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I declare that this is my own work and should this declaration be found to be untrue I 
acknowledge that I may be guilty of committing an academic offence. 
BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
Applied Reflective 
Account - Aged and 
Impaired 
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Carl Page (1008889) 
University of Bedfordshire 
Mr. K Roberts
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Contents 
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2 
Case 1: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles ...................................... 3 
Case 1: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues 
Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) .......................................................................... 4 
Case 1: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly 
Stating Any Caveats ................................................................................................... 5 
Case 1: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners ......................................... 7 
Case 2: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles ...................................... 8 
Case 2: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues 
Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) .......................................................................... 9 
Case 2: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly 
Stating Any Caveats ................................................................................................... 9 
Case 2: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners ....................................... 11 
References ............................................................................................................... 13 
Introduction 
In this assignment involves focusing on the two motor development cases; 
1. Sport and exercise in the aged – therapy or mortality? 
2. Sporting opportunities for the movement impaired. 
Plus through building reasons which encourage various theoretical points on 
appropriate cases in lifespan motor development and impairment matters within 
sport, physical activity and Physical Education. Also shall be commenting on the 
robustness of the body of knowledge such as the concepts and methodology issues. 
Likewise signify how the selected concepts and principles can be applied clearly 
stating any caveats. Finally, demonstrate a comprehension of performing and 
knowledge in sport with clear statement of the guidance to practitioner’s actions. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Case 1: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles 
There is a loss of hand strength in ageing. Ageing is known as an occurring process 
over time which leads to the loss of adaptability or complete functioning and 
ultimately the passing away (Haywood and Getchell 2009 cited in Spirduso (1995). 
However LIVESTRONG, (2013) advises those who have poor hand grip to get 
assessed by a clinical expert to examine whether there is a more serious underlying 
condition. This is because it may be merely from the result of ageing or by the 
numbness with the fingers due to a temporary blood supply shortage. 
Specifically through the ageing process there is a loss of hand grip strength in 
individuals. It has been shown there to be a sharp deterioration of hand grip strength 
for both genders who are aged 45-54 and those aged 75+ having less than half of the 
value when compared against young adults (Tiresias, 2009). This is supported by 
University of Arkansas (2010) who discovered as people age their muscle strength 
will decline. For instance between the ages of 25 and 80 years it is possible for a 
human to lose up to one-half of their strength and muscle mass. Consequently 
because of the biology of ageing along with an increase of decline from not taking 
part in physical activity this affects the grip strength of an individual significantly over 
time. 
Even so Haywood and Getchell, (2009) states the only conditions for instance 
arthritis or loss of strength in old age would affect hand arrangement because usually 
those individuals who are older go over the set time threshold on the performance 
test and their grip strength is weakened with the progressing of age. Equally Thomas 
(2007) reported this comes from specifically the decrease in motor number units and 
the atrophy of muscle fibers, mainly the type IIa fibers. These are then related to an 
individual’s muscle mass and their strength which take place from normal ageing. 
Based on this the declining of manual performance is accompanied with loss of 
strength and upper joint movement subsequently from sarcopenia. 
In agreement both The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2009) and LIVESTRONG, 
(2013) declared with treatment and/or medications such as pain killers or 
inflammatory injections and physical therapy this will aid movement in the hand. They 
additionally state surgical intervention may be made in severe cases since this would 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
then imply the poor influence of hand function is able to be lowered to an extent with 
the use of conservative actions. 
Correspondingly it has been examined how physical activity is needed to aid and to 
maintain the physical function and muscle strength. ‘Muscle strength and physical 
function are both very strong predictors of death. So it's a very important area’ 
(Hilpern, 2009). This is supported by AARP Bulletin (2011) reports older people gain 
from strength exercises that will aid preventing falls, increasing brain power, reduces 
risk of osteoporosis and diabetes. Therefore it would seem early strength exercises 
support the link to a better quality of life rather than having to go through late 
inventions. 
Case 1: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues 
Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) 
Goodpaster et al. (2006) believes currently there is insufficient large-scale 
longitudinal investigations into analysing the links involving older adults and their loss 
of mass and strength. Although Lang et al. (2010) produced longitudinal studies of 
smaller groups that have presented inconsistent findings, e.g. reports of 
approximately losing 3% per year for twenty-three men at baseline who were 73–86 
years. Therefore the loss of muscle mass is taken into consideration of being a key 
determining factor of strength loss in ageing. 
Lang et al. (2010) reports cross-sectional studies presented in hand-grip strength and 
elbow extension torque concerning healthy young participants and elderly 
participant’s degenerates 20–40%. Whist Samuel et al. (2012) states it is still unclear 
there is greater relative amount of decline in quadriceps strength seen in healthy 
older people. Therefore being further magnified in participants who are frail, this will 
have associations for assessing the grip strength for a physical indicator of the lower 
limb strength and working with those run the risk of falls and immobility. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Espinoza and Walston (2005) gave evidence for the assessment and managing of 
the aged with an interdisciplinary team. Hence proposals were made to the 
participant’s care which needs to follow widespread measurement methodologies. 
Although Westcott (2008) recognised the American College of Sports Medicine 
strength training guidelines offer a practical method to reverse the deteriorating 
developments causing the physical and mental developments which can influence a 
better quality of life. As a result it is multifactorial as needing to take into account 
whenever having to examine and include interventions for the aged participants to 
improve their quality of life. 
Furthermore it has been observed whenever the older generation take part in 
exercise the changes which are related to ageing are reduced. Thus are compared to 
those who are aged in the young and middle adult bracket (Wilmore et al. 2008). 
Therefore numerous investigations recommend that strength training is an effective 
method to restore muscles, renew metabolism and decrease fat of those who were 
formerly either inactive adults and/or older adults. 
Case 1: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied 
Clearly Stating Any Caveats 
Kolt, and Snyder-Mackler, (2003) gave evidence for epidemiological investigations 
being used to determine the levels of how physical the populations is. Although it can 
be problematic to attain direct assessments since these studies will make use of 
diverse mechanisms and criteria. For instance LIVESTRONG (2011) states an 
individual’s hand grip results will differ as it is determined by their weight and age. 
Hand grip peaks between the ages of 25 and 39 for both genders. Whereas 
researchers and practitioners believe through physical therapy after an injury the grip 
strength test allows for good measurement of how much development has been 
made. 
Nevertheless Espinoza and Walston (2005) is cautious since medical care plan will 
need to be formed to follow the unique requirements of the older adults since they 
will start becoming frailer and this results in more serious illnesses and disabilities. 
Kolt and Snyder-Mackler (2003) direct older adults to seek doctors’ advice before 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
beginning an exercise programme. Yet they may have to go through widespread pre-exercise 
testing which is further debated. This would apply to aid in maintaining the 
quality of life for these participants who are set specific goals which and stick to their 
personal beliefs. 
Thomas (2007) believes developing a directed therapeutic method to skeletal muscle 
loss and muscle strength in older people. Additionally the failure to observe the 
causes of skeletal muscle loss normally causes barriers between the clinical 
reactions to therapeutic interventions. Consequently it is better to have a preventive 
approach than an intervention. This allows for wellbeing perspective. However there 
is heavy investment needed early on to help the quality of life decades later. 
Taaffe (2006) learnt especially with weight training it has been shown to be an 
effective countermeasure, stopping the decline and substantially improving physical 
function. Whereas Kolt and Snyder-Mackler (2003) suggests more guidance is 
needed when older people participate in high intensity exercise as they are more 
likely to suffer from chronic medical conditions. Collectively this would suggest there 
is a link to the lower physical activity and the participant’s biological and lifestyle 
factors which can be easily adaptable to increase movement. 
Nonetheless Diet Health, Inc (2013) exposed that nearly 90% of Americans who are 
65+ have one or more degenerative disorders e.g. heart disease, arthritis, 
osteoporosis, diabetes and macular degeneration. Previously the conditions were 
thought to be expected diseases from old age however recently these are now 
known as life-style diseases. Consequently to either prevent or lower the possibilities 
of developing the diseases a participant can, alter their habits such as diet and more 
exercise. 
Taaffe (2006) warns older adults are exposed to the loss of muscle mass and 
strength. Nevertheless it has been discovered those who are 60+ years who regularly 
participate in continual and controlled training will significantly strengthen their 
organs. Ageing lessens the muscularity and decline in the cardiovascular system. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Furthermore generally the training principles used for exercise are the same for 
younger participants to those of who are older (Kolt and Snyder-Mackler 2003 cited 
in Evans (1999), Mazzeo et al. (1998), and Whaley (2006). Consequently it would 
seem that by encouraging older adults to maintain their reserve capacity it will lower 
the likelihood of deteriorating below specific disability or thresholds. 
Case 1: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners 
The guidance to a fitness and/or health practitioner(s) should follow the statements 
as seen below: 
 The Hygenic Corporation (2008) presents that to start and maintain the activity 
programmes it needs to deliver specific and regular information by identifying 
the difficulties individuals face. The next stage involves making suggestions 
which are positive and relevant to the participants needs. 
 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2009) advises moderate range of motion 
movements, when done frequently is needed to maintain an individual’s 
motion and hand function in those who suffer from arthritic joints. 
 Correspondingly recommendations from Advameg, Inc. (2013) the age group 
(60+) participate in low intensity sports/activities such as swimming, aqua 
aerobics and walking; as with an exercise routine it will support avoiding a 
sedentary lifestyle and various associated illnesses due to poor habits. 
 Hilpern, (2009) suggests the need to adapt the workouts and the equipment. 
Whereby using particular exercises and appropriate intensities will help each 
participant enormously. 
 Taaffe (2006) testifies resistance training exercises are efficient 
countermeasures and are cheap and easily available. Furthermore should be 
carried out once or twice a week at a moderate intensity and include the major 
muscle groups needed for appropriate development e.g. including resistance 
exercises with elastic bands into the participant’s weekly schedule. 
 However it is not all about the elliptical trainers and static bikes in a gym. It has 
been suggested the most successful exercises are chair based (Hilpern, 
2009). Likewise advises a brisk walk is simple to be incorporated into their 
daily lives to increase physical activity and aid movement. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Case 2: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles 
Cox, et al. (2005), cited in Mutch et al. (1992), p. 1), describes Cerebral Palsy (cp) as 
the umbrella term which covers a collection of non-progressive conditions. However 
cp frequently alters as motor impairment syndromes are secondary to the injuries or 
differences within the brain which occurred during the early stages of the individual’s 
development such as premature birth. Similarly Macnair and Hicks (2013) reviewed 
the term that involves numerous conditions in which his/her brain does not function 
correctly thus issues arise with their movement, posture and coordination. 
Collectively this would suggest each person who has cerebral palsy is affected 
differently from the neurological conditions which have an effect on their co-ordination 
and movement when playing sport. 
Yet Scope (2013) clarifies the three major types of cerebral palsy exist; 
1. Spastic cerebral palsy which has two varieties: 
1a. Spastic hemiplegia is known as where there is only muscle stiffness on one side 
of the body in addition to occasionally the spine curving. 
1b. Spastic diplegia this is identified as purely where there is muscle stiffness in the 
individual’s legs. 
2. Athetoid (dyskinetic) cerebral palsy is understood to be when there is enlarged 
and reduced muscle tone and speaking difficulties. 
3. Ataxic cerebral palsy is where the individuals own balance and depth 
perception is unnatural (NHS Choices, 2013). 
CP Sport England & Wales (2013) discovered individuals who have cerebral palsy 
can find themselves ignored in the world. Specifically, this charity organisation 
presents opportunities of sport engagement with cerebral palsy children and adults 
as this increases their self-confidence, friendships and support networks. In addition 
Delft University of Technology (2002) emphasises this is also the same 
functional/centered structured process used in therapeutic management. Whereby 
through lessening the difficulties and to improve or recover the achievement of 
learning new skills for a better quality of life through offering opportunities of taking 
part in sport. Consequently they will not be made to feel 'different' when taking part in 
an inclusive sporting setting. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Case 2: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues 
Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) 
Farlex (2013) reports a practitioner is part of a health care team which is made up of 
numerous professionals who are involved in the caring and supporting of the 
multifaceted process involved to create sporting opportunities with those who have 
impaired physical mobility. Hence in agreement Miller-Keane and O'Toole (2006) 
suggested the practitioner should aid to achieve the goals with the specific 
positioning of the participant. Plus developing active and passive exercises also 
included should be a range of motion exercises since these will help the participant in 
activities. Consequently these interventions have the outcome of lowering the risks 
for the participant being immobile. Moreover helping the participant to sustain, 
safeguard, or re-establish mobility this also allows for increased independence and 
functioning as possible. 
Cox, et al. (2005) suggests currently there is limited evidence in the influence of 
ageing on adults with cerebral palsy. Also suggested it is important to examine the 
primary and secondary effects of ageing with cerebral palsy with the use of large 
longitudinal group investigations. Whereas Scope (2013) demonstrated that those 
with cerebral palsy will have physical impairment for their lifespan; the result of 
ageing is able to become clear at an earlier time. In particular this being a 
developmental disorder the basic performing has been shown to worsen with ageing 
as a consequence of reduced automatic proficiency. Therefore further investigations 
need to be carried out to be able to consider the effects of living with Cerebral Palsy 
has on the individual’s quality of life with responses to the movement as well as their 
mental and emotional wellbeing. 
Case 2: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied 
Clearly Stating Any Caveats 
It has been shown that to relieve the muscle stiffness and spasms physiotherapy, 
occupational therapy and medication aids those people with cerebral palsy (NHS 
Choices, 2013). Specifically children with cerebral palsy will discover swimming to be 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
valuable as the water is able to support their body weight effortlessly. Scope (2013) 
clarifies the use of hydrotherapy involves a sequence of moderate movements which 
are carried out in a heated swimming pool. This would give a sense of freedom and 
enjoyment to be realised in their level of movement which normally they may find 
difficult to achieve elsewhere. Plus this allows for increased recreational sporting 
opportunities for those with movement impairment. 
However Macnair and Hicks (2013) indicate for a child to reduce the impact of 
cerebral palsy is to lessen their symptoms. As with the numerous treatments and 
therapies these help develop ideas for doing tasks differently which before were 
challenging. In contrast Scope (2013) reports for adults with cerebral palsy it has not 
been proven if the benefits from alternative therapies cited in the scientific literature. 
As a result those individuals who receive therapies such as aromatherapy, 
reflexology or acupuncture and massage; hence this may not aid in the long run 
allowing them to overcome the difficulties like carrying out routine household tasks 
and inspiring them to become more self-supporting. 
Furthermore Cox, et al. (2005) discovered those older adults with cerebral palsy who 
participate in exercise intervention programmes supports in encouraging their 
functional competences. This is in agreement with Scope (2013) who found those 
suffering from cerebral palsy will develop to be more independent through 
physiotherapy and other therapy interventions since currently there is no cure for 
cerebral palsy. Based on this the provision of interventions for cerebral palsy is linked 
to the individuals mechanical accomplishments. 
Scope (2013) mentions specifically surgeons require certain knowledge when dealing 
with people with cerebral palsy such as suggesting unsuitable processes and 
subsequent to the surgery need suitable therapy. This plays a part in hindering the 
person’s recuperation and may even result in worsening the physical functioning of 
the individual. Moreover Cox, et al. (2005) cited by Buzio et al (2002) Kroll and Neri 
(2003) there is a lack of impairment-specific understanding amongst the practitioners 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
who look after adults that have cerebral palsy. Collectively this would suggest more 
education is needed otherwise people’s health will be put in danger and because 
these individuals place immense trust in those who are part of the health care team 
to be fully qualified experts in this field. 
Carter, (2001) suggest medical specialists are very careful during diagnoses of 
children being born prematurely having developed cerebral palsy at a mild to 
moderate level. Although for a professional to confirm evidence of existing 
neurodevelopmental problems in the developing babies is known to be challenging. 
Contrasted with Bax et al. (2005) proposed there is a need to reconsider the 
classification and definition of cerebral palsy (CP) because it hopefully meets the 
interdisciplinary team needs by offering universal wording for enhanced consultation. 
Collectively this would suggest the specialists need to discuss with the children’s 
parents/guardians those who will be placed at an increased risk if postponed. Thus 
early identification is important whereby it brings about early intervention. Also in 
order to sufficiently provide care for the child’s development and support for optimal 
ability for success they need to be knowledgeable of the progressive nature when 
diagnosing the initial difficulties. 
Kent Sport and Physical Activity Service (2008) specify the athletes who have 
cerebral palsy are classified into groups which are determined by the amount of 
impairment along with to which muscle groups are concerned. Further evidence from 
International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2012) publishes cerebral palsy athletes 
come under three categories of the eight separate categories of physical impairments 
in the Paralympic Movement: Hypertonia, Ataxia and Athetosis. Therefore the 
Paralympic Classification is used to present a structure for competition and allows for 
fair sporting opportunities for the movement impaired right up to the elite level. 
Case 2: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners 
The guidance to a fitness and/or health practitioner(s) should follow the statements 
as seen below: 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
 NHS Choices (2013) presents lifestyle choices / habits of either eating a high 
calorific diet or drinking large quantities of alcohol it is possible to increase the 
effects of cerebral palsy as well as damaging non impaired individual’s organs 
further. 
 Moreover it is important that when practitioners plan a session it has to include 
aspects of strength, balance and co-ordination (Kolt, and Snyder-Mackler, 
2003) 
 In agreement Taaffe (2006) proposes the inclusion of one piece of an activity 
programme to comprise of cardiovascular exercise, flexibility and balance 
training. 
 Scope (2013) revealed that no two individuals will be affected by cerebral 
palsy in an identical way. Therefore importantly caring for the individual needs 
are met with appropriate therapies and treatments. 
 Similarly Cox et al. (2005) recognises that the planning of the practitioners 
who deliver health care needs are not to just be centred on children and young 
people’s early development but should also cover their entire life span. 
 Scope (2013) mentions with frequent participation of activities such as 
swimming will aid movement for people with cerebral palsy. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
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cerebral-palsy (Accessed on: 01/04/2013) 
Scope (2013) Hydrotherapy (hydro-physiotherapy). Available at: 
http://www.scope.org.uk/help-and-information/z-therapies/hydrotherapy 
Taaffe, D.R. (2006) Sarcopenia Exercise as a treatment strategy. Available at: 
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2.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
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http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/arthritis/hic_arthritis_of_the_hand_and_wrist.a 
spx (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 16 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
The Hygenic Corporation (2004) Healthcare Provider Manual. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/providerman-inorder.pdf 
(Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2004) The Active Aging Toolkit: Promoting Physical 
Activity in Older Adults for Healthcare Providers. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/toolkit_exec-summ2-16-04.pdf 
(Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2004) The Active Aging Toolkit: Promoting Physical 
Activity in Older Adults for Healthcare Providers. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/Toolkit-whitepaperREV2-16- 
04.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) How To Prescribe Physical Activity Programs. 
Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/ (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Modifying Programs for Subgroups. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/modifying.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Activity Prescription. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/activity.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Activity Prescription. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/prescribe.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Assessment. Available at: 
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24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Progressing Programs. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/progressing.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Strategies / How to Change Perceptions & 
Behaviors. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/perceptions.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 17 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Strategies to Increase Physical Activity. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/strategy.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
The Hygenic Corporation (2008) The Hygenic Corporation. Available at: 
http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/ (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
Thomas, D.R. (2007) ‘Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging: Examining the 
relationship of starvation, sarcopenia and cachexia’ Clinical Nutrition, 26(4) pp.389– 
399 Stuurgroep Ondervoeding [Online]. Available at: 
http://stuurgroepondervoeding.nl/fileadmin/inhoud/ziekenhuis/documenten/artikelen/t 
homas_sarcopenie_cachexie.pdf. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
Tiresias (2009) Ageing Population. Available at: 
http://www.tiresias.org/accessible_ict/ageing_population/process.htm (Accessed on: 
24/03/2013). 
University of Arkansas (2010) Increasing Physical Activity as We Age Strength 
Training. Available at: 
http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSFCS33.pdf (Accessed on: 
23/03/2013). 
Westcott, W. (2008) ‘ACSM Strength Training Guidelines Role in Body Composition 
and Health Enhancement’ ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 13(4) pp.14-22 
Personal Fitness Systems, Inc. [Online]. Available at: 
http://pfswellness.com/forms/ACSM_STRENGTH_TRAINING_GUIDELINES__Role_i 
n_Body.7.pdf . (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). 
Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L. and Kenney, W.L. (2008) Physiology of sport and 
exercise. 4th edn. Champaign, IL; Leeds: Human Kinetics. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 18 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching

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Talent Identification in the Young Performer

  • 1. I declare that this is my own work and should this declaration be found to be untrue I acknowledge that I may be guilty of committing an academic offence. BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching Applied Reflective Account - Aged and Impaired SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Carl Page (1008889) University of Bedfordshire Mr. K Roberts
  • 2. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2 Case 1: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles ...................................... 3 Case 1: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) .......................................................................... 4 Case 1: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats ................................................................................................... 5 Case 1: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners ......................................... 7 Case 2: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles ...................................... 8 Case 2: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) .......................................................................... 9 Case 2: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats ................................................................................................... 9 Case 2: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners ....................................... 11 References ............................................................................................................... 13 Introduction In this assignment involves focusing on the two motor development cases; 1. Sport and exercise in the aged – therapy or mortality? 2. Sporting opportunities for the movement impaired. Plus through building reasons which encourage various theoretical points on appropriate cases in lifespan motor development and impairment matters within sport, physical activity and Physical Education. Also shall be commenting on the robustness of the body of knowledge such as the concepts and methodology issues. Likewise signify how the selected concepts and principles can be applied clearly stating any caveats. Finally, demonstrate a comprehension of performing and knowledge in sport with clear statement of the guidance to practitioner’s actions. Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 3. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Case 1: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles There is a loss of hand strength in ageing. Ageing is known as an occurring process over time which leads to the loss of adaptability or complete functioning and ultimately the passing away (Haywood and Getchell 2009 cited in Spirduso (1995). However LIVESTRONG, (2013) advises those who have poor hand grip to get assessed by a clinical expert to examine whether there is a more serious underlying condition. This is because it may be merely from the result of ageing or by the numbness with the fingers due to a temporary blood supply shortage. Specifically through the ageing process there is a loss of hand grip strength in individuals. It has been shown there to be a sharp deterioration of hand grip strength for both genders who are aged 45-54 and those aged 75+ having less than half of the value when compared against young adults (Tiresias, 2009). This is supported by University of Arkansas (2010) who discovered as people age their muscle strength will decline. For instance between the ages of 25 and 80 years it is possible for a human to lose up to one-half of their strength and muscle mass. Consequently because of the biology of ageing along with an increase of decline from not taking part in physical activity this affects the grip strength of an individual significantly over time. Even so Haywood and Getchell, (2009) states the only conditions for instance arthritis or loss of strength in old age would affect hand arrangement because usually those individuals who are older go over the set time threshold on the performance test and their grip strength is weakened with the progressing of age. Equally Thomas (2007) reported this comes from specifically the decrease in motor number units and the atrophy of muscle fibers, mainly the type IIa fibers. These are then related to an individual’s muscle mass and their strength which take place from normal ageing. Based on this the declining of manual performance is accompanied with loss of strength and upper joint movement subsequently from sarcopenia. In agreement both The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2009) and LIVESTRONG, (2013) declared with treatment and/or medications such as pain killers or inflammatory injections and physical therapy this will aid movement in the hand. They additionally state surgical intervention may be made in severe cases since this would Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 4. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment then imply the poor influence of hand function is able to be lowered to an extent with the use of conservative actions. Correspondingly it has been examined how physical activity is needed to aid and to maintain the physical function and muscle strength. ‘Muscle strength and physical function are both very strong predictors of death. So it's a very important area’ (Hilpern, 2009). This is supported by AARP Bulletin (2011) reports older people gain from strength exercises that will aid preventing falls, increasing brain power, reduces risk of osteoporosis and diabetes. Therefore it would seem early strength exercises support the link to a better quality of life rather than having to go through late inventions. Case 1: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) Goodpaster et al. (2006) believes currently there is insufficient large-scale longitudinal investigations into analysing the links involving older adults and their loss of mass and strength. Although Lang et al. (2010) produced longitudinal studies of smaller groups that have presented inconsistent findings, e.g. reports of approximately losing 3% per year for twenty-three men at baseline who were 73–86 years. Therefore the loss of muscle mass is taken into consideration of being a key determining factor of strength loss in ageing. Lang et al. (2010) reports cross-sectional studies presented in hand-grip strength and elbow extension torque concerning healthy young participants and elderly participant’s degenerates 20–40%. Whist Samuel et al. (2012) states it is still unclear there is greater relative amount of decline in quadriceps strength seen in healthy older people. Therefore being further magnified in participants who are frail, this will have associations for assessing the grip strength for a physical indicator of the lower limb strength and working with those run the risk of falls and immobility. Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 5. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Espinoza and Walston (2005) gave evidence for the assessment and managing of the aged with an interdisciplinary team. Hence proposals were made to the participant’s care which needs to follow widespread measurement methodologies. Although Westcott (2008) recognised the American College of Sports Medicine strength training guidelines offer a practical method to reverse the deteriorating developments causing the physical and mental developments which can influence a better quality of life. As a result it is multifactorial as needing to take into account whenever having to examine and include interventions for the aged participants to improve their quality of life. Furthermore it has been observed whenever the older generation take part in exercise the changes which are related to ageing are reduced. Thus are compared to those who are aged in the young and middle adult bracket (Wilmore et al. 2008). Therefore numerous investigations recommend that strength training is an effective method to restore muscles, renew metabolism and decrease fat of those who were formerly either inactive adults and/or older adults. Case 1: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats Kolt, and Snyder-Mackler, (2003) gave evidence for epidemiological investigations being used to determine the levels of how physical the populations is. Although it can be problematic to attain direct assessments since these studies will make use of diverse mechanisms and criteria. For instance LIVESTRONG (2011) states an individual’s hand grip results will differ as it is determined by their weight and age. Hand grip peaks between the ages of 25 and 39 for both genders. Whereas researchers and practitioners believe through physical therapy after an injury the grip strength test allows for good measurement of how much development has been made. Nevertheless Espinoza and Walston (2005) is cautious since medical care plan will need to be formed to follow the unique requirements of the older adults since they will start becoming frailer and this results in more serious illnesses and disabilities. Kolt and Snyder-Mackler (2003) direct older adults to seek doctors’ advice before Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 6. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment beginning an exercise programme. Yet they may have to go through widespread pre-exercise testing which is further debated. This would apply to aid in maintaining the quality of life for these participants who are set specific goals which and stick to their personal beliefs. Thomas (2007) believes developing a directed therapeutic method to skeletal muscle loss and muscle strength in older people. Additionally the failure to observe the causes of skeletal muscle loss normally causes barriers between the clinical reactions to therapeutic interventions. Consequently it is better to have a preventive approach than an intervention. This allows for wellbeing perspective. However there is heavy investment needed early on to help the quality of life decades later. Taaffe (2006) learnt especially with weight training it has been shown to be an effective countermeasure, stopping the decline and substantially improving physical function. Whereas Kolt and Snyder-Mackler (2003) suggests more guidance is needed when older people participate in high intensity exercise as they are more likely to suffer from chronic medical conditions. Collectively this would suggest there is a link to the lower physical activity and the participant’s biological and lifestyle factors which can be easily adaptable to increase movement. Nonetheless Diet Health, Inc (2013) exposed that nearly 90% of Americans who are 65+ have one or more degenerative disorders e.g. heart disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, diabetes and macular degeneration. Previously the conditions were thought to be expected diseases from old age however recently these are now known as life-style diseases. Consequently to either prevent or lower the possibilities of developing the diseases a participant can, alter their habits such as diet and more exercise. Taaffe (2006) warns older adults are exposed to the loss of muscle mass and strength. Nevertheless it has been discovered those who are 60+ years who regularly participate in continual and controlled training will significantly strengthen their organs. Ageing lessens the muscularity and decline in the cardiovascular system. Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 7. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Furthermore generally the training principles used for exercise are the same for younger participants to those of who are older (Kolt and Snyder-Mackler 2003 cited in Evans (1999), Mazzeo et al. (1998), and Whaley (2006). Consequently it would seem that by encouraging older adults to maintain their reserve capacity it will lower the likelihood of deteriorating below specific disability or thresholds. Case 1: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners The guidance to a fitness and/or health practitioner(s) should follow the statements as seen below:  The Hygenic Corporation (2008) presents that to start and maintain the activity programmes it needs to deliver specific and regular information by identifying the difficulties individuals face. The next stage involves making suggestions which are positive and relevant to the participants needs.  The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2009) advises moderate range of motion movements, when done frequently is needed to maintain an individual’s motion and hand function in those who suffer from arthritic joints.  Correspondingly recommendations from Advameg, Inc. (2013) the age group (60+) participate in low intensity sports/activities such as swimming, aqua aerobics and walking; as with an exercise routine it will support avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and various associated illnesses due to poor habits.  Hilpern, (2009) suggests the need to adapt the workouts and the equipment. Whereby using particular exercises and appropriate intensities will help each participant enormously.  Taaffe (2006) testifies resistance training exercises are efficient countermeasures and are cheap and easily available. Furthermore should be carried out once or twice a week at a moderate intensity and include the major muscle groups needed for appropriate development e.g. including resistance exercises with elastic bands into the participant’s weekly schedule.  However it is not all about the elliptical trainers and static bikes in a gym. It has been suggested the most successful exercises are chair based (Hilpern, 2009). Likewise advises a brisk walk is simple to be incorporated into their daily lives to increase physical activity and aid movement. Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 8. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Case 2: Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles Cox, et al. (2005), cited in Mutch et al. (1992), p. 1), describes Cerebral Palsy (cp) as the umbrella term which covers a collection of non-progressive conditions. However cp frequently alters as motor impairment syndromes are secondary to the injuries or differences within the brain which occurred during the early stages of the individual’s development such as premature birth. Similarly Macnair and Hicks (2013) reviewed the term that involves numerous conditions in which his/her brain does not function correctly thus issues arise with their movement, posture and coordination. Collectively this would suggest each person who has cerebral palsy is affected differently from the neurological conditions which have an effect on their co-ordination and movement when playing sport. Yet Scope (2013) clarifies the three major types of cerebral palsy exist; 1. Spastic cerebral palsy which has two varieties: 1a. Spastic hemiplegia is known as where there is only muscle stiffness on one side of the body in addition to occasionally the spine curving. 1b. Spastic diplegia this is identified as purely where there is muscle stiffness in the individual’s legs. 2. Athetoid (dyskinetic) cerebral palsy is understood to be when there is enlarged and reduced muscle tone and speaking difficulties. 3. Ataxic cerebral palsy is where the individuals own balance and depth perception is unnatural (NHS Choices, 2013). CP Sport England & Wales (2013) discovered individuals who have cerebral palsy can find themselves ignored in the world. Specifically, this charity organisation presents opportunities of sport engagement with cerebral palsy children and adults as this increases their self-confidence, friendships and support networks. In addition Delft University of Technology (2002) emphasises this is also the same functional/centered structured process used in therapeutic management. Whereby through lessening the difficulties and to improve or recover the achievement of learning new skills for a better quality of life through offering opportunities of taking part in sport. Consequently they will not be made to feel 'different' when taking part in an inclusive sporting setting. Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 9. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Case 2: Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) Farlex (2013) reports a practitioner is part of a health care team which is made up of numerous professionals who are involved in the caring and supporting of the multifaceted process involved to create sporting opportunities with those who have impaired physical mobility. Hence in agreement Miller-Keane and O'Toole (2006) suggested the practitioner should aid to achieve the goals with the specific positioning of the participant. Plus developing active and passive exercises also included should be a range of motion exercises since these will help the participant in activities. Consequently these interventions have the outcome of lowering the risks for the participant being immobile. Moreover helping the participant to sustain, safeguard, or re-establish mobility this also allows for increased independence and functioning as possible. Cox, et al. (2005) suggests currently there is limited evidence in the influence of ageing on adults with cerebral palsy. Also suggested it is important to examine the primary and secondary effects of ageing with cerebral palsy with the use of large longitudinal group investigations. Whereas Scope (2013) demonstrated that those with cerebral palsy will have physical impairment for their lifespan; the result of ageing is able to become clear at an earlier time. In particular this being a developmental disorder the basic performing has been shown to worsen with ageing as a consequence of reduced automatic proficiency. Therefore further investigations need to be carried out to be able to consider the effects of living with Cerebral Palsy has on the individual’s quality of life with responses to the movement as well as their mental and emotional wellbeing. Case 2: Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats It has been shown that to relieve the muscle stiffness and spasms physiotherapy, occupational therapy and medication aids those people with cerebral palsy (NHS Choices, 2013). Specifically children with cerebral palsy will discover swimming to be Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 10. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment valuable as the water is able to support their body weight effortlessly. Scope (2013) clarifies the use of hydrotherapy involves a sequence of moderate movements which are carried out in a heated swimming pool. This would give a sense of freedom and enjoyment to be realised in their level of movement which normally they may find difficult to achieve elsewhere. Plus this allows for increased recreational sporting opportunities for those with movement impairment. However Macnair and Hicks (2013) indicate for a child to reduce the impact of cerebral palsy is to lessen their symptoms. As with the numerous treatments and therapies these help develop ideas for doing tasks differently which before were challenging. In contrast Scope (2013) reports for adults with cerebral palsy it has not been proven if the benefits from alternative therapies cited in the scientific literature. As a result those individuals who receive therapies such as aromatherapy, reflexology or acupuncture and massage; hence this may not aid in the long run allowing them to overcome the difficulties like carrying out routine household tasks and inspiring them to become more self-supporting. Furthermore Cox, et al. (2005) discovered those older adults with cerebral palsy who participate in exercise intervention programmes supports in encouraging their functional competences. This is in agreement with Scope (2013) who found those suffering from cerebral palsy will develop to be more independent through physiotherapy and other therapy interventions since currently there is no cure for cerebral palsy. Based on this the provision of interventions for cerebral palsy is linked to the individuals mechanical accomplishments. Scope (2013) mentions specifically surgeons require certain knowledge when dealing with people with cerebral palsy such as suggesting unsuitable processes and subsequent to the surgery need suitable therapy. This plays a part in hindering the person’s recuperation and may even result in worsening the physical functioning of the individual. Moreover Cox, et al. (2005) cited by Buzio et al (2002) Kroll and Neri (2003) there is a lack of impairment-specific understanding amongst the practitioners Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 11. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment who look after adults that have cerebral palsy. Collectively this would suggest more education is needed otherwise people’s health will be put in danger and because these individuals place immense trust in those who are part of the health care team to be fully qualified experts in this field. Carter, (2001) suggest medical specialists are very careful during diagnoses of children being born prematurely having developed cerebral palsy at a mild to moderate level. Although for a professional to confirm evidence of existing neurodevelopmental problems in the developing babies is known to be challenging. Contrasted with Bax et al. (2005) proposed there is a need to reconsider the classification and definition of cerebral palsy (CP) because it hopefully meets the interdisciplinary team needs by offering universal wording for enhanced consultation. Collectively this would suggest the specialists need to discuss with the children’s parents/guardians those who will be placed at an increased risk if postponed. Thus early identification is important whereby it brings about early intervention. Also in order to sufficiently provide care for the child’s development and support for optimal ability for success they need to be knowledgeable of the progressive nature when diagnosing the initial difficulties. Kent Sport and Physical Activity Service (2008) specify the athletes who have cerebral palsy are classified into groups which are determined by the amount of impairment along with to which muscle groups are concerned. Further evidence from International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2012) publishes cerebral palsy athletes come under three categories of the eight separate categories of physical impairments in the Paralympic Movement: Hypertonia, Ataxia and Athetosis. Therefore the Paralympic Classification is used to present a structure for competition and allows for fair sporting opportunities for the movement impaired right up to the elite level. Case 2: Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners The guidance to a fitness and/or health practitioner(s) should follow the statements as seen below: Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 12. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment  NHS Choices (2013) presents lifestyle choices / habits of either eating a high calorific diet or drinking large quantities of alcohol it is possible to increase the effects of cerebral palsy as well as damaging non impaired individual’s organs further.  Moreover it is important that when practitioners plan a session it has to include aspects of strength, balance and co-ordination (Kolt, and Snyder-Mackler, 2003)  In agreement Taaffe (2006) proposes the inclusion of one piece of an activity programme to comprise of cardiovascular exercise, flexibility and balance training.  Scope (2013) revealed that no two individuals will be affected by cerebral palsy in an identical way. Therefore importantly caring for the individual needs are met with appropriate therapies and treatments.  Similarly Cox et al. (2005) recognises that the planning of the practitioners who deliver health care needs are not to just be centred on children and young people’s early development but should also cover their entire life span.  Scope (2013) mentions with frequent participation of activities such as swimming will aid movement for people with cerebral palsy. Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 13. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment References AARP Bulletin (2011) Strength Training. Available at: http://www.aarp.org/health/fitness/info-03-2011/strength-training-counters-muscle-loss. html (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Advameg, Inc. (2013) Exercise and sports. Available at: http://www.faqs.org/oc/Overcoming-Fatigue/Exercise-and-sports.html (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). Bax, M., Goldstein, M., Rosenbaum, P., Leviton, A., Paneth, N., Dan, B., Jacobsson, B. and Damiano, D. (2005) ‘Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy’ Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 47(8) pp.571-576 Cambridge Journals [Online]. Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=318783. (Accessed on: 14/03/2013) Carter, S.L. (2001) Motor Impairment Associated with Neurological Injury in Premature Infants. Available at: http://www.comeunity.com/disability/cerebral_palsy/cerebralpalsy.html (Accessed on: 14/03/2013). Cox, D., Weze, C. and Lewis, C. (2005) Cerebral palsy and ageing: a systematic review. Available at: http://www.scope.org.uk/sites/default/files/pdfs/CP%20and%20Ageing.pdf (Accessed on: 01/04/2013) CP Sport England & Wales (2013) About Cerebral Palsy. Available at: http://www.cpsport.org/about-cp-sport/overview (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) Delft University of Technology (2002) Chapter 6 Impaired human motor control. Available at: http://ocw.tudelft.nl/uploads/media/Chapter_6_- _Impaired_human_motor_control.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Diet Health, Inc. (2013) Senior Nutrition. Available at: http://www.diet.com/g/senior-nutrition (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Espinoza and Walston (2005) ‘Frailty in older adults: Insights and interventions’ Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 72(12) pp.1105-1112 The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio [Online]. Available at: Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 14. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment http://geriatrics.uthscsa.edu/reading%20resources/Frailty%20in%20older%20adults, %20Insights%20and%20Interventions%20(Espinoza%20-%20Walston).pdf. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Farlex (2013) Medical Dictionary. Available at: http://medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary.com/impaired+physical+mobility (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) Goodpaster, B.H., Park, S.W., Harris, T.B., Kritchevsky, S.B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A.V, Simonsick, E.M, Tylavsky, F.A., Visser, M. and Newman, A.B. (2006) ‘The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study’ The Journals of Gerontology, 61(10) pp.1059-1064 The National Center for Biotechnology Information [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17077199. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Haywood, KM. & Getchell, N. (2009) Life Span Motor Development. 5th edn. Champaign, IL; Leeds: Human Kinetics. Hilpern, K. (2009) Stretch yourself: Exercise for the elderly is a growing and rewarding field. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/student/career-planning/ getting-job/stretch-yourself-exercise-for-the-elderly-is-a-growing-and-rewarding- field-1518590.html (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2012) Layman’s Guide to Paralympic Classification. Available at: http://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/120716152047682_Classificat ionGuide_1.pdf(Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Kent Sport and Physical Activity Service (2008) How Disabilities are classified within the Paralympic Games. Available at: http://www.kentsport.org/london2012/pdfs/paralympic_classification.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Kolt, G.S. and Snyder-Mackler, L. (2003) Physical Therapies in Sport and Exercise. Google Books [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2utRky2VO0UC&pg=PA488&dq=Sport+and+exe rcise+in+the+aged&hl=en&sa=X&ei=q45NUai7Eqm- Carl Page (1008889) Page 14 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 15. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 0QXqvYCICQ&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Sport%20and%20exercise%2 0in%20the%20aged&f=false (Accessed on: 23/03/2013) Lang, T., Streeper, T., Cawthon, P., Baldwin, K., Taaffe, D.R. and Harris, T.B. (2010) ‘Sarcopenia: etiology, clinical consequences, intervention, and assessment’ Osteoporosis' International, 21(4) pp.543–559 The National Center for Biotechnology Information [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2832869/pdf/198_2009_Article_1059.p df. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). LIVESTRONG (2011) Causes of Hand Tremors & Loss of Grip Strength. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/160986-causes-of-hand-tremors-loss-of-grip-strength/ (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). LIVESTRONG (2011) Hand Grip Strength Test. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/468905-hand-grip-strength-test/ (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). LIVESTRONG (2011) How to Increase Finger Strength & Hand Grip. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/449700-how-to-increase-finger-strength-hand-grip/? utm_source=livestrong_opar&utm_medium=3 (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). LIVESTRONG (2011) Isometric Hand Grip Strength Test. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/436730-isometric-hand-grip-strength-test/ (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). LIVESTRONG (2011) Strength Training for Women Over 60 Years Old. Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/452842-strength-training-for-women-over-60-years-old/ (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). LIVING WELL Magazine (2011) Colorado Springs Orthopaedic Group on Common Ailments of the Aging Hand. Available at: http://www.livingwellmag.com/colorado-springs- orthopaedic-group-common-ailments-aging-hand-colorado-springs-living-magazine/ (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). Macnair, T. and Hicks, R. (2013) Cerebral palsy. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/cerebralpalsy1.shtml (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) Carl Page (1008889) Page 15 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 16. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Miller-Keane and O'Toole, MT. (2003) Encyclopaedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Allied Health. 7th edn. London: Saunders. NHS Choices (2013) Cerebral Palsy – Complications. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cerebral-palsy/Pages/Complications.aspx (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) NHS Choices (2013) Cerebral Palsy - Introduction. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cerebral-palsy/Pages/Introduction.aspx (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) NHS Choices (2013) Cerebral Palsy – Treatment. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cerebral-palsy/Pages/Treatment.aspx (Accessed on: 28/03/2013) Samuel, D., Wilson, K., Martin, Helen J., Allen, R., Aihie Sayer, A. and Stokes, M. (2012) ‘Age-associated changes in hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength ratios in healthy adults’ Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(3) pp. 245-250 University of Southampton Institutional Research Repository ePrints Soton [Online]. Available at: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/192483/. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013) Scope (2013) Ageing and cerebral palsy. Available at: http://www.scope.org.uk/help-and- information/cerebral-palsy/ageing-and-cerebral-palsy (Accessed on: 01/04/2013) Scope (2013) Cerebral palsy (CP). Available at: http://www.scope.org.uk/help-and-information/ cerebral-palsy (Accessed on: 01/04/2013) Scope (2013) Hydrotherapy (hydro-physiotherapy). Available at: http://www.scope.org.uk/help-and-information/z-therapies/hydrotherapy Taaffe, D.R. (2006) Sarcopenia Exercise as a treatment strategy. Available at: http://www.luzimarteixeira.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/sarcopenia-e-exercicio- 2.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2009) Arthritis of the Hand and Wrist. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/arthritis/hic_arthritis_of_the_hand_and_wrist.a spx (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Carl Page (1008889) Page 16 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 17. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment The Hygenic Corporation (2004) Healthcare Provider Manual. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/providerman-inorder.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2004) The Active Aging Toolkit: Promoting Physical Activity in Older Adults for Healthcare Providers. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/toolkit_exec-summ2-16-04.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2004) The Active Aging Toolkit: Promoting Physical Activity in Older Adults for Healthcare Providers. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/downloads/files/Toolkit-whitepaperREV2-16- 04.pdf (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) How To Prescribe Physical Activity Programs. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/ (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Modifying Programs for Subgroups. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/modifying.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Activity Prescription. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/activity.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Activity Prescription. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/prescribe.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Physical Assessment. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/assessment.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Progressing Programs. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/progressing.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Strategies / How to Change Perceptions & Behaviors. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/perceptions.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Carl Page (1008889) Page 17 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 18. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment The Hygenic Corporation (2008) Strategies to Increase Physical Activity. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/providers/strategy.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). The Hygenic Corporation (2008) The Hygenic Corporation. Available at: http://www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/ (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Thomas, D.R. (2007) ‘Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging: Examining the relationship of starvation, sarcopenia and cachexia’ Clinical Nutrition, 26(4) pp.389– 399 Stuurgroep Ondervoeding [Online]. Available at: http://stuurgroepondervoeding.nl/fileadmin/inhoud/ziekenhuis/documenten/artikelen/t homas_sarcopenie_cachexie.pdf. (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Tiresias (2009) Ageing Population. Available at: http://www.tiresias.org/accessible_ict/ageing_population/process.htm (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). University of Arkansas (2010) Increasing Physical Activity as We Age Strength Training. Available at: http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSFCS33.pdf (Accessed on: 23/03/2013). Westcott, W. (2008) ‘ACSM Strength Training Guidelines Role in Body Composition and Health Enhancement’ ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 13(4) pp.14-22 Personal Fitness Systems, Inc. [Online]. Available at: http://pfswellness.com/forms/ACSM_STRENGTH_TRAINING_GUIDELINES__Role_i n_Body.7.pdf . (Accessed on: 24/03/2013). Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L. and Kenney, W.L. (2008) Physiology of sport and exercise. 4th edn. Champaign, IL; Leeds: Human Kinetics. Carl Page (1008889) Page 18 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching