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STAFFING &
DUTY
SCHEDULING
Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN
“Be
fair
In the
distribution
of duty hours
to your
nursing
staff.”
Staffing
• Is the process of determining and
providing the acceptable number and mix
of nursing personnel to produce a desired
level of care to meet the patient’s demand.
• Purpose: to provide each nursing unit
with an appropriate and acceptable
number of workers in each category to
perform the nursing tasks required.
Factors affecting staffing
• 1. The type, philosophy and objectives f
the hospital and the nursing service
• 2. the population served or the kind of
patients served whether pay or charity
• 3. the number of patients and severity of
their illness-knowledge and ability of
nursing personnel are matched with the
actual care needs of patients
Factors affecting staffing
• 4. Availability and characteristics of the
nursing staff, including education, level
of preparation, mix of personnel,
number and position:
• 5. administrative policies such as rotation,
weekends and holiday off-duties
• 6. standards of care desired which should
be available and clearly spelled out.
Factors affecting staffing
• 7. layout of the various nursing units and
resources available within the department
such as adequate equipment, supplies and
materials.
• 8. budget including the amount alloted to
salaries, fringe benefits, supplies, materials
and equipment;
• 9. professional activities and priorities in non-
patient activities like involvement in
professional organizations, formal
educational development, participation in
research and staff development
Factors affecting staffing
• 10. teaching program or the extent of staff
involvement in teaching activities
• 11. expected hours of work per annum of each
employee. This is influenced by the 40-hr
week law; and
• 12. patters of work schedule-traditional 5 days
per week, 8 hours per day; 4 days a week,
ten hours per day and three days off; or 3 ½
days of 12 hours per day and 3 ½ days off
per week.
Nursing Care hours per patient/day according
to classification of patients per units
Cases/Patients NCH/Pt/Day Prof to Non Prof
Ratio
1. General Medicine 3.5 60:40
2. Medical 3.4 60:40
3. Surgical 3.4 60:40
4. Obstetrics 3.0 60:40
5. Pediatrics 4.6 70:30
6. Pathologic Nursery 2.8 55:45
7. ER/ICU/RR 6.0 70:30
8. CCU 6.0 80:20
Patient Care Classification System
• It is a method of grouping patients according to
the amount and complexity of their nursing care
requirements and the nursing time and skill they
require.
• Purpose:
• 1. Serve in determining the amount of nursing
care required, generally within 24 hours.
• 2. to determine the category of nursing
personnel who should provide that care.
Classification Categories
Level I-Self
Care or
Minimal Care
-NCH
1.5/pt/day
- Ratio 55:45
-Can take a bath on his own; feed himself; perform his
own ADL.
-For discharge pt; non-emergency, newly admitted
don’t exhibit unusual s/s;
- requires little treatment and observation
Level II –
Moderate
Care or
Intermediate
Care
-NCH 3/pt
- Ratio 60:40
-Need some assistance in bathing, feeding, ambulating
for short period.
-Extreme s/s of illness must have subsided or have not
yet appeared
-May have slight emotional needs
-v/s taking ordered 3x/shift; with IVF/BT; are semi-
conscious and exhibiting some psychosocial or social
problems;
- periodic treatments and/or observations and
/instructions
Classification Categories
Level III –
Total,
Complete or
Intensive
Care
-NCM
6hrs/pt/day
-Ratio 65:35
-Patient are completely dependent upon
the nursing personnel.
-They are provided complete bath, are
fed, may or may not be unconscious,
with marked emotional needs; with v/s
monitoring more than 3x/shift
-Maybe on continuous oxygen therapy,
with chest or abdominal tubes
-They require close observation at least
every 30 minutes for impending
hemorrhage, with hypo or hypertension
and/ or cardiac arrhythmia
Classification Categories
Level IV-
Highly
Specialized
Critical Care
-NCH 6-9 or
more /pt/day
- Ratio 70:30
or 80:20
-Need maximum level of nursing care
with a ratio of 80 professionals to 20
non-professionals.
-Needs continuous treatment and
observation
-With many medications, IV piggy
backs; v/s monitoring every 15-30
minutes; hourly output.
-There are significant changes in
doctor’s orders
Categories of Level of Care of Patients: Nursing Care
Hours/Pt/Day & Ratio of Prof-Non Prof
Levels of Care NCH Needed Per
Pt./Day
Ratio of Prof to
Non-Prof
Level I – Self-Care
or Minimal Care
1.50 5:45
Level II Moderate
or Intermediate
Care
3.0 60:40
Level II Total or
Intensive Care
4.5 65:35
Level IV Highly
Specialized or
Critical Care
6.0
7 or higher
70:30
80:20
Percentage of patients at various levels of care
per type of hospital
Type of Hospital Minimal
Care
Moderate
Care
Intensive
Care
Highly
Spl. Care
Primary Hospital 70 25 5 -
Secondary Hospital 65 30 5 -
Tertiary Hospital 30 45 15 10
Special Tertiary
Hospital
10 25 45 20
Computing for the number of nursing
personnel needed
- should ensure that there is sufficient staff to cover
all shifts, off-duties, holidays, leaves,
absences, and time for staff development
programs.
- The Forty-Hour Week Law (Republic Act 5901)- for
100 bed capacity and up
-Granting of the 3-day special privilege to govt.
employees by the Civil Service Commission as per
Memorandum Circular No. 6 series of 1996
(birthdays, weddings, anniversaries, funerals
(mourning), relocation, enrollment or graduation leave,
hospitalization, and accident leave.
Total No. working-Non working days & hours of
nursing personnel per year
Rights & Privileges Given Each
Personnel Per Year
Working Hours Per Week
40 hours 48 hours
1. Vacation Leave
2. Sick Leave
3. Legal Holidays
4. Special Holidays
5. Special Privileges
6. Off-Duties as per R.A. 5901
7. Continuing Education Program
Total Non-working Days per year
Total working days per year
Total working hours per year
15
15
10
2
3
104
3
152
213
1,704
15
15
10
2
3
52
3
100
265
2,120
Relievers Needed
- To compute for relievers needed, the following should
be considered;
1. Average number of leaves taken each year------ 15
a. vacation 15
b. sick leave 5
2. Holidays -----------------------------------------------------12
3. Special Privileges as per CSC MC#6 s. 1996-------3
4. Continuing Educ. Prog. For professionals------------3
Total Average Leave-------33
To determine the relievers
needed
- divide 33 by number of working days per year
each employee served (whether 213 or 265)
- result will be 0.15 per persons works for 40
hour/week
- result will be 0.12 per persons works for 48
hour/week
- multiply the computed reliever per person by the
computed number of nsg personnel
- this will give you the total number of relievers
Staffing Formula
To illustrate: Find the number of nursing according to levels
of care needed.
1. Categorize the patients according to levels of care
needed
250 pts x 0.30 = 75 pts needing minimal care
250 pts x 0.45 = 112.5 pts needing moderate care
250 pts x 0.15 = 37.5 pts needed intensive care
250 pts x 0.01 = 25 pts need highly specialized
250 nsg care
2. Find the number of nursing care hours (NCH) needed
by patients at each level of care per day.
75 pts x 1.5 (NCH needed at Level I) = 112.5 MCH/day
112.5 pts x 3 (NCH needed at Level II) = 337.5 NCH/day
37.5 pts x 4.5 (NCH needed at Level II) = 168.75 NCH/day
25 pts x 6 (NCH needed at Level IV) = 150 NCH/day
Total 768.75 NCH/day
3. Find the total NCH needed by 250 patients per year.
768.75 x 365 (days/yr) = 280,593.75 NCH/year
4. Find the actual working hours rendered by each
nursing personnel per year.
8 (hrs/day) x 213 (working days/year) = 1,704
(working hours/year)
5. Find the total number of nursing personnel
needed.
a. Total NCH per year = 280,593.75 = 165
Working hrs/year 1,704
b. relief x total nsg. Personnel = 165 x 0.15 = 25
c. total nursing personnel needed 165 + 25 = 190
6. Categorize to professional and non-professional
personnel ratio of prof to non-prof in a tertiary hospital
is 65:35
190 x .65 = 134 professional nurses
190 x .35 = 66 nursing attendants
7. Distribute by shifts
124 nurses x .45 = 56 nurses on AM shift
124 nurses x .37 = 46 nurses on PM shift
124 nurses x .18 = 22 nurses on night shift
Total 124 nurses
66 nsg attendants x .45 = 30 nsg. attendants on AM shift
66 nsg attendants x .37 = 24 nsg attendants on PM shift
66 nsg attendents x .18 = 12 nursing attendants on noc
Total = 66 nursing attendants
Assessing a Scheduling System
1. Ability to cover the needs of the unit
2. quality to enhance the nursing personnel's
knowledge, training and experience
3. fairness to the staff – fair share of weekends, holiday
offs, rotation patters for the whole year
including assignment to “difficult” or “light” or
“undesirable” units or shifts
4. stability – the schedule must be harmonized with their
family or social activities of the nurse staff
5. flexibility – ability to handle changes brought by
emergency leaves.
Make a schedule in a weekly or monthly
basis and do cycle system with the staff
under the area assigned for fairness and
flexibility.
A one-week cyclical schedule
Personnel S M T W T F S
7/3 Headnurse/Senior Nurse x x
Staff Nurse x x
Nsg. Att. x x
3/11 Staff Nurse x x
Nsg. Att. x x
11/7 Staff Nurse x x
Nsg. Att. x x
Gen. Rel. 3/11; 11/7 S. nurse 3/11 3/11 11/7 x x 3/11 11/7
N. Att. 3/11 11/7 x 7/3 3/11 11/7 x

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Staffing

  • 1. STAFFING & DUTY SCHEDULING Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN “Be fair In the distribution of duty hours to your nursing staff.”
  • 2. Staffing • Is the process of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix of nursing personnel to produce a desired level of care to meet the patient’s demand. • Purpose: to provide each nursing unit with an appropriate and acceptable number of workers in each category to perform the nursing tasks required.
  • 3. Factors affecting staffing • 1. The type, philosophy and objectives f the hospital and the nursing service • 2. the population served or the kind of patients served whether pay or charity • 3. the number of patients and severity of their illness-knowledge and ability of nursing personnel are matched with the actual care needs of patients
  • 4. Factors affecting staffing • 4. Availability and characteristics of the nursing staff, including education, level of preparation, mix of personnel, number and position: • 5. administrative policies such as rotation, weekends and holiday off-duties • 6. standards of care desired which should be available and clearly spelled out.
  • 5. Factors affecting staffing • 7. layout of the various nursing units and resources available within the department such as adequate equipment, supplies and materials. • 8. budget including the amount alloted to salaries, fringe benefits, supplies, materials and equipment; • 9. professional activities and priorities in non- patient activities like involvement in professional organizations, formal educational development, participation in research and staff development
  • 6. Factors affecting staffing • 10. teaching program or the extent of staff involvement in teaching activities • 11. expected hours of work per annum of each employee. This is influenced by the 40-hr week law; and • 12. patters of work schedule-traditional 5 days per week, 8 hours per day; 4 days a week, ten hours per day and three days off; or 3 ½ days of 12 hours per day and 3 ½ days off per week.
  • 7. Nursing Care hours per patient/day according to classification of patients per units Cases/Patients NCH/Pt/Day Prof to Non Prof Ratio 1. General Medicine 3.5 60:40 2. Medical 3.4 60:40 3. Surgical 3.4 60:40 4. Obstetrics 3.0 60:40 5. Pediatrics 4.6 70:30 6. Pathologic Nursery 2.8 55:45 7. ER/ICU/RR 6.0 70:30 8. CCU 6.0 80:20
  • 8. Patient Care Classification System • It is a method of grouping patients according to the amount and complexity of their nursing care requirements and the nursing time and skill they require. • Purpose: • 1. Serve in determining the amount of nursing care required, generally within 24 hours. • 2. to determine the category of nursing personnel who should provide that care.
  • 9. Classification Categories Level I-Self Care or Minimal Care -NCH 1.5/pt/day - Ratio 55:45 -Can take a bath on his own; feed himself; perform his own ADL. -For discharge pt; non-emergency, newly admitted don’t exhibit unusual s/s; - requires little treatment and observation Level II – Moderate Care or Intermediate Care -NCH 3/pt - Ratio 60:40 -Need some assistance in bathing, feeding, ambulating for short period. -Extreme s/s of illness must have subsided or have not yet appeared -May have slight emotional needs -v/s taking ordered 3x/shift; with IVF/BT; are semi- conscious and exhibiting some psychosocial or social problems; - periodic treatments and/or observations and /instructions
  • 10. Classification Categories Level III – Total, Complete or Intensive Care -NCM 6hrs/pt/day -Ratio 65:35 -Patient are completely dependent upon the nursing personnel. -They are provided complete bath, are fed, may or may not be unconscious, with marked emotional needs; with v/s monitoring more than 3x/shift -Maybe on continuous oxygen therapy, with chest or abdominal tubes -They require close observation at least every 30 minutes for impending hemorrhage, with hypo or hypertension and/ or cardiac arrhythmia
  • 11. Classification Categories Level IV- Highly Specialized Critical Care -NCH 6-9 or more /pt/day - Ratio 70:30 or 80:20 -Need maximum level of nursing care with a ratio of 80 professionals to 20 non-professionals. -Needs continuous treatment and observation -With many medications, IV piggy backs; v/s monitoring every 15-30 minutes; hourly output. -There are significant changes in doctor’s orders
  • 12. Categories of Level of Care of Patients: Nursing Care Hours/Pt/Day & Ratio of Prof-Non Prof Levels of Care NCH Needed Per Pt./Day Ratio of Prof to Non-Prof Level I – Self-Care or Minimal Care 1.50 5:45 Level II Moderate or Intermediate Care 3.0 60:40 Level II Total or Intensive Care 4.5 65:35 Level IV Highly Specialized or Critical Care 6.0 7 or higher 70:30 80:20
  • 13. Percentage of patients at various levels of care per type of hospital Type of Hospital Minimal Care Moderate Care Intensive Care Highly Spl. Care Primary Hospital 70 25 5 - Secondary Hospital 65 30 5 - Tertiary Hospital 30 45 15 10 Special Tertiary Hospital 10 25 45 20
  • 14. Computing for the number of nursing personnel needed - should ensure that there is sufficient staff to cover all shifts, off-duties, holidays, leaves, absences, and time for staff development programs. - The Forty-Hour Week Law (Republic Act 5901)- for 100 bed capacity and up -Granting of the 3-day special privilege to govt. employees by the Civil Service Commission as per Memorandum Circular No. 6 series of 1996 (birthdays, weddings, anniversaries, funerals (mourning), relocation, enrollment or graduation leave, hospitalization, and accident leave.
  • 15. Total No. working-Non working days & hours of nursing personnel per year Rights & Privileges Given Each Personnel Per Year Working Hours Per Week 40 hours 48 hours 1. Vacation Leave 2. Sick Leave 3. Legal Holidays 4. Special Holidays 5. Special Privileges 6. Off-Duties as per R.A. 5901 7. Continuing Education Program Total Non-working Days per year Total working days per year Total working hours per year 15 15 10 2 3 104 3 152 213 1,704 15 15 10 2 3 52 3 100 265 2,120
  • 16. Relievers Needed - To compute for relievers needed, the following should be considered; 1. Average number of leaves taken each year------ 15 a. vacation 15 b. sick leave 5 2. Holidays -----------------------------------------------------12 3. Special Privileges as per CSC MC#6 s. 1996-------3 4. Continuing Educ. Prog. For professionals------------3 Total Average Leave-------33
  • 17. To determine the relievers needed - divide 33 by number of working days per year each employee served (whether 213 or 265) - result will be 0.15 per persons works for 40 hour/week - result will be 0.12 per persons works for 48 hour/week - multiply the computed reliever per person by the computed number of nsg personnel - this will give you the total number of relievers
  • 18. Staffing Formula To illustrate: Find the number of nursing according to levels of care needed. 1. Categorize the patients according to levels of care needed 250 pts x 0.30 = 75 pts needing minimal care 250 pts x 0.45 = 112.5 pts needing moderate care 250 pts x 0.15 = 37.5 pts needed intensive care 250 pts x 0.01 = 25 pts need highly specialized 250 nsg care
  • 19. 2. Find the number of nursing care hours (NCH) needed by patients at each level of care per day. 75 pts x 1.5 (NCH needed at Level I) = 112.5 MCH/day 112.5 pts x 3 (NCH needed at Level II) = 337.5 NCH/day 37.5 pts x 4.5 (NCH needed at Level II) = 168.75 NCH/day 25 pts x 6 (NCH needed at Level IV) = 150 NCH/day Total 768.75 NCH/day 3. Find the total NCH needed by 250 patients per year. 768.75 x 365 (days/yr) = 280,593.75 NCH/year
  • 20. 4. Find the actual working hours rendered by each nursing personnel per year. 8 (hrs/day) x 213 (working days/year) = 1,704 (working hours/year) 5. Find the total number of nursing personnel needed. a. Total NCH per year = 280,593.75 = 165 Working hrs/year 1,704 b. relief x total nsg. Personnel = 165 x 0.15 = 25 c. total nursing personnel needed 165 + 25 = 190
  • 21. 6. Categorize to professional and non-professional personnel ratio of prof to non-prof in a tertiary hospital is 65:35 190 x .65 = 134 professional nurses 190 x .35 = 66 nursing attendants 7. Distribute by shifts 124 nurses x .45 = 56 nurses on AM shift 124 nurses x .37 = 46 nurses on PM shift 124 nurses x .18 = 22 nurses on night shift Total 124 nurses 66 nsg attendants x .45 = 30 nsg. attendants on AM shift 66 nsg attendants x .37 = 24 nsg attendants on PM shift 66 nsg attendents x .18 = 12 nursing attendants on noc Total = 66 nursing attendants
  • 22. Assessing a Scheduling System 1. Ability to cover the needs of the unit 2. quality to enhance the nursing personnel's knowledge, training and experience 3. fairness to the staff – fair share of weekends, holiday offs, rotation patters for the whole year including assignment to “difficult” or “light” or “undesirable” units or shifts 4. stability – the schedule must be harmonized with their family or social activities of the nurse staff 5. flexibility – ability to handle changes brought by emergency leaves.
  • 23. Make a schedule in a weekly or monthly basis and do cycle system with the staff under the area assigned for fairness and flexibility.
  • 24. A one-week cyclical schedule Personnel S M T W T F S 7/3 Headnurse/Senior Nurse x x Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x 3/11 Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x 11/7 Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x Gen. Rel. 3/11; 11/7 S. nurse 3/11 3/11 11/7 x x 3/11 11/7 N. Att. 3/11 11/7 x 7/3 3/11 11/7 x