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Are Canadians really more friendly?
Rivalry variation by geographic region
Jeremy Ditter, Dr. Joe Cobbs, Dr. Bridget Nichols
Northern Kentucky University
Dr. B. David Tyler
Western Carolina University
Identification and Rivalry
• Social Identity Theory
• Formation of ingroups—consisting of members perceived as
similar to oneself—and outgroups, composed of others perceived
as different from oneself (Stets & Burke, 2000).
• In sports, identification is salient identity feature of fans who
embrace team identity by absorbing team success/failure as their
own fortune (Cialdini et al., 1976)
• Rival defined as “highly salient outgroup that poses an
acute threat to the identity of the ingroup or to ingroup
members’ ability to make positive comparisons between
their group and the outgroup” (Tyler & Cobbs 2015, p. 230)
Rivalry Outcomes
Schadenfreude
• Propensity for joy in rivals' failure (Havard, 2014)
Adverse reactions
• Aggression toward rivals that threaten fans' positive identity
(Havard, Wann, & Ryan, 2013; Wann, 1993)
Regional variation
• H1: There are differences of rivalry intensity among
regions
• H1a: Northeast US harbors most animosity
• H1b: Canadians harbor least animosity
Hypothesis
• Krug and Kulhavy (1973) compared US Census regions by creativity,
imagination, intelligence, etc.
• Rentfrow, Gosling, and Porter (2008) examined five personality traits
within regionally clustered states
• Northeastern US harbors more neuroticism (linked to antisocial behavior)
and lower agreeableness (linked to friendliness)
• Canadians most friendly and generous by nationality stereotype
(Gardner et al., 1972)
Regional
• Northeast
• Midwest
• Southeast
• West
• Canada
Census Regions
Method
• Qualtrics online survey​
• Respondents recruited from team
message boards​
• Name favorite team​
• List favorite team’s top rival​
• Questions pertaining to relationships
with favorite team and top rival
• Dalakas & Melancon, 2012; Elsbach &
Bhattacharya, 2001; Mael & Ashforth, 1992;
Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995
• 7-point scales from Strongly Disagree
to Strongly Agree​
SAMPLE
N = 5145
91% Male
70% with some undergraduate
education or higher
Regions
• 25% NE
• 28% Midwest
• 17% Southeast
• 20% West
• 10% Canada
Measures
• Prejudice
• [Rival Team’s] fans are more obnoxious than the fans of a typical team
• Relationship discrimination (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995)
• I would not mind if my child became a(n) [Rival Team] fan
• Schadenfreude (Dalakas & Melancon, 2012)
• I will feel joy if a player from the [Rival Team] gets suspended for a
year, even if the suspension was not completely deserved
• Disidentification (Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001; Mael & Ashforth, 1992)
• When someone criticizes the [Rival Team], it feels like a personal
compliment
Descriptive Stats
Regions
ID Mean
(SD)
Prejudice
Mean (SD)
Relations Mean
(SD)
Schadenfreude
Mean (SD)
DisID Mean
(SD)
1-NE 4.88 (1.05) 5.23 (1.43) 3.32 (1.37) 3.76 (1.68) 4.06 (1.61)
2-MidW 4.96 (1.10) 4.98 (1.51) 3.23 (1.30) 3.56 (1.70) 3.93 (1.59)
3-SE 5.10 (1.07) 4.74 (1.64) 3.21 (1.35) 3.48 (1.70) 3.97 (1.60)
4-W 4.95 (1.09) 5.06 (1.54) 3.11 (1.30) 3.44 (1.75) 3.94 (1.57)
5-CN 4.65 (1.16) 4.62 (1.61) 2.72 (1.23) 3.14 (1.71) 3.65 (1.55)
Overall 4.94 (1.09) 4.98 (1.54) 3.18 (1.33) 3.53 (1.71) 3.94 (1.59)
Highest = Red
Lowest = Blue
MANOVA results
Prejudice Relations Schadenfreude DisID
F (df) 11.16 (3223) 10.52(3342) 9.07 (3241) 4.90 (4439)
P Value <.001 <.001 <.001 .001
Post hoc tests (H1a: NE)
• Fans of Northeast US teams  Greater rivalry animosity
• Significantly more feelings of prejudice against rival team fans
compared to each other region (vs. West not significant level)
• Higher relationship discrimination toward rival fans (vs.
West/Canadian fans significant).
• Significantly greater schadenfreude for rival teams (all sig.)
• Higher dis-identification toward rivals (only vs. Canada sig.)
• Fans of NE teams scored lowest identification mean
compared to other US regions (only vs. South sig.)
Post hoc tests (H1b: CN)
Fans of Canadian teams  less rival animosity
• Significantly lower means compared to each of the four US
regions in 13 of 16 tests (four DVs)
• Significantly less feelings of prejudice against rival fans compared to each
other region (only vs. South not sig.)
• Significantly less relationship discrimination toward rival fans compared to
each US region
• Lower schadenfreude toward rivals (only vs. NE/MW sig.)
• Significantly lower dis-identification toward rivals for fans of Canadian teams
• Also, significantly less ID with their favorite teams compared to
each US region
Implications
• Regional marketing/promotions
• Future research
• Expand to more sports, global regions
• NBA and college sports
• Other continents
• Other methods to measure human behavior pertaining to rivalry
• A more micro look into geographic differences incl. ID
• Smaller grouped regions
• Urban vs. Rural
• Limitations
• Highly male sample
• Majority of respondents from Northeast and Midwest
• Least respondents from Canada

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Sports rivalry comparison by geography: Are Canadians more friendly?

  • 1. Are Canadians really more friendly? Rivalry variation by geographic region Jeremy Ditter, Dr. Joe Cobbs, Dr. Bridget Nichols Northern Kentucky University Dr. B. David Tyler Western Carolina University
  • 2. Identification and Rivalry • Social Identity Theory • Formation of ingroups—consisting of members perceived as similar to oneself—and outgroups, composed of others perceived as different from oneself (Stets & Burke, 2000). • In sports, identification is salient identity feature of fans who embrace team identity by absorbing team success/failure as their own fortune (Cialdini et al., 1976) • Rival defined as “highly salient outgroup that poses an acute threat to the identity of the ingroup or to ingroup members’ ability to make positive comparisons between their group and the outgroup” (Tyler & Cobbs 2015, p. 230)
  • 3. Rivalry Outcomes Schadenfreude • Propensity for joy in rivals' failure (Havard, 2014) Adverse reactions • Aggression toward rivals that threaten fans' positive identity (Havard, Wann, & Ryan, 2013; Wann, 1993)
  • 4. Regional variation • H1: There are differences of rivalry intensity among regions • H1a: Northeast US harbors most animosity • H1b: Canadians harbor least animosity Hypothesis • Krug and Kulhavy (1973) compared US Census regions by creativity, imagination, intelligence, etc. • Rentfrow, Gosling, and Porter (2008) examined five personality traits within regionally clustered states • Northeastern US harbors more neuroticism (linked to antisocial behavior) and lower agreeableness (linked to friendliness) • Canadians most friendly and generous by nationality stereotype (Gardner et al., 1972)
  • 5. Regional • Northeast • Midwest • Southeast • West • Canada Census Regions
  • 6. Method • Qualtrics online survey​ • Respondents recruited from team message boards​ • Name favorite team​ • List favorite team’s top rival​ • Questions pertaining to relationships with favorite team and top rival • Dalakas & Melancon, 2012; Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001; Mael & Ashforth, 1992; Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 • 7-point scales from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree​ SAMPLE N = 5145 91% Male 70% with some undergraduate education or higher Regions • 25% NE • 28% Midwest • 17% Southeast • 20% West • 10% Canada
  • 7. Measures • Prejudice • [Rival Team’s] fans are more obnoxious than the fans of a typical team • Relationship discrimination (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) • I would not mind if my child became a(n) [Rival Team] fan • Schadenfreude (Dalakas & Melancon, 2012) • I will feel joy if a player from the [Rival Team] gets suspended for a year, even if the suspension was not completely deserved • Disidentification (Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001; Mael & Ashforth, 1992) • When someone criticizes the [Rival Team], it feels like a personal compliment
  • 8. Descriptive Stats Regions ID Mean (SD) Prejudice Mean (SD) Relations Mean (SD) Schadenfreude Mean (SD) DisID Mean (SD) 1-NE 4.88 (1.05) 5.23 (1.43) 3.32 (1.37) 3.76 (1.68) 4.06 (1.61) 2-MidW 4.96 (1.10) 4.98 (1.51) 3.23 (1.30) 3.56 (1.70) 3.93 (1.59) 3-SE 5.10 (1.07) 4.74 (1.64) 3.21 (1.35) 3.48 (1.70) 3.97 (1.60) 4-W 4.95 (1.09) 5.06 (1.54) 3.11 (1.30) 3.44 (1.75) 3.94 (1.57) 5-CN 4.65 (1.16) 4.62 (1.61) 2.72 (1.23) 3.14 (1.71) 3.65 (1.55) Overall 4.94 (1.09) 4.98 (1.54) 3.18 (1.33) 3.53 (1.71) 3.94 (1.59) Highest = Red Lowest = Blue
  • 9. MANOVA results Prejudice Relations Schadenfreude DisID F (df) 11.16 (3223) 10.52(3342) 9.07 (3241) 4.90 (4439) P Value <.001 <.001 <.001 .001
  • 10. Post hoc tests (H1a: NE) • Fans of Northeast US teams  Greater rivalry animosity • Significantly more feelings of prejudice against rival team fans compared to each other region (vs. West not significant level) • Higher relationship discrimination toward rival fans (vs. West/Canadian fans significant). • Significantly greater schadenfreude for rival teams (all sig.) • Higher dis-identification toward rivals (only vs. Canada sig.) • Fans of NE teams scored lowest identification mean compared to other US regions (only vs. South sig.)
  • 11. Post hoc tests (H1b: CN) Fans of Canadian teams  less rival animosity • Significantly lower means compared to each of the four US regions in 13 of 16 tests (four DVs) • Significantly less feelings of prejudice against rival fans compared to each other region (only vs. South not sig.) • Significantly less relationship discrimination toward rival fans compared to each US region • Lower schadenfreude toward rivals (only vs. NE/MW sig.) • Significantly lower dis-identification toward rivals for fans of Canadian teams • Also, significantly less ID with their favorite teams compared to each US region
  • 12. Implications • Regional marketing/promotions • Future research • Expand to more sports, global regions • NBA and college sports • Other continents • Other methods to measure human behavior pertaining to rivalry • A more micro look into geographic differences incl. ID • Smaller grouped regions • Urban vs. Rural • Limitations • Highly male sample • Majority of respondents from Northeast and Midwest • Least respondents from Canada

Editor's Notes

  1. What do we know (from past research) about social identification as related to sports and how it helps us understand/define rivalry? See abstract for highlights. Incl citations (author & author, year).
  2. What do we know (past research ) about negative outcomes of rivalry? …see abstract, incl citations
  3. What do we know about regional variation from past research? See abstract…incl citations. Put above Hypothesis
  4. Need to tell audience what measures you used. Copy one item/question from each of the four sections in survey. Here are citations to include by label: Schad:; DisID: Mael & Ashforth, 1992; Elsbach & Bhattacharya, 2001) Relationship discrimination: Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995
  5. Check with Excel stats file; line up columns
  6. See excel results, my notes in column I in Post hoc tests and create bullets also looking at abstract discussion of results too. Cut an paste from both docs as related to NE and then clean up points and/or integrate
  7. - Talk about appealing to regions - Future research