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State of Fish Stocks in NE Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea
By
Eskild Kirkegaard, ICES ACOM Chair
Seminar “State of Fish Stocks in European Waters”,
Brussels, July 14, 2015)
Stock Categories
1 Stocks with an accepted analytical assessment and forecast for
MSY
MSY approach
2 Stocks with an analytical assessment and forecast accepted for
trends only
MSY approach
3 Stocks with survey-based assessments indicating trends Precautionary approach
MSY approach being
developed
4 Stocks with reliable time-series of catch data to approximate
MSY
Precautionary approach
MSY approach being
developed
5 Only catch or landings available Precautionary approach
6 Only landings available and largely discarded Precautionary approach
• Each category has several available methods dependent on stock status.
ICES MSY advice rule (Category 1 and 2 stocks)
ICES bases its MSY approach on attaining a fishing mortality rate at or below FMSY.
In this approach, both fishing mortality and biomass reference points are used:
these reference points are FMSY and BMSY-trigger. BMSY-trigger is a biomass reference
point that triggers a cautious response.
ICES approach does not include a MSY biomass target (BMSY).
Stock status
Stock size relative to BMSY-trigger
Fishing mortality relative to FMSY
ECOREGIONS
•Iceland and East Greenland Seas
•Barents Sea
•Faroe Plateau Ecosystem
•Norwegian Sea
• Celtic Sea and West of Scotland
• North Sea
• Bay of Biscay and Iberian Waters
• Baltic Sea
•Oceanic northeast Atlantic
Bay of Biscay & Iberian ecoregion
IBERIA (VIIIc, IXa):
• Hake
• Anglerfish (pisc.)
• Anglerfish (budeg.)
• Megrim (whiff.)
• Megrim (bosc.)
• Sardine
BAY OF BISCAY:
• Sole
Bay of Biscay & Iberian
ecoregion
• Hake: Southern
• Anglerfish (pisc.)
• Anglerfish (budeg.)
• Megrim (whiff.)
• Megrim (bosc.)
• Sole: Bay of Biscay
• Sardine: Cantabrian Sea,
Atlantic Iberian Waters
Celtic Sea &
West, Southwest Ireland
• Cod
• Haddock
• Herring
• Whiting
• Plaice
• Sole
West of Scotland
& Rockall
• Cod (VIa; VIb)
• Haddock (Rockall)
• Herring (Via, VIIbc)
• Whiting (VIa; VIb)
• Megrim (IVa-VIa; VIb)
Irish Sea
• Herring
• Sole
Celtic Seas ecoregion
Sea bass (IVbc,
VIIa, VIId-h
Celtic Seas ecoregion
• Cod: West of Scotland
• Cod: Eastern English Channel
and Southern Celtic Seas
• Sea bass: Central and South
North Sea, Irish Sea, English
Channel, Bristol Channel,
Celtic Sea
• Haddock: Southern Celtic
Seas and English Channel
• Haddock: Rockall
• Whiting: Southern Celtic seas
and Eastern English Channel
Celtic Seas ecoregion
• Megrim: North Sea &
West of Scotland
• Plaice: Irish Sea
• Plaice: Celtic Sea
• Sole: Celtic Sea
• Sole: Irish Sea
• Sole: Southwest of
Ireland
Celtic Seas ecoregion
• Herring: West of Scotland
& Ireland
• Herring: Irish Sea
• Herring: Celtic Sea
Celtic Seas ecoregion
Celtic Seas ecoregion
Plaice: Divisions VIIh–k
Cod: Irish Sea
Sea bass: IVbc, VIIa, VIId-h
Cod: West of Scotland
Celtic Seas ecoregion
Whiting: West of Scotland
Herring: West of Scotland
and Ireland
North Sea ecoregion
NORTH SEA:
• Cod: IV, Skagerrak, VIId
• Haddock: IV, Skagerrak
• Whiting: IV, VIId
• Saithe: IV, IIIa, VI
• Plaice: IV
• Sole: IV
• Cod: Kattegat
• Whiting: Skagerrak & Kattegat
• Plaice: Skagerrak
• Plaice: SD 21-23
• Sole: Skagerrak, Kattegat & SD 22-24
Brill, Dab, Flounder, Lemon sole,
Turbot (IV; IIIa), Witch
Short lived:
Sandeel, Norway pout,
Sprat (IV, IIIa)
Nephrops
EASTERN
CHANNEL
• Plaice: VIId
• Sole: VIId
North Sea ecoregion
• Cod: North Sea, Eastern
English Channel & Skagerrak
• Cod: Kattegat
• Haddock: West of Scotland,
North Sea and Skagerrak
• Whiting: North Sea & Eastern
English Channel
• Saithe: West of Scotland,
North Sea, Skagerrak and
Kattegat
North Sea ecoregion
• Plaice: Eastern English Channel
• Plaice: North Sea & Skagerrak
• Sole: Eastern English channel
• Sole: Kattegat & Skagerrak
• Sole: North Sea
North Sea ecoregion
• Nephrops: North Sea,
Skagerrak, and Kattegat
North Sea ecoregion
• Herring North Sea
• Sprat North Sea
• Sprat Skagerrak & Kattegat
North Sea ecoregion
North Sea ecoregion
North Sea cod
Plaice North Sea
Baltic ecoregion
• Cod SD 22-24
• Cod SD 25-32
HERRING:
• Bothnian Bay
• Bothnian Sea
• Central Baltic
• Gulf Riga
• Western Baltic, IIIa
Sprat SD 22-32
Flatfishes
Plaice, Brill, Dab,
Flounder, Turbot
Salmon & Trout
Baltic ecoregion
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Biomassind.≥30cm(Kg/h)
Stock size indicator
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Catches/Biomassind.≥30cm)
Harvest rate
Western Baltic Sea cod
Eastern Baltic Sea cod
Baltic ecoregion
Baltic ecoregion
Herring in Western Baltic,
Skagerrak and Kattegat
Flounder: Central Baltic
(subdiv. 24 & 25)
Northeast Arctic stocks
Widely distributed and migratory stocks
Widely distributed and migratory stocks
Hake: Northern
General trend in stock size and exploitation
General trend in stock size and exploitation
General trend in stock size and exploitation
• Fishing mortalities have declined towards FMSY
• Stocks are increasing
Thank you for your attention

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State of fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

  • 1. State of Fish Stocks in NE Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic Sea By Eskild Kirkegaard, ICES ACOM Chair Seminar “State of Fish Stocks in European Waters”, Brussels, July 14, 2015)
  • 2. Stock Categories 1 Stocks with an accepted analytical assessment and forecast for MSY MSY approach 2 Stocks with an analytical assessment and forecast accepted for trends only MSY approach 3 Stocks with survey-based assessments indicating trends Precautionary approach MSY approach being developed 4 Stocks with reliable time-series of catch data to approximate MSY Precautionary approach MSY approach being developed 5 Only catch or landings available Precautionary approach 6 Only landings available and largely discarded Precautionary approach • Each category has several available methods dependent on stock status.
  • 3. ICES MSY advice rule (Category 1 and 2 stocks) ICES bases its MSY approach on attaining a fishing mortality rate at or below FMSY. In this approach, both fishing mortality and biomass reference points are used: these reference points are FMSY and BMSY-trigger. BMSY-trigger is a biomass reference point that triggers a cautious response. ICES approach does not include a MSY biomass target (BMSY).
  • 4. Stock status Stock size relative to BMSY-trigger Fishing mortality relative to FMSY
  • 5. ECOREGIONS •Iceland and East Greenland Seas •Barents Sea •Faroe Plateau Ecosystem •Norwegian Sea • Celtic Sea and West of Scotland • North Sea • Bay of Biscay and Iberian Waters • Baltic Sea •Oceanic northeast Atlantic
  • 6. Bay of Biscay & Iberian ecoregion IBERIA (VIIIc, IXa): • Hake • Anglerfish (pisc.) • Anglerfish (budeg.) • Megrim (whiff.) • Megrim (bosc.) • Sardine BAY OF BISCAY: • Sole
  • 7. Bay of Biscay & Iberian ecoregion • Hake: Southern • Anglerfish (pisc.) • Anglerfish (budeg.) • Megrim (whiff.) • Megrim (bosc.) • Sole: Bay of Biscay • Sardine: Cantabrian Sea, Atlantic Iberian Waters
  • 8. Celtic Sea & West, Southwest Ireland • Cod • Haddock • Herring • Whiting • Plaice • Sole West of Scotland & Rockall • Cod (VIa; VIb) • Haddock (Rockall) • Herring (Via, VIIbc) • Whiting (VIa; VIb) • Megrim (IVa-VIa; VIb) Irish Sea • Herring • Sole Celtic Seas ecoregion Sea bass (IVbc, VIIa, VIId-h
  • 9. Celtic Seas ecoregion • Cod: West of Scotland • Cod: Eastern English Channel and Southern Celtic Seas • Sea bass: Central and South North Sea, Irish Sea, English Channel, Bristol Channel, Celtic Sea • Haddock: Southern Celtic Seas and English Channel • Haddock: Rockall • Whiting: Southern Celtic seas and Eastern English Channel
  • 10. Celtic Seas ecoregion • Megrim: North Sea & West of Scotland • Plaice: Irish Sea • Plaice: Celtic Sea • Sole: Celtic Sea • Sole: Irish Sea • Sole: Southwest of Ireland
  • 11. Celtic Seas ecoregion • Herring: West of Scotland & Ireland • Herring: Irish Sea • Herring: Celtic Sea
  • 13. Celtic Seas ecoregion Plaice: Divisions VIIh–k Cod: Irish Sea Sea bass: IVbc, VIIa, VIId-h Cod: West of Scotland
  • 14. Celtic Seas ecoregion Whiting: West of Scotland Herring: West of Scotland and Ireland
  • 15. North Sea ecoregion NORTH SEA: • Cod: IV, Skagerrak, VIId • Haddock: IV, Skagerrak • Whiting: IV, VIId • Saithe: IV, IIIa, VI • Plaice: IV • Sole: IV • Cod: Kattegat • Whiting: Skagerrak & Kattegat • Plaice: Skagerrak • Plaice: SD 21-23 • Sole: Skagerrak, Kattegat & SD 22-24 Brill, Dab, Flounder, Lemon sole, Turbot (IV; IIIa), Witch Short lived: Sandeel, Norway pout, Sprat (IV, IIIa) Nephrops EASTERN CHANNEL • Plaice: VIId • Sole: VIId
  • 16. North Sea ecoregion • Cod: North Sea, Eastern English Channel & Skagerrak • Cod: Kattegat • Haddock: West of Scotland, North Sea and Skagerrak • Whiting: North Sea & Eastern English Channel • Saithe: West of Scotland, North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat
  • 17. North Sea ecoregion • Plaice: Eastern English Channel • Plaice: North Sea & Skagerrak • Sole: Eastern English channel • Sole: Kattegat & Skagerrak • Sole: North Sea
  • 18. North Sea ecoregion • Nephrops: North Sea, Skagerrak, and Kattegat
  • 19. North Sea ecoregion • Herring North Sea • Sprat North Sea • Sprat Skagerrak & Kattegat
  • 21. North Sea ecoregion North Sea cod Plaice North Sea
  • 22. Baltic ecoregion • Cod SD 22-24 • Cod SD 25-32 HERRING: • Bothnian Bay • Bothnian Sea • Central Baltic • Gulf Riga • Western Baltic, IIIa Sprat SD 22-32 Flatfishes Plaice, Brill, Dab, Flounder, Turbot Salmon & Trout
  • 23. Baltic ecoregion 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Biomassind.≥30cm(Kg/h) Stock size indicator 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Catches/Biomassind.≥30cm) Harvest rate Western Baltic Sea cod Eastern Baltic Sea cod
  • 25. Baltic ecoregion Herring in Western Baltic, Skagerrak and Kattegat Flounder: Central Baltic (subdiv. 24 & 25)
  • 27. Widely distributed and migratory stocks
  • 28. Widely distributed and migratory stocks Hake: Northern
  • 29. General trend in stock size and exploitation
  • 30. General trend in stock size and exploitation
  • 31. General trend in stock size and exploitation • Fishing mortalities have declined towards FMSY • Stocks are increasing
  • 32. Thank you for your attention