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SPINAL CORD
STRUCTURE
Dr Sana Yaseen
Anatomy department
KIMS
 INTRODUCTION
 Origin:foramen Magnum
 Terminates at:
L1/2 vertebral level-
adults
L3- children
 31 pairs of spinal nerves
(mixed)
 Cervical & lumbar
enlargements
Spinal nerves & cord
 31 pairs with anterior and
posterior roots
 C1 often doesn’t have
posterior root
 Spinal cord enlarged in C5
– T1 and L2 – S3 levels
Spinal cord
Inferiorly spinal
cord tappers off
into
CONUS
MEDULLARIS
Spinal cord
The 3 Meningeal Layers
• Dura mater:
– outer layer of spinal cord
– subdural space:
• between arachnoid mater
and dura mater
• Arachnoid mater:
– middle meningeal layer
– subarachnoid space:
• between arachnoid mater
and pia mater
• filled with cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF)
• Pia mater:
– inner meningeal layer
MENINGEAL COVERING OF SPINAL
CORD
Spinal cord
TERMS
 Conus medullaris – terminal portion of the spinal cord
 Filum terminale – fibrous extension of the pia mater; anchors
the spinal cord to the coccyx
 Denticulate ligaments – delicate shelves of pia mater; attach
the spinal cord to the vertebrae
 Spinal nerves – 31 pairs attach to the cord by paired roots
 Cervical nerves are named for inferior vertebra
 All other nerves are named for superior vertebra
 Cervical and lumbar enlargements – sites where nerves
serving the upper and lower limbs emerge
 Cauda equina – collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of
the vertebral canal
Conus medullaris
Filum terminale
Cauda equina
Dura mater
External Spinal Cord
Spinal cord
 Paired denticulate
ligaments:
 extend from pia mater to
dura mater
 stabilize side-to-side
movement
 Blood vessels:
 along surface of spinal
pia mater
 within subarachnoid
space
Spinal cord
Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
 Anterior median fissure – separates anterior
funiculi
 Posterior median sulcus – divides posterior
funiculi
ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE
POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS
ANTERIOR GREY COMMISURE
POSTERIOR GREY COMMISURE
CENTRAL CANAL
ANTERIOR HORN
OF SPINAL CORD
POSTERIOR HORN
OF SPINAL CORD
LATERAL HORN OF S.C
POSTEIOR HORN OF S.C
ANTERIOR HORN OF S.C
POSTERIOR GREY COMMISURE
ANTERIOR GREY COMMISURE
ANTERIOR/ VENTRAL / MOTORROOT OF S.C
POSTEIOR/ SENSORY ROOT GANGLION
LATERAL
FUNICULI
POSTERIOR FUNICULI
ANTERIOR
FUNICULI
POSTEIOR/ SENSORY ROOT OF S.C
SPINAL NERVE
Spinal cord
Spinal cord
Spinal cord
Cross-sectional gray mater
 Is seen as H shaped/ butterfly wing with anterior and
posterior gray columns/ horns united by thin anterior and
posterior gray commissure with centrally present central
canal.
 Gray matter (cell bodies, neuroglia, & unmyelinated
processes)
 Posterior horns (sensory, all interneurons)
 Lateral horns (autonomic, T1-L2)
 Anterior horns (motor, cell bodies of somatic motor neurons)
 Spinal roots
 Ventral (somatic & autonomic motor)
 Dorsal (DRG)
 In thoracic and upper lumbar segments small lateral gray
column is present.
 Amount of gray mater present at any given level of spinal
cord is related to the amount of muscle innervate at that level
such as greatest in lumbar and sacral segements.
Gray Matter: Organization
 For practical purpopse
the nerve cells of
anterior grey column
may be divided into 3
groups,
 MEDIAL
 CENTRAL
 LATERAL
POSTERIOR MARGINAL
NUCLEUS
SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA
NUCLEUS PROPRIUS
NUCLEUS DORSALIS
INTERMEDIOLATERAL
CELL GROUP
INTERMEDIOMEDIAL
CELL GROUP
MEDIAL GROUP
LATERAL GROUP
DORSAL
HORN
INTERMEDIATE
VENTRAL HORN
 the nerve cells of posterior grey
column divided into 4 groups,
 Substantia gelatinosa
 Nucleus proprius
 Nucleus dorsalis
 Visceral afferent group
 MEDIAL GROUP:
 Present in most of the segment
 Innervates sk. Msl of neck and trunk & intercostal and
abdominal musculature
 MIDDLE GROUP
Cervical segment:
 Innervates diphragm
(phrenic nerve) C3,4,5
 C1-5/6: innervates
sternocleidomastoid,
trapezius msl
 Forms spinal part of
accessory nerve
Lumbosacral segment:
 L2-S1
LATERAL SEGMENT
 Present in cervical and lumbosacral segment
 Innervates sk. Msl of upper and lower limbs
 SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA
 Apex of posterior gray column
 Throughout spinal ord
 Golgi type II neurons
 Recieves afferent for Pain-Temp- Touch
 NUCLEUS PROPRIUS
 Lies anterior to substantia gelatinosa
 Recieves afferent of sense of position,
movement , two point discrimination,
vibration
 VISCERAL AFFERENT
 T1-L3 segment
 Recieves visceral afferent from
organs
 NUCLEUS DORSALIS/ CLARK’S COLUMN
 Base of posterior grey column
 C8-L4
 Associated with proprioceptive ending, (neuromuscular spindles & tendon
spindles)
Grey Matter Organization
Anterior
Intermediate
Posterior
Motor Groups
Lateral
Medial
Grey Matter Organization:
Lateral Grey Horns: T1 –
L2/3
AKA
Intermediolateral
Cell Column
Grey Matter Organization:
Posterior Cell Column
Dorsomarginal nucleus
Substantia gelatinosa
Nucleus proprius
Nucleus dorsalis
(Clarke’s column)
LATERAL GREY COLUMN
 Presnt in T1- L2/3 segments and S2,3 segaments
 Cells are small and the axons in thoracic and upper
lumbar segments are preganglionic sympathetic
fibers
 Axons in sacral segments are pre ganglionic para
sympathetic fibers
WHITE MATER
 Fibers run in three directions – ascending, descending, and
transversely
 3 funiculi (posterior, lateral, anterior)
 Each funiculus contains several fiber tracts
 Fiber tract names reveal their origin and destination
 Fiber tracts are composed of axons with similar functions
 Consist of “tracts” containing similarly functional axons
• All tracts are paired
• Most cross over (decussate) at some point
• Most exhibit somatotopy (superior part of the tracts are
more lateral that inferior body regions)
• Most consist of a chain of 2 or 3 successive neurons
White Matter: Pathway
Generalizations
Spinal cord
Spinal Cord
 Central gray nuclei
and outer white
matter (tracts)
Cell bodies Ascending
tracts
Descending
tracts
Peripheral
nerve
fibers
External Structure – Spinal
Cord
Anterior Median Fissure
Posterior Median Sulcus
Lateral sulci
Internal Structure – White
Matter
Funiculi
Posterior
Lateral
Anterior
White Matter Organization:
Ascending Pathways
Posterior Columns
Posterior &
Anterior
Spinocerebellar
Tracts
Lateral &
Anterior
Spinothalamic
Tracts
White Matter Organization:
Descending Pathways
Rubrospinal
Tract
Lateral
Corticospinal
Tract
Anterior
Corticospinal
Tract
Vestibulospinal
Tracts
Reticulospinal
Tracts
White Matter Organization:
Intersegmental Pathways
Lissauer’s
Tract
Intersegmental
Tracts
White Matter Organization:
Ascending Pathways
Posterior Columns
L
N
Lateral &
Anterior
Spinothalamic
Tracts
White Matter Organization:
Descending Pathways
Legs
Neck
T
A
Spinal cord

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Spinal cord

  • 1. SPINAL CORD STRUCTURE Dr Sana Yaseen Anatomy department KIMS
  • 2.  INTRODUCTION  Origin:foramen Magnum  Terminates at: L1/2 vertebral level- adults L3- children  31 pairs of spinal nerves (mixed)  Cervical & lumbar enlargements
  • 3. Spinal nerves & cord  31 pairs with anterior and posterior roots  C1 often doesn’t have posterior root  Spinal cord enlarged in C5 – T1 and L2 – S3 levels
  • 5. Inferiorly spinal cord tappers off into CONUS MEDULLARIS
  • 7. The 3 Meningeal Layers • Dura mater: – outer layer of spinal cord – subdural space: • between arachnoid mater and dura mater • Arachnoid mater: – middle meningeal layer – subarachnoid space: • between arachnoid mater and pia mater • filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) • Pia mater: – inner meningeal layer
  • 8. MENINGEAL COVERING OF SPINAL CORD
  • 10. TERMS  Conus medullaris – terminal portion of the spinal cord  Filum terminale – fibrous extension of the pia mater; anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx  Denticulate ligaments – delicate shelves of pia mater; attach the spinal cord to the vertebrae  Spinal nerves – 31 pairs attach to the cord by paired roots  Cervical nerves are named for inferior vertebra  All other nerves are named for superior vertebra  Cervical and lumbar enlargements – sites where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge  Cauda equina – collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
  • 11. Conus medullaris Filum terminale Cauda equina Dura mater External Spinal Cord
  • 13.  Paired denticulate ligaments:  extend from pia mater to dura mater  stabilize side-to-side movement  Blood vessels:  along surface of spinal pia mater  within subarachnoid space
  • 15. Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord  Anterior median fissure – separates anterior funiculi  Posterior median sulcus – divides posterior funiculi
  • 16. ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS ANTERIOR GREY COMMISURE POSTERIOR GREY COMMISURE CENTRAL CANAL ANTERIOR HORN OF SPINAL CORD POSTERIOR HORN OF SPINAL CORD
  • 17. LATERAL HORN OF S.C POSTEIOR HORN OF S.C ANTERIOR HORN OF S.C POSTERIOR GREY COMMISURE ANTERIOR GREY COMMISURE ANTERIOR/ VENTRAL / MOTORROOT OF S.C POSTEIOR/ SENSORY ROOT GANGLION LATERAL FUNICULI POSTERIOR FUNICULI ANTERIOR FUNICULI POSTEIOR/ SENSORY ROOT OF S.C SPINAL NERVE
  • 21. Cross-sectional gray mater  Is seen as H shaped/ butterfly wing with anterior and posterior gray columns/ horns united by thin anterior and posterior gray commissure with centrally present central canal.  Gray matter (cell bodies, neuroglia, & unmyelinated processes)  Posterior horns (sensory, all interneurons)  Lateral horns (autonomic, T1-L2)  Anterior horns (motor, cell bodies of somatic motor neurons)  Spinal roots  Ventral (somatic & autonomic motor)  Dorsal (DRG)
  • 22.  In thoracic and upper lumbar segments small lateral gray column is present.  Amount of gray mater present at any given level of spinal cord is related to the amount of muscle innervate at that level such as greatest in lumbar and sacral segements.
  • 23. Gray Matter: Organization  For practical purpopse the nerve cells of anterior grey column may be divided into 3 groups,  MEDIAL  CENTRAL  LATERAL POSTERIOR MARGINAL NUCLEUS SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA NUCLEUS PROPRIUS NUCLEUS DORSALIS INTERMEDIOLATERAL CELL GROUP INTERMEDIOMEDIAL CELL GROUP MEDIAL GROUP LATERAL GROUP DORSAL HORN INTERMEDIATE VENTRAL HORN  the nerve cells of posterior grey column divided into 4 groups,  Substantia gelatinosa  Nucleus proprius  Nucleus dorsalis  Visceral afferent group
  • 24.  MEDIAL GROUP:  Present in most of the segment  Innervates sk. Msl of neck and trunk & intercostal and abdominal musculature  MIDDLE GROUP Cervical segment:  Innervates diphragm (phrenic nerve) C3,4,5  C1-5/6: innervates sternocleidomastoid, trapezius msl  Forms spinal part of accessory nerve Lumbosacral segment:  L2-S1 LATERAL SEGMENT  Present in cervical and lumbosacral segment  Innervates sk. Msl of upper and lower limbs
  • 25.  SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA  Apex of posterior gray column  Throughout spinal ord  Golgi type II neurons  Recieves afferent for Pain-Temp- Touch  NUCLEUS PROPRIUS  Lies anterior to substantia gelatinosa  Recieves afferent of sense of position, movement , two point discrimination, vibration  VISCERAL AFFERENT  T1-L3 segment  Recieves visceral afferent from organs  NUCLEUS DORSALIS/ CLARK’S COLUMN  Base of posterior grey column  C8-L4  Associated with proprioceptive ending, (neuromuscular spindles & tendon spindles)
  • 27. Grey Matter Organization: Lateral Grey Horns: T1 – L2/3 AKA Intermediolateral Cell Column
  • 28. Grey Matter Organization: Posterior Cell Column Dorsomarginal nucleus Substantia gelatinosa Nucleus proprius Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke’s column)
  • 29. LATERAL GREY COLUMN  Presnt in T1- L2/3 segments and S2,3 segaments  Cells are small and the axons in thoracic and upper lumbar segments are preganglionic sympathetic fibers  Axons in sacral segments are pre ganglionic para sympathetic fibers
  • 30. WHITE MATER  Fibers run in three directions – ascending, descending, and transversely  3 funiculi (posterior, lateral, anterior)  Each funiculus contains several fiber tracts  Fiber tract names reveal their origin and destination  Fiber tracts are composed of axons with similar functions  Consist of “tracts” containing similarly functional axons • All tracts are paired • Most cross over (decussate) at some point • Most exhibit somatotopy (superior part of the tracts are more lateral that inferior body regions) • Most consist of a chain of 2 or 3 successive neurons
  • 33. Spinal Cord  Central gray nuclei and outer white matter (tracts) Cell bodies Ascending tracts Descending tracts Peripheral nerve fibers
  • 34. External Structure – Spinal Cord Anterior Median Fissure Posterior Median Sulcus Lateral sulci
  • 35. Internal Structure – White Matter Funiculi Posterior Lateral Anterior
  • 36. White Matter Organization: Ascending Pathways Posterior Columns Posterior & Anterior Spinocerebellar Tracts Lateral & Anterior Spinothalamic Tracts
  • 37. White Matter Organization: Descending Pathways Rubrospinal Tract Lateral Corticospinal Tract Anterior Corticospinal Tract Vestibulospinal Tracts Reticulospinal Tracts
  • 38. White Matter Organization: Intersegmental Pathways Lissauer’s Tract Intersegmental Tracts
  • 39. White Matter Organization: Ascending Pathways Posterior Columns L N Lateral & Anterior Spinothalamic Tracts
  • 40. White Matter Organization: Descending Pathways Legs Neck T A