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An emerging platform for oral
delivery of drugs with poor
aqueous solubility
Utilization of lipid as a carrier for
the delivery of poorly water
soluble, lipophilic drugs
BA enhancement & normalization
Targeted lymphatic delivery
Low
Dissolution
Low
Permeability
High Pre-
absorptive
Metabolism
High Efflux
Transportation
High First-Pass
Metabolism
Low Solubility
Active uptake transporters:
FATP4/SRB1
Efflux transporters:
Pgp/BCRP/MRP
A BIG NO (X)
 Long been practiced
 Vegetable dressings with olive oil, cheese or
mayonnaise
 Enhance absorption of water-insoluble
vitamins/nutrients
 Eg.: Fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids like
beta-carotene, lutein, etc.
Country Product % No. of Products
UK 2% 21
US 3% 27
Japan 4% 8
Physicochemical diversity
Biocompatibility
Ability to enhance oral BA
through lymphatic delivery
 Complex physicochemical properties
 Challenges in stability & manufacturing
 Limited solubility of some poorly water-
soluble drugs in lipids
 Pre-absorptive gastrointestinal processing
 Lack of knowledge about the in vivo behavior
and influence of co-administered
drugs/lipids
 Lack of predictive in vitro and in vivo testing
methodologies
 In-depth knowledge of the GI digestive
process of lipid
 Ability to interpret biopharmaceutical
properties of lipid formulations
 Designing knowledge of relevant in vitro tests
to mimic the physiological environment for
the lipid formulation
Biorelevant dissolution media
In vivo colloidal behavior of the LBODDS
Lipids
Simple Lipids (Esters of FA + Alcohol) Compound Lipids
Fats
(FA + Glycerol)
Waxes
(FA + Alcohol)
Solid
(Fats)
Liquid
(Oils)
Derived Lipids Associated Substatnces
1
2
3
4
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Sulpholipids
Lipoproteins
1
2
3
4
FA
Glycerides
Alcohols
Bases
1
2
3
4
Carotenoids
Tocopherols
Fat sol. vitamins
Steroids
Digestive Phase Absorption Phase Circulatory Phase
Autocatalytic Process
1. Physical breakdown
of lipids into coarse
emulsion
2. Hydrolysis of TGs
into FAs and MGs
3. Mixed-micelle
formation with bile
salts and/or vesicle
formation of FAs +
TGs
Carrier Process
1. Entry into
enterocyte by
passive diffusion,
facilitated diffusion
and active
transport
2. Formation of TG &
PL from absorbed
FA & MG
3. Formation of
chylomicron and
storage in golgi
apparatus
4. Exocytosis into
extracellular phase
Size-selective Process
1. Lipophilic drugs
with logP > 5 with
TG solubility > 50
mg/ml enters
lymphatic delivery
2. Chylomicrons are
big in size and
access lymphatic
transport
3. FFA < 12 carbon
absorbed by portal
and more than that
by lymph
1. Antral contraction
shear
2. Retropropulsion
3. Gastric emptying
SECRETI
N
Drains Blood from spleen,
pancreas & digestive
organs
1. HCO3 – neutral environment
– max. lipase/colipase activity
2. More FA stimulates
cholecystokinin into portal
circ.
3. This stimulates pancreas to
release more TG lipase/co-
lipase
FA & MG – partially ionized –
potent emulsifier – promote
binding of co-lipase-lipase
complex to emulsion
surface
Key Points to Ponder
For digesion of lipids: bile acid,
phospholipid, enzyme (lipase/co-
lipase/phospholipase) , and HCO3-
are important
Long chain FA (~2 g) stimulate gall
bladder contraction and elevate
intestinal biliary lipid accumulation
compared to MCTs
In vivo solubilization capacity
depends on both lipophilicity and
chemical structure of the drug and
nature of endo/exogeneous lipids.
Enzymatic action is interfacial
process and the lipolysis is
enhanced in formulations with good
dispersability like SNEDDS/SMEDDS
SNEDDS/SMEDDS maximize rate of
drug partitioning into the aqueous
intestinal fluids and provide
consistent BA.
Micelle/Mixed micelle/vesicle
formation with bile salts and
phospholipids
Solubilization of
precipitated/released drugs
Secretion of bile from gall
bladder
Bile Salt, Phospholipid, Cholesterol,
HCO3
-
Pancrease secretes Phospholipase
Chylomicr
on
Formation
Chylomicr
on Storage
Chylomicr
on
Exocytosis
SCT
/M
CT
Critical
step
TG Sol. >50 mg
/ml
Lymph delivery is size-selective
transport
LCT is necessary for stimulation of
lipoprotein formation and lymphatic
pathway
Free FA chain length & composition and
size of the lymph lipid precursor pool in
the enterocyte play important role
FFA <12 carbon absorbed by portal
and more than that by lymph
High unsaturated chain length produce
larger size lipoprotein and enhance
lymph delivery
Lymph fluid with fats drains into left
subclavian vein through thoracic duct
and thus bypass first pass metabolism
Micelles/mixed micelles become
monomers in the blood due to large
volume dilution, but chylomicrons stay
No Effect
Increases
Decreases
Decreases?
No Effect: (No action)
1. Passive diffusion thro’ membrane
2. Saturate cellular transporter
(efllux/absorptive)
3. Minimal transporter drug interaction
Increased: (Dual action)
1. Passive diffusion thro’ membrane
2. Enhanced solubility
3. Saturation of efflux transporter by
enhanced solubility
Decreased: (inhibition)
1. Inhibition of uptake transporters
(these drugs need this transporter
for permeability due to poor
permeability)
Decreased?: (inhibition)
1. Inhibition of uptake transporters
(these drugs need this transporter
for permeability due to poor
permeability)
High metabolism
Minimize gut wall efflux
Reduce enzymatic
degradation
No change in BA
Minimize gut wall efflux
Reduce enzymatic
degradation
Increase solubilization
Enhance BA
Minimize gut wall efflux
Reduce enzymatic
degradation
Enhance BA
Minimize gut wall efflux
Reduce enzymatic
degradation
Increase solubilization
Enhance BA
Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
Related Journals
 Clinical & Experimental
Pharmacology
 Pharmaceutical Care & Health
Systems
 Journal of Developing Drugs
http://www.pharmaceuticalconferences.com/
OMICS International Open Access Membership
Open Access Membership with OMICS International
enables academic and research institutions, funders
and corporations to actively encourage open access in
scholarly communication and the dissemination of
research published by their authors.
For more details and benefits, click on the link below:
http://omicsonline.org/membership.php

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Srinivasan shanmugam

  • 1. OMICS International welcomes submissions that are original and technically so as to serve both the developing world and developed countries in the best possible way. OMICS Journals are poised in excellence by publishing high quality research. OMICS International follows an Editorial Manager® System peer review process and boasts of a strong and active editorial board. Editors and reviewers are experts in their field and provide anonymous, unbiased and detailed reviews of all submissions. The journal gives the options of multiple language translations for all the articles and all archived articles are available in HTML, XML, PDF and audio formats. Also, all the published articles are archived in repositories and indexing services like DOAJ, CAS, Google Scholar, Scientific Commons, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, HINARI and GALE. For more details please visit our website: http://omicsonline.org/Submitmanuscript.php OMICS Journals are welcoming Submissions
  • 2.
  • 3. An emerging platform for oral delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility Utilization of lipid as a carrier for the delivery of poorly water soluble, lipophilic drugs BA enhancement & normalization Targeted lymphatic delivery
  • 6. A BIG NO (X)  Long been practiced  Vegetable dressings with olive oil, cheese or mayonnaise  Enhance absorption of water-insoluble vitamins/nutrients  Eg.: Fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids like beta-carotene, lutein, etc.
  • 7. Country Product % No. of Products UK 2% 21 US 3% 27 Japan 4% 8
  • 8. Physicochemical diversity Biocompatibility Ability to enhance oral BA through lymphatic delivery
  • 9.  Complex physicochemical properties  Challenges in stability & manufacturing  Limited solubility of some poorly water- soluble drugs in lipids  Pre-absorptive gastrointestinal processing  Lack of knowledge about the in vivo behavior and influence of co-administered drugs/lipids  Lack of predictive in vitro and in vivo testing methodologies
  • 10.  In-depth knowledge of the GI digestive process of lipid  Ability to interpret biopharmaceutical properties of lipid formulations  Designing knowledge of relevant in vitro tests to mimic the physiological environment for the lipid formulation Biorelevant dissolution media In vivo colloidal behavior of the LBODDS
  • 11. Lipids Simple Lipids (Esters of FA + Alcohol) Compound Lipids Fats (FA + Glycerol) Waxes (FA + Alcohol) Solid (Fats) Liquid (Oils) Derived Lipids Associated Substatnces 1 2 3 4 Phospholipids Glycolipids Sulpholipids Lipoproteins 1 2 3 4 FA Glycerides Alcohols Bases 1 2 3 4 Carotenoids Tocopherols Fat sol. vitamins Steroids
  • 12. Digestive Phase Absorption Phase Circulatory Phase Autocatalytic Process 1. Physical breakdown of lipids into coarse emulsion 2. Hydrolysis of TGs into FAs and MGs 3. Mixed-micelle formation with bile salts and/or vesicle formation of FAs + TGs Carrier Process 1. Entry into enterocyte by passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport 2. Formation of TG & PL from absorbed FA & MG 3. Formation of chylomicron and storage in golgi apparatus 4. Exocytosis into extracellular phase Size-selective Process 1. Lipophilic drugs with logP > 5 with TG solubility > 50 mg/ml enters lymphatic delivery 2. Chylomicrons are big in size and access lymphatic transport 3. FFA < 12 carbon absorbed by portal and more than that by lymph
  • 13.
  • 14. 1. Antral contraction shear 2. Retropropulsion 3. Gastric emptying SECRETI N Drains Blood from spleen, pancreas & digestive organs 1. HCO3 – neutral environment – max. lipase/colipase activity 2. More FA stimulates cholecystokinin into portal circ. 3. This stimulates pancreas to release more TG lipase/co- lipase FA & MG – partially ionized – potent emulsifier – promote binding of co-lipase-lipase complex to emulsion surface Key Points to Ponder For digesion of lipids: bile acid, phospholipid, enzyme (lipase/co- lipase/phospholipase) , and HCO3- are important Long chain FA (~2 g) stimulate gall bladder contraction and elevate intestinal biliary lipid accumulation compared to MCTs In vivo solubilization capacity depends on both lipophilicity and chemical structure of the drug and nature of endo/exogeneous lipids. Enzymatic action is interfacial process and the lipolysis is enhanced in formulations with good dispersability like SNEDDS/SMEDDS SNEDDS/SMEDDS maximize rate of drug partitioning into the aqueous intestinal fluids and provide consistent BA. Micelle/Mixed micelle/vesicle formation with bile salts and phospholipids Solubilization of precipitated/released drugs Secretion of bile from gall bladder Bile Salt, Phospholipid, Cholesterol, HCO3 - Pancrease secretes Phospholipase
  • 16. SCT /M CT Critical step TG Sol. >50 mg /ml Lymph delivery is size-selective transport LCT is necessary for stimulation of lipoprotein formation and lymphatic pathway Free FA chain length & composition and size of the lymph lipid precursor pool in the enterocyte play important role FFA <12 carbon absorbed by portal and more than that by lymph High unsaturated chain length produce larger size lipoprotein and enhance lymph delivery Lymph fluid with fats drains into left subclavian vein through thoracic duct and thus bypass first pass metabolism Micelles/mixed micelles become monomers in the blood due to large volume dilution, but chylomicrons stay
  • 18. No Effect: (No action) 1. Passive diffusion thro’ membrane 2. Saturate cellular transporter (efllux/absorptive) 3. Minimal transporter drug interaction Increased: (Dual action) 1. Passive diffusion thro’ membrane 2. Enhanced solubility 3. Saturation of efflux transporter by enhanced solubility Decreased: (inhibition) 1. Inhibition of uptake transporters (these drugs need this transporter for permeability due to poor permeability) Decreased?: (inhibition) 1. Inhibition of uptake transporters (these drugs need this transporter for permeability due to poor permeability)
  • 19. High metabolism Minimize gut wall efflux Reduce enzymatic degradation No change in BA Minimize gut wall efflux Reduce enzymatic degradation Increase solubilization Enhance BA Minimize gut wall efflux Reduce enzymatic degradation Enhance BA Minimize gut wall efflux Reduce enzymatic degradation Increase solubilization Enhance BA
  • 20. Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics Related Journals  Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology  Pharmaceutical Care & Health Systems  Journal of Developing Drugs
  • 22. OMICS International Open Access Membership Open Access Membership with OMICS International enables academic and research institutions, funders and corporations to actively encourage open access in scholarly communication and the dissemination of research published by their authors. For more details and benefits, click on the link below: http://omicsonline.org/membership.php

Editor's Notes

  1. Normalization is necessary for the narrow therapeutic index drugs