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Basic Framework of Normative
Ethics
Normative Ethics
 ‘Normative’ means something that
‘guides’ or ‘controls’
 Aims to discover what should be
the moral standards that are
supported by the best reasons
Normative Ethics
in Management
Deontological
Theory
Teleological
Theory
Ethical
Egoism
Utilitarian
Principle Kantianism
Universalism
Distributive
Justice
Altruism
Teleological theory
 Derived from Greek word ‘telos’ means
end
 Determine ethics of an act by looking to
the consequences of the decision (The
Ends)
 Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice are
based on teleological approach
Ethical Egoism
 An action is good if it produces result to
maximize person’s self-interest at the expense
of others.
 It denies that a person should help others
when the person will get nothing out of it.
 Enlightened egoism is enlightened self interest
– considers the long range perspective of other
or humanity on the whole.
Utilitarian Principle
Utilitarian
principle
Universalism Consequentialism
Maximalism Hedonism
Strengths & Weaknesses of
Teleological theory
 They provide a relatively precise and objective method
for moral decision making
 They are in accord with much of our ordinary moral
reasoning; An action would provide some benefit or
inflict harm. This is morally relevant reason for or
against performing it.
 Some moral reasoning are non-teleological in
character
Deontological Theory
 Derived from greek word ‘deon’ means duty
 This approach believes we have a duty not to
do bad
 Bribery is wrong by its very nature regardless of
the consequences
 It is non-consequential theory
 Determine the ethics of an act by looking at
the process of the decision (The means)
 Kantianism is based on deontological approach
Deontology vs Utilitarianism
Principle inherent in action Outside the action
Individuals are valuable in
themselves
Criticized because it makes
sacrifice, some people for
sake of others
According to deontologists
utilitarian go wrong when they fix
on happiness as the highest good.
They point out that happiness
cannot be the highest good for
humans
Concerned with total amount
of happiness
Theory asserts that there are some
actions that are always wrong, no
matter what consequences
Right or wrong are
dependent on consequences
– vary with the circumstances
Kantianism- Immanuel Kant
 For Bentham it is Happiness, for Kant it is
goodwill
 An action is morally right only if the person
performing it is motivated by a good will and
vice-versa.
 A goodwill means action done for reasons of
principle from a sense of duty, nothing else.
Kantianism vs Utilitarianism
Details Kantianism Utilitarianism
Explicit and direct appeal to
consequences in
determining right or wrong
Absent yes
Motive for action Sole importance Incidental
Permit sacrifice of
individuals or minorities to
collective self interest
No Yes
Ethics of: Duty Welfare
Theory: Non Consequentialism
(Deontological)
Consequentialism
Formulations on: Sense of Duty, Categorical
imperative maxim
Utility, Maximise happiness,
Hedonism
Common good must have
priority over every thing else
Yes No
Strengths of Deontological Theory
 This theory makes more sense in cases
where consequences seem to be irrelevant
 It is the way they account for the role of
motives in evaluating actions
Weaknesses of Deontological theory
 Failure to provide a plausible account of how
our moral obligations and resolve problems of
moral conflict
 Rules in Ross’s theory is plausible; No reason is
provided in accepting these rule
 Ross’s rules are open to ethnocentrism
 There is no order of priority to guide in cases
where they conflict
Virtue Ethics- Aristotle
 It asks What kind of person should we be?
 It does three things
 It defines the concept of virtue
 It must offer some list of virtues
 It offers some justification of that list
and explain how we define what are
virtues and vices
Virtue Ethics
 Emphasizes on role of individual traits
 Virtue is defined as a character trait that
manifests itself in habitual action
 For Greeks virtue means Excellence
 Virtue Ethics= Excellence of Human
Character
Strengths
 Help to resolve Ethical Dilemmas
 It takes into account the importance
of relationships.
Ethical Relativism
 There is no universal set of principles by
which to judge morality
 Each society has its rules and it is
inappropriate to compare ethical rules of
one society with that of another
 Relativists thus rule out possibility of
discussion across societies on ethical issues.
Thank You

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Srength ethics

  • 1. Basic Framework of Normative Ethics
  • 2. Normative Ethics  ‘Normative’ means something that ‘guides’ or ‘controls’  Aims to discover what should be the moral standards that are supported by the best reasons
  • 4. Teleological theory  Derived from Greek word ‘telos’ means end  Determine ethics of an act by looking to the consequences of the decision (The Ends)  Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice are based on teleological approach
  • 5. Ethical Egoism  An action is good if it produces result to maximize person’s self-interest at the expense of others.  It denies that a person should help others when the person will get nothing out of it.  Enlightened egoism is enlightened self interest – considers the long range perspective of other or humanity on the whole.
  • 7. Strengths & Weaknesses of Teleological theory  They provide a relatively precise and objective method for moral decision making  They are in accord with much of our ordinary moral reasoning; An action would provide some benefit or inflict harm. This is morally relevant reason for or against performing it.  Some moral reasoning are non-teleological in character
  • 8. Deontological Theory  Derived from greek word ‘deon’ means duty  This approach believes we have a duty not to do bad  Bribery is wrong by its very nature regardless of the consequences  It is non-consequential theory  Determine the ethics of an act by looking at the process of the decision (The means)  Kantianism is based on deontological approach
  • 9. Deontology vs Utilitarianism Principle inherent in action Outside the action Individuals are valuable in themselves Criticized because it makes sacrifice, some people for sake of others According to deontologists utilitarian go wrong when they fix on happiness as the highest good. They point out that happiness cannot be the highest good for humans Concerned with total amount of happiness Theory asserts that there are some actions that are always wrong, no matter what consequences Right or wrong are dependent on consequences – vary with the circumstances
  • 10. Kantianism- Immanuel Kant  For Bentham it is Happiness, for Kant it is goodwill  An action is morally right only if the person performing it is motivated by a good will and vice-versa.  A goodwill means action done for reasons of principle from a sense of duty, nothing else.
  • 11. Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Details Kantianism Utilitarianism Explicit and direct appeal to consequences in determining right or wrong Absent yes Motive for action Sole importance Incidental Permit sacrifice of individuals or minorities to collective self interest No Yes Ethics of: Duty Welfare Theory: Non Consequentialism (Deontological) Consequentialism Formulations on: Sense of Duty, Categorical imperative maxim Utility, Maximise happiness, Hedonism Common good must have priority over every thing else Yes No
  • 12. Strengths of Deontological Theory  This theory makes more sense in cases where consequences seem to be irrelevant  It is the way they account for the role of motives in evaluating actions
  • 13. Weaknesses of Deontological theory  Failure to provide a plausible account of how our moral obligations and resolve problems of moral conflict  Rules in Ross’s theory is plausible; No reason is provided in accepting these rule  Ross’s rules are open to ethnocentrism  There is no order of priority to guide in cases where they conflict
  • 14. Virtue Ethics- Aristotle  It asks What kind of person should we be?  It does three things  It defines the concept of virtue  It must offer some list of virtues  It offers some justification of that list and explain how we define what are virtues and vices
  • 15. Virtue Ethics  Emphasizes on role of individual traits  Virtue is defined as a character trait that manifests itself in habitual action  For Greeks virtue means Excellence  Virtue Ethics= Excellence of Human Character
  • 16. Strengths  Help to resolve Ethical Dilemmas  It takes into account the importance of relationships.
  • 17. Ethical Relativism  There is no universal set of principles by which to judge morality  Each society has its rules and it is inappropriate to compare ethical rules of one society with that of another  Relativists thus rule out possibility of discussion across societies on ethical issues.