener (not required if h/tw ≤ 2.45√E/Fy) (1) Stiffness Criterion Ist ≥ jatw 3 (G2-6) where j = 2.5/(a/h)2 – 2 ≥ 0.5 (2) Strength Criterion Ast > Fy/Fyst (0.15 Dshtw (1 – Cv) Vu/ΦvVn – 18 tw 2)≤0 (G3-3) 26 Intermediate Transverse Stiffener connection to flange 27 Bearing Stiffener (effective cross-sections) 28 Bearing Stiffener Bearing Stiffener ΦRn ≥ Ru (1) Bearing Criterion (LRFD – J8.1) Φ = 0.75 Rn= 1.8 FyApb (2) Column Stability Criterion KL/r = 0.75 h/r where r of 12 tw or 25tw ΦcFcr = LRFD Table 3-36 Reqd. Ast = Ru/ΦcFcr → Reqd. t (3) Local Buckling Criterion (AISC 13th Edition Table B4.1 Case 3) Min. t = w/(0.56/√E/Fy)
- 8. 29 Effect of Longitudinal Stiffener on plate girder web stability 30 Example – Girder loading and support for design 31 Example - Factored moment and factored shear envelopes for two-span continuous beam of illustrative example 32 Example - Design Sketch