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Sri Guru
Hargobind Ji
(19 June 1595-03 March 1644)
Disclaimer
In Sikh faith worshiping idols and pictures of Sikh Guru’s is not practiced as we believe
that the God is Unborn, Uncreated, Beyond Incarnation (ਅਜੂਨੀ). We believe in the
Shabad* of the Gurbani enshrined in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji our present Guru.
----------------------------------------
1. Shabad* - Creator / Order of creator obtained by Guru / Religion.
(page 131 of Gurmat Martand by Bhai Sahib Bhai Khan Singh Nabha)
2. The pictures used in this book are unverified pictures.
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji
• Sri Guru Hargobind Ji (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644) was born at Guru Ki Wadali , Distt
Amritsar. His father was Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Mother Mata Ganga ji.
• He was married to Mata Damodari Ji daughter of Sri Narayan Das of Dalla and Mata Nanki Ji
daughter of Sri Harichand Ji of Babe Bakale and Mata Mahadevi daughter of Sri Daya Ram
of Jandiala.
• Son/ Daughters: He had 5 sons and one daughter. Sons were Baba Gurdita Ji , Baba Suraj
Mal Ji, Baba Ani Rai Ji, Baba Atall Ji, (Guru) Teg Bhadar Ji and daughter was Bibi Veero Ji .
• He had a long tenure as Guru, lasting 37 years, 9 months and 3 days.
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji
• As a child he suffered from
smallpox and survived a
poisoning attempt by his uncle.
• In an another attempt on his life
a snake Cobra was thrown at him.
• He obtained his religious study
from Bhai Gurdas Ji and was
trained in swordsmanship and
archery by Baba Buddha Ji.
On 25th May 1606 Guru Arjan Dev Ji anointed his son Sri
Hargobind Ji as 6th Guru. Guru Arjan Dev Ji offered his
arrested to Mughal ruler at Lahore. He was tortured and
killed by Jehangir.
Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony as 6th Guru took
place on 24th June 1606 about one month after the
martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev Ji. He was then barely eleven
years old.
Following orders of Guru Arjan Dev Ji he wore two swords.
One indicating his spiritual authority (PIRI) and the other his
temporal authority (MIRI).
He therefore for the first time initiated military tradition in
the Sikh faith. He opposed any religious persecution and
fought for the freedom and independence to practice
religion by choice.
He transformed Sikhs to be Saints and Soldier
Sri Guru Hargobind Ji
30th May 1606
He gave call to Sikhs to arm themself
• The young Hargobind Sahib Ji took the seat of his father with two sords girded round his
waist. One to symbolize spiritual power and other temporal power. (MIRI & PIRI).
• He wore the emblem of royalty on his turban. He made it known to Sikhs that he want
youth to come forward to fight tyrant rule of Mughals. He asked his followers to bring
Arms and Horses instead of any other offerings.
• He trained a body of soldiers in military training and encouraged hunting to be fearless
and good fighters. He always led his men from front.
• He later constructed Sri Akal Takhat (The Throne of the Almighty) in 1609, He also
constructed Loh Garh Fort (1609) and Dera Sahib, Lahore.
• He established new townships in the northern region naming them Kiratpur Sahib, Maraz,
Hargobindpur, Kaul Sar, Bibek Sar and Sri Gur Sar.
Akal Takhat Sahib.
• He led Sikhism during the most difficult time in the history when Mughal rulers had
unleashed their terror by killing Guru Arjun Dev Ji and threat to eliminate his followers.
• He was an excellent military leader, religious leaders and a Nation builder.
• He constructed Akal Takhat a seat of power in front of Harmandir Sahib. The Akal Takhat
symbolized Sikhs political power while Sri Harmandir Sahib symbolizes spiritual power.
• He encouraged Dhadi’s to sing Veer Ras songs (Varan) to motivate people toward a life
of self respect.
• At Akal Takhat Guru Hargobind ji listened to the problems and resolved their social
issues. With in a short span of time all Hindus, Muslim and Guru Nanak’s followers
came to Guru ji for Justice. They all believed that he was true lord ( Sacha Patshah).
• One shall note the difference in shape of Gumbad of Harmandar Sahib and Akal Takhat.
The shape of Gumbad of Akal Takhat is raised which represent self-respect and Gumbad
of Sri Harmandir is subdued representing humility.
Akal Takhat - 1609
Development of Sikh powers and
arrest of Guru Hargobind Ji
• Increasing popularity of Guru Hargobind Ji in the north India right up to Kashmir made
Jehangir nervous. Murtaja Khan, Nawab of Lahore, reported Guru Ji had constructed
Akal Takhat Sahib (The Throne of the Almighty), at Amritsar and was holding court to
hear the vows of people and delivering justice to the people of all religions who accept
his verdicts happily.
• He also reported that the Guru was strengthening his army to take revenge of his
father's torture and killing by the Mughals. When Jahangir heard all about this, he sent
Wazir Khan and Guncha Beg to Amritsar to arrest Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji.
• Wazir Khan was an admirer of Guru Hargobind. He rather than arresting him requested
Guru Ji to accompany them to Delhi as the emperor Jahangir wanted to meet him.
• Guru Ji accompanied them to Delhi. Here, Jehangir said Guru Hargobind is responsible
for not paying penalty imposed on his father Guru Arjun Dev. He ordered his
imprisonment in the Gwalior Fort.
Historians’ views on the arrest of Guru Ji
• Principal Satbir Singh in his book “Our History Part I” (1970) refers to Mohsan Fani’s
writing who says “some irrelevant reasons were found and Guru was wrongly charged
on those accounts to arrest him”.
• JD Cunningham writing about the reasons says that Guru had given a direct challenge
to Mughals by defying many orders which Mughals had imposed on Hindus. These
could be listed Keeping arms, constructed Akal Takhat (The Throne of the Almighty),
Keping a regular army, horses and holding regular Darbar to give justice to people.
• SM Latiff has also given similar views on reasons of Guru’s arrest. He added that
Jehangir was jealous of Guru’s Splendor and State. His increasing popularity in the
north right up to Kashmir made him nervous.
• Mr HS Pain, Mecalf and Kaningam also give the similar reasons of his arrest and added
that the development of forts and cities was an act of defiance against Mughals by the
Guru.
In captivity at Gwalior
He remained in the captivity of Jehangir for over one year at Gwalior fort along with
many other political prisoners who were mostly Kings from Rajputana and northern hill
states. Those kings were charged with revolting against the Mughal rulers.
• After the news of arrest of Guru at Gwalior reached Sikhs in Punjab, Sikhs started
protest marches in a small groups (Chonki) and came to Gwalior, they took a circle of
fort to seek Guru’s blessings and return. This was viewed as a signal of mass protest
and sign of unrest among the Guru Ji’s followers. This was threatening to Mughal
rulers.
• A large number of Muslim’s also advised Jehangir to release Guru Ji. Wajir Khan and
Sain Miya Meer ji met Jahangir and asked to release Guru.Jahangir had to order
release of Guru Ji due to increasing public opinion.
• On hearing his release, Guru Ji refused to be released alone and demanded that all
the political prisoners who were the Kings and Princes of Rajputana's and Hill states
to be released along him.
Bandi Chor Guru
• On the insistence of Guru Hargobind, Jahangir in 1612
ordered release of all 52 Kings who were mostly from
Rajputana and from Hill states.
• Jehangir laid a condition that who so ever can hold Guru’s
robe will be released. Guru Ji got a new robe stitched
having 52 long strands which were held by imprisoned
Kings and walked out of the Gwalior fort with Guru
Hargobind Ji.
• When Guru Ji reached Amritsar, the people lit up the
whole city with thousands of candles lights and lamps like
it was never done before.
• The day is also a remembrance of the greatness of Guru
Hargobind Ji who liberated all the political prisoners from
the captivity of Jehangir.
Period after return to Amritsar Sahib
• After his release Guru Hargobind Ji resumed his martial activities a little more discreetly.
• He raised his private army by recruiting Pathan mercenaries and training his followers.
• The guru Ji soon had an army of about three hundred professional fighters on the horse
back and a sizable standing army of trained soldiers.
• Guru Ji had friendly relation with Jehangir for about 15 years from his release from the
Gwalior Fort upto the death of Jehangir in 1627. During this period he travelled
extensively in Punjab, UP and Kashmir and consolidated his spiritual and temporal hold
on the people of North India.
Sikhs dedicating their life in service of Guru Ji
Guru Ji with his Sikhs
Shah Jahan became emperor of India after Jehangir in 1627
• Shah Jahan became emperor of India after the death of Jehangir in 1627. During the
reign of Shah Jahan, Guru ji’s relations with the Mughals became bitter.
• Shah Jahan was intolerant king and had destroyed the Sikh temples at Lahore.
• In the year 1628, Shah Jahan's hunting party destroyed some of Guru Hargobind Ji’s
property, which triggered the first armed conflict between the Mughals and Sikhs.
• Guru Hargobind Ji fought four battles with the Mughal armies of Shah Jahan. The
details of these are in the following slides.
1st battle of Gumtala, Amritsar -1929
• Guru Ji with Sikhs were hunting in the area. Mughals army was also around the area. Sikhs captured Shahi
Baj (eagle) and refused to give it back to them. Mukhlis Khan approached Shah Jahan and apprised him of
rising rebellion of Sikhs under Guru Ji.
• Shah Jahan send about 7000 fighters under the command of Gulam Rasool. Guru Ji was not ready to fight
with Mughals since he was busy in preparation for the wedding of his daughter (Bibi Veero). But when it
became unavoidable and he accepted the challenge of Mughals.
• Mukhlik Khan sent a proposal to Guru Ji to leave the place and withdraw from the battel ground. When
this proposal was refused by Guru Ji, he gave open challenge to Guru ji for one-to-one fight to avoid any
unnecessary blood shed.
• Guru ji accepted this and gave him first chance of attack. He was unsuccessful on his attack immediately
on return Guru ji first blow killed him. Mughals fled from battle ground.
• After the victory in first battle Sikh started revolting against Mogul ruler. This victory boosted their moral.
This battle was fought at the site where Khalsa College, Amritsar is situated now.
Guru Ji Killed Mukhlis Khan
2nd battle was fought in 1630 at Hargobind Pura
• Ratan Chand's son Bhagwan Das concocted a story and told Abdulla Khan faujdar of
Jallandhar that his father was killed by Guru Hargobind Ji which was not a correct
information.
• Abdulla Khan without verifying facts attacked Guru Ji who was then at Sri Hargobindpur.
In this battle Baba Gurditta Ji and Sikhs fought with Mughals. Guru Ji killed both Ratan
Chand and Abdulla Khan.
• After the battle son of Abdulla Khan approached Shah Jahan for help. Shah Jahan
refused to help him and confiscated Jagirs in the name of Abdulla Khan since he had not
taken his permission for this unnecessary battle.
3rd battle was fought in 1631 at Nathana- Mehraj
• The 3rd battle was fought in 1631 at Nathana- Mehraj in Malwa region when two of
the most precious horses that a Sikh had brought as an offering for the Guru were
snatched from him by Lala Beg on the order of Inyat Ulla Khan, The Nawab of Lahore
Mogul.
• The Guru deputed a Bidhi Chand, to rescue these horses form Mughals. This
resulted in a major conflict and the Guru was attacked by a strong contingent of the
Mughal forces led by Lala Beg and Inyat Ulla Khan at Nathana- Mehraj.
• Both Lala Beg and Inyat Ulla Khan were killed in this battle by Guru Ji. This battle was
one of the most furiously fought between the two sides. There were about 1200
casualties from both sides.
• Rai Jodha from this region helped Guru Ji in this battle. Guru ji constructed Guru Sar
pond in the memory of this victory.
Bhai Bidi Chand brought back horses for the Guru Ji
Death of Baba Buddha Ji (1631)
• Baba Buddha Ji is the most respected Sikh from the time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was born in
1506 in the village of Kathu Nangal, in Amritsar in a Jat Sikh family. He was one of the earliest Sikh
of Guru Nanak. He has performed the formal coronation ceremonies of the five Sikh gurus who
succeeded Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji
• Bhai Buddha was appointed the first Granthi by Guru Arjan Dev Ji on installation of the Adi Granth,
a compilation of Sikh scripture, at Sri Harimandir Sahib.
• Guru Hargobind constructed Sri Akal Thakhat with the help of Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas Ji.
• After a lifetime of following the Sikh Gurus, Baba Buddha died at the age of 125 years in 1631 at
the village of Jhanda Ramdas, on the banks of the Ravi river.
• Guru Hargobind was at his bedside and he himself carried his body for his funeral.
4th battle of Kartarpur (1634)
• Painda Khan accompanied a Sikh Sangat which came to Amritsar on the occasion of Diwali to see Guru ji.
The Guru was pleased with young Painda Khan and he engaged him to be trained as a soldier. Painda Khan
grew up as a strong and brave warrior. He fought in the previous battles for Guru Hargobind Sahib with
Mughals troops at Amritsar (1629).
• Guru always treated him with special consideration. He was a trusted soldier in his army. As the Guru
arrived at Kartarpur after the battle of Mehraj in December 1634, Painda Khan presented himself and, to
quote Bhai Santokh Singh in "Sri Gur Pratdp Suraj Granth", spoke boastfully that : "Had I been there I
would not have let the Guru go forward and expose himself to danger in the battle and nor would have
Bhai Jetha died."
• He had became arrogant. Guru ji kept him away from the major tasks. He felt dishonoured with his
changed position from the most trusted to being side-lined. He turned against Guru Ji and joined the
Mughal faujadar of Jalandhar. He fought in the battle of Kartarpur against Guru Ji.
• He attacked Guru ji who defended himself in that attack, immediately he was defeated and died on an
attack to Guru Hargobind's sword on the final day. The battle according to Bhatt Vahi Multani Sindhi, raged
for three days, from 26 to 28 April 1634.
• The Gurbilas Chhevin Pdtshdhi records that, as Painda lay dying, the Guru told him to recite the Kalmah
and gave shad with his shield to his face from the scorching sun.
Bandi Chor Guru asking Painde Khan to remember
Allah who will help ihim
Move to Kiratpur Sahib
• The Mughal’s after loosing the 4th battle at Kartarpur were now aware of rising military
power of Sikhs. They were looking for more opportunities to eliminated the resistance.
• Guru Ji decided to keep himself and Sikhs away from the wars and to devote more time for
religious activity decided to move form this region to a peaceful location at Kiratpur Sahib
in Shivalik hills away from the Mughal route from Lahore to Delhi.
• When Guru Ji’s convoy reached Palahi near Phagwara, He was informed by a Sikh Bhai
Gurdita that Ahemed Khan s/o Abdulla Khan, Wali Khan and some more prominent
Mughal darbari from Jalandhar with an army of about 5000 men are chasing him from
Jalandhar.
• Guru Ji with Bidi Chand and about 1200 Sikhs took a position out side the village. Sikhs
attacked the approaching Mughals who were unaware of presence of Sikhs in that
location* and lost a number of men in a fierce fighting. Seeing their defeat, they ran away
from the battle ground once for all.
* Writer of “Dubistan Majahab Kitab” was in the company of Guru sahib who has recorded
this event in his book. ( Reference-Page 594 Twarik Khalsa of Giani Gian Singh)
Further rout of Guru Ji towards Kiratpur Sahib
• From Palahi he moved toward Village Jind ( Banga). Gurudwara Charan Kawal is situated
in the memory of Guru Ji’s stay.
• Later Guru Ji crossed Satluj and reached Village Durgapur and finally reached Kiratpur
Sahib.
• He spent his last 10 years of his life at Kiratpur.
Dharam Parchar
• Guru Ji shifted his focus to Dharam Parchar. From Kiratpur Sahibhe had travelled to
Pilibhit in Utrakhand , and many other placed in Malwa.
• He appointed Sikh missionaries and gave a new energy to the mission of Guru Nanak.
• Baba Siri Chand Ji son of Guru Nanak Dev ji also came to meet Guru Hargobind Ji at
Kiratpur Sahib.
• Baba Gurdita Ji along with Almast ji, Ful Ji, Gona Ji and Balu Hasne Ji took up role of
missionaries and established Sikh Sanagat at many places.
• Bhai Bidi Chand was sent to Bengal and Bhai Gurdas Ji was sent to Kabul for Dharam
Parchar.
ìÅå øÕÆðÆ-÷ÅÔð ÁîÆðÆ
îÆðÆ-êÆðÆ ç¶ îÅñÕ ÃÌÆ ×¹ðÈ ÔðׯÇì¿ç ÜÆ ù Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅà ÔÇðç¹ÁÅð é¶ó¶ ÃÌÆé×ð ç¶ ÁÃæÅé å¶
ÇîÇñÁÅÍ ×¹ðÈ ÜÆ ù ôÅÔÆ ê¹ôÅÕ ÇòÚ ç¶Ö ç¶ Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅÃ é¶ ô¿ÕÅ êÌ×à ÕÆåÅ-î˺ ùÇäÁÅ ÔË ÇÕ
å°Ãƺ å» ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò ÜÆ çÆ ×¼çÆ å¶ ÇìðÅÜîÅé Ô¯, ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò å» ÇÂÕ ÇåÁÅ×Æ ÃÅèÈ ÃÆ å¶
å°Ãƺ ôÅÔÆ áÅá-ìÅá ÇòÚ ÔÇæÁÅðì¿ç Ô¯? ë½Ü», دó¶ ð¼Ö¶ Ôé-üÚÅ êÅåôÅÔ ÁÖòÅªç¶ Ô¯-å¹Ãƺ
ÇÕà åð·» ç¶ ÃÅèÈ Ô¯?
×¹ðÈ ÜÆ é¶ ë¹ðîÅÇÂÁÅ :
ÒìÅåé øÕÆðÆ, ÷ÅÇÔð ÁîÆðÆ ôÃåð ×ðÆì ÕÆ ð¼ÇÖÁÅ, ÜðòÅé¶ çÆ íÇÖÁÅ,
ìÅì¶ éÅéÕ Ã¿ÃÅð éÔƺ ÇåÁÅÇ×ÁÅ, îÅÇÂÁÅ ÇåÁÅ×Æ æÆÍÓ
Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅà ÇÂà ܹÁÅì 寺 ìÔ¹å êÌÿé Ô¯ÇÂÁÅ å¶ ÇÕÔÅ-ïÔ ÔîÅð¶ îé íÅòåÆ ÔË!Ó Ãîð¼æ
ðÅîçÅà ÇôòÅ ÜÆ çÅ Çò¼ÇçÁÅ ×¹ðç¶ò ÃÆÍ ÇÂÃ é¶ ÔÆ ÇôòÅ ÜÆ ù ôÃåð çÅ èðî ç¼ÇÃÁÅ Í
øÕÆð é ÇÔ¿çÈ é î¹ÃñîÅé
×¹ðÈ Ôðׯì¿ç êÅåôÅÔ é¶ ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò 寺 Çê¼Û¯º Ãí 寺 ò¼è ïÅåðÅ îÅéòåÅ å¶ À¹èÅð ÇÔå ÕÆåÆÍ
Üç ×¹ðÈ ÔðׯÇì¿ç ÃÅÇÔì ÕôîÆðÆ ë¶ðÆ å¶ ×¶ å» òÅêÃÆ å¶ î¹÷¼øðÅìÅç, ¶ìàÅìÅç ÁÅÇç æÅò» å¶
êóÅÁ Õðç¶ Ô¯Â¶ ×¹ÜðÅå ÇòÚ ÁÅä ÇìðÅÜ¶Í À°æ¶ ôÅÔ ç½ñÅ é»Á çÅ øÕÆð ðÇÔ¿çÅ ÃÆ-À¹Ã éÅñ
ÇòÚÅð-ÚðÚÅ ÕÆåÆÍ øÕÆð é¶ ÇÕÔÅ :
ÇÔ¿çÈ ÕÆ å¶ êÆð ÕÆ? Á½ðå ÕÆ å¶ øÕÆð ÕÆ?
ç½ñå ÕÆ ²å¶ çðò¶ôÆ ÕÆ? ê¼°¼åð ÕÆ å¶ ï¯×¶ô ÕÆ?
À¹µåð ÇòÚ ×¹ðç¶ò é¶ ë¹ðîÅÇÂÁÅ :
Á½ðå ÂÆîÅé ÔËÍ ç½ñå ×¹÷ðÅé ÔË,
ê¹¼åð ÇéôÅé ÔË, øÕÆð é ÇÔ¿çÈ é î¹ÃñîÅé ÔËÍ
Last 10 years at Kiratpur Sahib
• For the last ten years of his life, the Guru
passed in meditation, preaching the Gospel,
and living a very austere life.
• He insisted so much on the simple virtues of life
that he severely reprimanded his sons, Atal Rai
and Bābā Gurdittă, for performing miracles.
Both these sons died before him, as well as
another son Baba Ani Rai Ji.
• He anointed his grandson Sri Har Rai Ji s/o his
eldest son Bhai Baba Guditta’s to succeed him
as the seventh Guru.
• Guru Hargobind breathed his last at Kiratpur
Rupnagar, Punjab, on 19 March 1644.
Bhai Gurdas Ji
pMj ipAwly pMj pIr Ctm pIr bYTw gur BwrI] (1-48-1)
Arjn kwieAW plt kY mUrq hirgoibMd svwrI] (1-48-2)
clI pIVHI soFIAW rUp idKwvn vwro vwrI] (1-48-3)
dl BMjn gur sUrmW vf joDw bhu praupkwrI] (1-48-4)
puC`n is`K Ardws kr Cy mihlW qk drs inhwrI] (1-48-5)
Agm Agocr siqgurU boly muK qy suxhu sMswrI] (1-48-6)
kiljug pIVHI soFIAW inhcl nIn auswr KlHwrI] (1-48-7)
jug jug siqgur Dry AvqwrI ]48] (1-48-8)
Kiratpur Sahib
References:
1. Our History – Principl Satbir Singh
2. Guru Itihas - Prof Sahib Singh
3. A story of Sikhs – Khuswant Singh
From:
Cdr Balvir Singh
737 Urban Estate Phase I, Jalandhar .
E-mail : balvir57@gmail.com

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Sri Guru Hargobind Ji - Bandi Chor Guru.pdf

  • 1. Sri Guru Hargobind Ji (19 June 1595-03 March 1644)
  • 2. Disclaimer In Sikh faith worshiping idols and pictures of Sikh Guru’s is not practiced as we believe that the God is Unborn, Uncreated, Beyond Incarnation (ਅਜੂਨੀ). We believe in the Shabad* of the Gurbani enshrined in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji our present Guru. ---------------------------------------- 1. Shabad* - Creator / Order of creator obtained by Guru / Religion. (page 131 of Gurmat Martand by Bhai Sahib Bhai Khan Singh Nabha) 2. The pictures used in this book are unverified pictures.
  • 3. Sri Guru Hargobind Ji • Sri Guru Hargobind Ji (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644) was born at Guru Ki Wadali , Distt Amritsar. His father was Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Mother Mata Ganga ji. • He was married to Mata Damodari Ji daughter of Sri Narayan Das of Dalla and Mata Nanki Ji daughter of Sri Harichand Ji of Babe Bakale and Mata Mahadevi daughter of Sri Daya Ram of Jandiala. • Son/ Daughters: He had 5 sons and one daughter. Sons were Baba Gurdita Ji , Baba Suraj Mal Ji, Baba Ani Rai Ji, Baba Atall Ji, (Guru) Teg Bhadar Ji and daughter was Bibi Veero Ji . • He had a long tenure as Guru, lasting 37 years, 9 months and 3 days.
  • 4. Sri Guru Hargobind Ji • As a child he suffered from smallpox and survived a poisoning attempt by his uncle. • In an another attempt on his life a snake Cobra was thrown at him. • He obtained his religious study from Bhai Gurdas Ji and was trained in swordsmanship and archery by Baba Buddha Ji.
  • 5. On 25th May 1606 Guru Arjan Dev Ji anointed his son Sri Hargobind Ji as 6th Guru. Guru Arjan Dev Ji offered his arrested to Mughal ruler at Lahore. He was tortured and killed by Jehangir. Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony as 6th Guru took place on 24th June 1606 about one month after the martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev Ji. He was then barely eleven years old. Following orders of Guru Arjan Dev Ji he wore two swords. One indicating his spiritual authority (PIRI) and the other his temporal authority (MIRI). He therefore for the first time initiated military tradition in the Sikh faith. He opposed any religious persecution and fought for the freedom and independence to practice religion by choice. He transformed Sikhs to be Saints and Soldier Sri Guru Hargobind Ji 30th May 1606
  • 6. He gave call to Sikhs to arm themself • The young Hargobind Sahib Ji took the seat of his father with two sords girded round his waist. One to symbolize spiritual power and other temporal power. (MIRI & PIRI). • He wore the emblem of royalty on his turban. He made it known to Sikhs that he want youth to come forward to fight tyrant rule of Mughals. He asked his followers to bring Arms and Horses instead of any other offerings. • He trained a body of soldiers in military training and encouraged hunting to be fearless and good fighters. He always led his men from front. • He later constructed Sri Akal Takhat (The Throne of the Almighty) in 1609, He also constructed Loh Garh Fort (1609) and Dera Sahib, Lahore. • He established new townships in the northern region naming them Kiratpur Sahib, Maraz, Hargobindpur, Kaul Sar, Bibek Sar and Sri Gur Sar.
  • 7. Akal Takhat Sahib. • He led Sikhism during the most difficult time in the history when Mughal rulers had unleashed their terror by killing Guru Arjun Dev Ji and threat to eliminate his followers. • He was an excellent military leader, religious leaders and a Nation builder. • He constructed Akal Takhat a seat of power in front of Harmandir Sahib. The Akal Takhat symbolized Sikhs political power while Sri Harmandir Sahib symbolizes spiritual power. • He encouraged Dhadi’s to sing Veer Ras songs (Varan) to motivate people toward a life of self respect. • At Akal Takhat Guru Hargobind ji listened to the problems and resolved their social issues. With in a short span of time all Hindus, Muslim and Guru Nanak’s followers came to Guru ji for Justice. They all believed that he was true lord ( Sacha Patshah). • One shall note the difference in shape of Gumbad of Harmandar Sahib and Akal Takhat. The shape of Gumbad of Akal Takhat is raised which represent self-respect and Gumbad of Sri Harmandir is subdued representing humility.
  • 9. Development of Sikh powers and arrest of Guru Hargobind Ji • Increasing popularity of Guru Hargobind Ji in the north India right up to Kashmir made Jehangir nervous. Murtaja Khan, Nawab of Lahore, reported Guru Ji had constructed Akal Takhat Sahib (The Throne of the Almighty), at Amritsar and was holding court to hear the vows of people and delivering justice to the people of all religions who accept his verdicts happily. • He also reported that the Guru was strengthening his army to take revenge of his father's torture and killing by the Mughals. When Jahangir heard all about this, he sent Wazir Khan and Guncha Beg to Amritsar to arrest Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji. • Wazir Khan was an admirer of Guru Hargobind. He rather than arresting him requested Guru Ji to accompany them to Delhi as the emperor Jahangir wanted to meet him. • Guru Ji accompanied them to Delhi. Here, Jehangir said Guru Hargobind is responsible for not paying penalty imposed on his father Guru Arjun Dev. He ordered his imprisonment in the Gwalior Fort.
  • 10. Historians’ views on the arrest of Guru Ji • Principal Satbir Singh in his book “Our History Part I” (1970) refers to Mohsan Fani’s writing who says “some irrelevant reasons were found and Guru was wrongly charged on those accounts to arrest him”. • JD Cunningham writing about the reasons says that Guru had given a direct challenge to Mughals by defying many orders which Mughals had imposed on Hindus. These could be listed Keeping arms, constructed Akal Takhat (The Throne of the Almighty), Keping a regular army, horses and holding regular Darbar to give justice to people. • SM Latiff has also given similar views on reasons of Guru’s arrest. He added that Jehangir was jealous of Guru’s Splendor and State. His increasing popularity in the north right up to Kashmir made him nervous. • Mr HS Pain, Mecalf and Kaningam also give the similar reasons of his arrest and added that the development of forts and cities was an act of defiance against Mughals by the Guru.
  • 11. In captivity at Gwalior He remained in the captivity of Jehangir for over one year at Gwalior fort along with many other political prisoners who were mostly Kings from Rajputana and northern hill states. Those kings were charged with revolting against the Mughal rulers. • After the news of arrest of Guru at Gwalior reached Sikhs in Punjab, Sikhs started protest marches in a small groups (Chonki) and came to Gwalior, they took a circle of fort to seek Guru’s blessings and return. This was viewed as a signal of mass protest and sign of unrest among the Guru Ji’s followers. This was threatening to Mughal rulers. • A large number of Muslim’s also advised Jehangir to release Guru Ji. Wajir Khan and Sain Miya Meer ji met Jahangir and asked to release Guru.Jahangir had to order release of Guru Ji due to increasing public opinion. • On hearing his release, Guru Ji refused to be released alone and demanded that all the political prisoners who were the Kings and Princes of Rajputana's and Hill states to be released along him.
  • 12. Bandi Chor Guru • On the insistence of Guru Hargobind, Jahangir in 1612 ordered release of all 52 Kings who were mostly from Rajputana and from Hill states. • Jehangir laid a condition that who so ever can hold Guru’s robe will be released. Guru Ji got a new robe stitched having 52 long strands which were held by imprisoned Kings and walked out of the Gwalior fort with Guru Hargobind Ji. • When Guru Ji reached Amritsar, the people lit up the whole city with thousands of candles lights and lamps like it was never done before. • The day is also a remembrance of the greatness of Guru Hargobind Ji who liberated all the political prisoners from the captivity of Jehangir.
  • 13. Period after return to Amritsar Sahib • After his release Guru Hargobind Ji resumed his martial activities a little more discreetly. • He raised his private army by recruiting Pathan mercenaries and training his followers. • The guru Ji soon had an army of about three hundred professional fighters on the horse back and a sizable standing army of trained soldiers. • Guru Ji had friendly relation with Jehangir for about 15 years from his release from the Gwalior Fort upto the death of Jehangir in 1627. During this period he travelled extensively in Punjab, UP and Kashmir and consolidated his spiritual and temporal hold on the people of North India.
  • 14. Sikhs dedicating their life in service of Guru Ji
  • 15. Guru Ji with his Sikhs
  • 16. Shah Jahan became emperor of India after Jehangir in 1627 • Shah Jahan became emperor of India after the death of Jehangir in 1627. During the reign of Shah Jahan, Guru ji’s relations with the Mughals became bitter. • Shah Jahan was intolerant king and had destroyed the Sikh temples at Lahore. • In the year 1628, Shah Jahan's hunting party destroyed some of Guru Hargobind Ji’s property, which triggered the first armed conflict between the Mughals and Sikhs. • Guru Hargobind Ji fought four battles with the Mughal armies of Shah Jahan. The details of these are in the following slides.
  • 17. 1st battle of Gumtala, Amritsar -1929 • Guru Ji with Sikhs were hunting in the area. Mughals army was also around the area. Sikhs captured Shahi Baj (eagle) and refused to give it back to them. Mukhlis Khan approached Shah Jahan and apprised him of rising rebellion of Sikhs under Guru Ji. • Shah Jahan send about 7000 fighters under the command of Gulam Rasool. Guru Ji was not ready to fight with Mughals since he was busy in preparation for the wedding of his daughter (Bibi Veero). But when it became unavoidable and he accepted the challenge of Mughals. • Mukhlik Khan sent a proposal to Guru Ji to leave the place and withdraw from the battel ground. When this proposal was refused by Guru Ji, he gave open challenge to Guru ji for one-to-one fight to avoid any unnecessary blood shed. • Guru ji accepted this and gave him first chance of attack. He was unsuccessful on his attack immediately on return Guru ji first blow killed him. Mughals fled from battle ground. • After the victory in first battle Sikh started revolting against Mogul ruler. This victory boosted their moral. This battle was fought at the site where Khalsa College, Amritsar is situated now.
  • 18. Guru Ji Killed Mukhlis Khan
  • 19. 2nd battle was fought in 1630 at Hargobind Pura • Ratan Chand's son Bhagwan Das concocted a story and told Abdulla Khan faujdar of Jallandhar that his father was killed by Guru Hargobind Ji which was not a correct information. • Abdulla Khan without verifying facts attacked Guru Ji who was then at Sri Hargobindpur. In this battle Baba Gurditta Ji and Sikhs fought with Mughals. Guru Ji killed both Ratan Chand and Abdulla Khan. • After the battle son of Abdulla Khan approached Shah Jahan for help. Shah Jahan refused to help him and confiscated Jagirs in the name of Abdulla Khan since he had not taken his permission for this unnecessary battle.
  • 20. 3rd battle was fought in 1631 at Nathana- Mehraj • The 3rd battle was fought in 1631 at Nathana- Mehraj in Malwa region when two of the most precious horses that a Sikh had brought as an offering for the Guru were snatched from him by Lala Beg on the order of Inyat Ulla Khan, The Nawab of Lahore Mogul. • The Guru deputed a Bidhi Chand, to rescue these horses form Mughals. This resulted in a major conflict and the Guru was attacked by a strong contingent of the Mughal forces led by Lala Beg and Inyat Ulla Khan at Nathana- Mehraj. • Both Lala Beg and Inyat Ulla Khan were killed in this battle by Guru Ji. This battle was one of the most furiously fought between the two sides. There were about 1200 casualties from both sides. • Rai Jodha from this region helped Guru Ji in this battle. Guru ji constructed Guru Sar pond in the memory of this victory.
  • 21. Bhai Bidi Chand brought back horses for the Guru Ji
  • 22. Death of Baba Buddha Ji (1631) • Baba Buddha Ji is the most respected Sikh from the time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was born in 1506 in the village of Kathu Nangal, in Amritsar in a Jat Sikh family. He was one of the earliest Sikh of Guru Nanak. He has performed the formal coronation ceremonies of the five Sikh gurus who succeeded Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji • Bhai Buddha was appointed the first Granthi by Guru Arjan Dev Ji on installation of the Adi Granth, a compilation of Sikh scripture, at Sri Harimandir Sahib. • Guru Hargobind constructed Sri Akal Thakhat with the help of Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas Ji. • After a lifetime of following the Sikh Gurus, Baba Buddha died at the age of 125 years in 1631 at the village of Jhanda Ramdas, on the banks of the Ravi river. • Guru Hargobind was at his bedside and he himself carried his body for his funeral.
  • 23. 4th battle of Kartarpur (1634) • Painda Khan accompanied a Sikh Sangat which came to Amritsar on the occasion of Diwali to see Guru ji. The Guru was pleased with young Painda Khan and he engaged him to be trained as a soldier. Painda Khan grew up as a strong and brave warrior. He fought in the previous battles for Guru Hargobind Sahib with Mughals troops at Amritsar (1629). • Guru always treated him with special consideration. He was a trusted soldier in his army. As the Guru arrived at Kartarpur after the battle of Mehraj in December 1634, Painda Khan presented himself and, to quote Bhai Santokh Singh in "Sri Gur Pratdp Suraj Granth", spoke boastfully that : "Had I been there I would not have let the Guru go forward and expose himself to danger in the battle and nor would have Bhai Jetha died." • He had became arrogant. Guru ji kept him away from the major tasks. He felt dishonoured with his changed position from the most trusted to being side-lined. He turned against Guru Ji and joined the Mughal faujadar of Jalandhar. He fought in the battle of Kartarpur against Guru Ji. • He attacked Guru ji who defended himself in that attack, immediately he was defeated and died on an attack to Guru Hargobind's sword on the final day. The battle according to Bhatt Vahi Multani Sindhi, raged for three days, from 26 to 28 April 1634. • The Gurbilas Chhevin Pdtshdhi records that, as Painda lay dying, the Guru told him to recite the Kalmah and gave shad with his shield to his face from the scorching sun.
  • 24. Bandi Chor Guru asking Painde Khan to remember Allah who will help ihim
  • 25. Move to Kiratpur Sahib • The Mughal’s after loosing the 4th battle at Kartarpur were now aware of rising military power of Sikhs. They were looking for more opportunities to eliminated the resistance. • Guru Ji decided to keep himself and Sikhs away from the wars and to devote more time for religious activity decided to move form this region to a peaceful location at Kiratpur Sahib in Shivalik hills away from the Mughal route from Lahore to Delhi. • When Guru Ji’s convoy reached Palahi near Phagwara, He was informed by a Sikh Bhai Gurdita that Ahemed Khan s/o Abdulla Khan, Wali Khan and some more prominent Mughal darbari from Jalandhar with an army of about 5000 men are chasing him from Jalandhar. • Guru Ji with Bidi Chand and about 1200 Sikhs took a position out side the village. Sikhs attacked the approaching Mughals who were unaware of presence of Sikhs in that location* and lost a number of men in a fierce fighting. Seeing their defeat, they ran away from the battle ground once for all. * Writer of “Dubistan Majahab Kitab” was in the company of Guru sahib who has recorded this event in his book. ( Reference-Page 594 Twarik Khalsa of Giani Gian Singh)
  • 26. Further rout of Guru Ji towards Kiratpur Sahib • From Palahi he moved toward Village Jind ( Banga). Gurudwara Charan Kawal is situated in the memory of Guru Ji’s stay. • Later Guru Ji crossed Satluj and reached Village Durgapur and finally reached Kiratpur Sahib. • He spent his last 10 years of his life at Kiratpur.
  • 27. Dharam Parchar • Guru Ji shifted his focus to Dharam Parchar. From Kiratpur Sahibhe had travelled to Pilibhit in Utrakhand , and many other placed in Malwa. • He appointed Sikh missionaries and gave a new energy to the mission of Guru Nanak. • Baba Siri Chand Ji son of Guru Nanak Dev ji also came to meet Guru Hargobind Ji at Kiratpur Sahib. • Baba Gurdita Ji along with Almast ji, Ful Ji, Gona Ji and Balu Hasne Ji took up role of missionaries and established Sikh Sanagat at many places. • Bhai Bidi Chand was sent to Bengal and Bhai Gurdas Ji was sent to Kabul for Dharam Parchar.
  • 28. ìÅå øÕÆðÆ-÷ÅÔð ÁîÆðÆ îÆðÆ-êÆðÆ ç¶ îÅñÕ ÃÌÆ ×¹ðÈ ÔðׯÇì¿ç ÜÆ ù Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅà ÔÇðç¹ÁÅð é¶ó¶ ÃÌÆé×ð ç¶ ÁÃæÅé å¶ ÇîÇñÁÅÍ ×¹ðÈ ÜÆ ù ôÅÔÆ ê¹ôÅÕ ÇòÚ ç¶Ö ç¶ Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅÃ é¶ ô¿ÕÅ êÌ×à ÕÆåÅ-î˺ ùÇäÁÅ ÔË ÇÕ å°Ãƺ å» ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò ÜÆ çÆ ×¼çÆ å¶ ÇìðÅÜîÅé Ô¯, ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò å» ÇÂÕ ÇåÁÅ×Æ ÃÅèÈ ÃÆ å¶ å°Ãƺ ôÅÔÆ áÅá-ìÅá ÇòÚ ÔÇæÁÅðì¿ç Ô¯? ë½Ü», دó¶ ð¼Ö¶ Ôé-üÚÅ êÅåôÅÔ ÁÖòÅªç¶ Ô¯-å¹Ãƺ ÇÕà åð·» ç¶ ÃÅèÈ Ô¯? ×¹ðÈ ÜÆ é¶ ë¹ðîÅÇÂÁÅ : ÒìÅåé øÕÆðÆ, ÷ÅÇÔð ÁîÆðÆ ôÃåð ×ðÆì ÕÆ ð¼ÇÖÁÅ, ÜðòÅé¶ çÆ íÇÖÁÅ, ìÅì¶ éÅéÕ Ã¿ÃÅð éÔƺ ÇåÁÅÇ×ÁÅ, îÅÇÂÁÅ ÇåÁÅ×Æ æÆÍÓ Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅà ÇÂà ܹÁÅì 寺 ìÔ¹å êÌÿé Ô¯ÇÂÁÅ å¶ ÇÕÔÅ-ïÔ ÔîÅð¶ îé íÅòåÆ ÔË!Ó Ãîð¼æ ðÅîçÅà ÇôòÅ ÜÆ çÅ Çò¼ÇçÁÅ ×¹ðç¶ò ÃÆÍ ÇÂÃ é¶ ÔÆ ÇôòÅ ÜÆ ù ôÃåð çÅ èðî ç¼ÇÃÁÅ Í
  • 29. øÕÆð é ÇÔ¿çÈ é î¹ÃñîÅé ×¹ðÈ Ôðׯì¿ç êÅåôÅÔ é¶ ×¹ðÈ éÅéÕ ç¶ò 寺 Çê¼Û¯º Ãí 寺 ò¼è ïÅåðÅ îÅéòåÅ å¶ À¹èÅð ÇÔå ÕÆåÆÍ Üç ×¹ðÈ ÔðׯÇì¿ç ÃÅÇÔì ÕôîÆðÆ ë¶ðÆ å¶ ×¶ å» òÅêÃÆ å¶ î¹÷¼øðÅìÅç, ¶ìàÅìÅç ÁÅÇç æÅò» å¶ êóÅÁ Õðç¶ Ô¯Â¶ ×¹ÜðÅå ÇòÚ ÁÅä ÇìðÅÜ¶Í À°æ¶ ôÅÔ ç½ñÅ é»Á çÅ øÕÆð ðÇÔ¿çÅ ÃÆ-À¹Ã éÅñ ÇòÚÅð-ÚðÚÅ ÕÆåÆÍ øÕÆð é¶ ÇÕÔÅ : ÇÔ¿çÈ ÕÆ å¶ êÆð ÕÆ? Á½ðå ÕÆ å¶ øÕÆð ÕÆ? ç½ñå ÕÆ ²å¶ çðò¶ôÆ ÕÆ? ê¼°¼åð ÕÆ å¶ ï¯×¶ô ÕÆ? À¹µåð ÇòÚ ×¹ðç¶ò é¶ ë¹ðîÅÇÂÁÅ : Á½ðå ÂÆîÅé ÔËÍ ç½ñå ×¹÷ðÅé ÔË, ê¹¼åð ÇéôÅé ÔË, øÕÆð é ÇÔ¿çÈ é î¹ÃñîÅé ÔËÍ
  • 30. Last 10 years at Kiratpur Sahib • For the last ten years of his life, the Guru passed in meditation, preaching the Gospel, and living a very austere life. • He insisted so much on the simple virtues of life that he severely reprimanded his sons, Atal Rai and Bābā Gurdittă, for performing miracles. Both these sons died before him, as well as another son Baba Ani Rai Ji. • He anointed his grandson Sri Har Rai Ji s/o his eldest son Bhai Baba Guditta’s to succeed him as the seventh Guru. • Guru Hargobind breathed his last at Kiratpur Rupnagar, Punjab, on 19 March 1644.
  • 31. Bhai Gurdas Ji pMj ipAwly pMj pIr Ctm pIr bYTw gur BwrI] (1-48-1) Arjn kwieAW plt kY mUrq hirgoibMd svwrI] (1-48-2) clI pIVHI soFIAW rUp idKwvn vwro vwrI] (1-48-3) dl BMjn gur sUrmW vf joDw bhu praupkwrI] (1-48-4) puC`n is`K Ardws kr Cy mihlW qk drs inhwrI] (1-48-5) Agm Agocr siqgurU boly muK qy suxhu sMswrI] (1-48-6) kiljug pIVHI soFIAW inhcl nIn auswr KlHwrI] (1-48-7) jug jug siqgur Dry AvqwrI ]48] (1-48-8)
  • 33. References: 1. Our History – Principl Satbir Singh 2. Guru Itihas - Prof Sahib Singh 3. A story of Sikhs – Khuswant Singh From: Cdr Balvir Singh 737 Urban Estate Phase I, Jalandhar . E-mail : balvir57@gmail.com