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Spatial Planning on the Semantic WebRadboudWinkels, Rinke Hoekstra, Erik Hupkes
OutlineUse CaseRequirementsMetadataLegal perspectiveRepresentationExampleLimitationsFuturework10/26/092
10/26/093
Room for ImprovementFinegrained coupling with regulation textsAssessment“Am I allowed to build X here?”Planning“Wheream I allowed to build X?”Evaluation“Are land use regulations X and Y consistent?”“What is the impact of policy X?”10/26/094
Legal PerspectivePlans do not describe existing situation, but Prescribe restrictions and rights associated with geospatial objects.Maps provide intuitive handles for evaluating the normative content of land use regulations:Hierarchical relation between authorities coincides with spatial inclusionAdjacency determines indirect effect (e.g. industry next to nature reserve)10/26/095
HeterogeneitySpatial plans: maps and documentsMaps & other dataGeotagging of photos, traffic conditions &c.How to ‘link’ the data?Determine meaningful overlap between data from involved domainsSpatial plans: Land use category10/26/096
Metadata and OwnershipMultiple originsRegulations issued by different government bodies with overlapping jurisdictionDifferent categorisation schemesSubject to changeProblemsOverlap: users unaware of interaction between jurisdictionsTransparent presentation of all applicable regulations on a single mapComparison: different schemes hinder comparison of land use regimesPromote sharing of categorisation schemes 10/26/097
Approaches to scheme sharingStandardisation Top-down, prescribed, single domainIMRO 2006: obligatory for municipal urban planning in NLINSPIRE: standardise exchange of spatial information within EUUmbrella, unifying framework, multiple domainsGEMET: multilingual thesaurus of 5000+ environmental terms10/26/098
Requirements (1)Categorisation scheme maintained by owner of standardIntegration requires a mapping between categorisation schemesFlexible mechanism (cf. BestMap paper at OWLED)Representation maintained by owner of regulationDistributed content and semanticsSemantic Web10/26/099
Requirements (2)MapsServed from standards compliant web servicesAccessible through off-the-shelf API’sRegulation textsServed from web-accessible locations, In a format that allows for integration with metadataMetadataUsed both for information on maps and corresponding textsMapping between vocabulariesNormsRepresented in terms of standard metadata, Expressed using a Semantic Web compliant language10/26/0910
LegalAtlas(a.o. Winkels et al., 2007)Connection between texts and map
Represented in RDF
Not web based
Not service based
Limited to IMRO 2006 categories
No representation of norms
No normative reasoning
Annotation mechanism:
`Designations’ are annotated with maps and texts, instead of the other way around
Not extensible with other land use categorization schemes
Land use categories as classes: lots of individuals 10/26/0911
Information ServingGeographic Information SystemsExchangeGeoRSS, GML, KML, ESRI ShapefilesServicesWeb Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS)Basic geospatial reasoning facilitiesNo support for normative aspects of spatial plans10/26/0912
Towards a Legal Information ServerProvide normative reasoning as a serviceAssess whether some situation is allowed or disallowed, given a set of normsImplementations:LIS (Winkels et al., ‘98,’02)SWI-PrologLKIF Core (Hoekstra et al. ’09, Hoekstra ’09) andHARNESS (van de Ven, et al. ‘08)OWL 2 DL 10/26/0913

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Spatial Planning On The Semantic Web Terracognita 2009

  • 1. Spatial Planning on the Semantic WebRadboudWinkels, Rinke Hoekstra, Erik Hupkes
  • 4. Room for ImprovementFinegrained coupling with regulation textsAssessment“Am I allowed to build X here?”Planning“Wheream I allowed to build X?”Evaluation“Are land use regulations X and Y consistent?”“What is the impact of policy X?”10/26/094
  • 5. Legal PerspectivePlans do not describe existing situation, but Prescribe restrictions and rights associated with geospatial objects.Maps provide intuitive handles for evaluating the normative content of land use regulations:Hierarchical relation between authorities coincides with spatial inclusionAdjacency determines indirect effect (e.g. industry next to nature reserve)10/26/095
  • 6. HeterogeneitySpatial plans: maps and documentsMaps & other dataGeotagging of photos, traffic conditions &c.How to ‘link’ the data?Determine meaningful overlap between data from involved domainsSpatial plans: Land use category10/26/096
  • 7. Metadata and OwnershipMultiple originsRegulations issued by different government bodies with overlapping jurisdictionDifferent categorisation schemesSubject to changeProblemsOverlap: users unaware of interaction between jurisdictionsTransparent presentation of all applicable regulations on a single mapComparison: different schemes hinder comparison of land use regimesPromote sharing of categorisation schemes 10/26/097
  • 8. Approaches to scheme sharingStandardisation Top-down, prescribed, single domainIMRO 2006: obligatory for municipal urban planning in NLINSPIRE: standardise exchange of spatial information within EUUmbrella, unifying framework, multiple domainsGEMET: multilingual thesaurus of 5000+ environmental terms10/26/098
  • 9. Requirements (1)Categorisation scheme maintained by owner of standardIntegration requires a mapping between categorisation schemesFlexible mechanism (cf. BestMap paper at OWLED)Representation maintained by owner of regulationDistributed content and semanticsSemantic Web10/26/099
  • 10. Requirements (2)MapsServed from standards compliant web servicesAccessible through off-the-shelf API’sRegulation textsServed from web-accessible locations, In a format that allows for integration with metadataMetadataUsed both for information on maps and corresponding textsMapping between vocabulariesNormsRepresented in terms of standard metadata, Expressed using a Semantic Web compliant language10/26/0910
  • 11. LegalAtlas(a.o. Winkels et al., 2007)Connection between texts and map
  • 15. Limited to IMRO 2006 categories
  • 19. `Designations’ are annotated with maps and texts, instead of the other way around
  • 20. Not extensible with other land use categorization schemes
  • 21. Land use categories as classes: lots of individuals 10/26/0911
  • 22. Information ServingGeographic Information SystemsExchangeGeoRSS, GML, KML, ESRI ShapefilesServicesWeb Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS)Basic geospatial reasoning facilitiesNo support for normative aspects of spatial plans10/26/0912
  • 23. Towards a Legal Information ServerProvide normative reasoning as a serviceAssess whether some situation is allowed or disallowed, given a set of normsImplementations:LIS (Winkels et al., ‘98,’02)SWI-PrologLKIF Core (Hoekstra et al. ’09, Hoekstra ’09) andHARNESS (van de Ven, et al. ‘08)OWL 2 DL 10/26/0913
  • 24. Revised annotation mechanismRegion-centredLand use categories as SKOS conceptsMappings between categories as OWL classes (BestMap, OWLED)Web service basedSesame RDF triple storeSwiftOWLIMReasonerOpenGISGeoServerGoogle Maps Spatial normsAllowed/Disallowed situationsOWL 2 DL class descriptions Prototype System10/26/0914
  • 26. Example (1)Two land use categories, and two regions:Mapping:Norm:1610/26/09
  • 27. Spatial plan:User adds region with GeoServer infersOWLIM infersSPARQL Query:Example (2)1710/26/09
  • 33. Using OWL 2 DL…AdvantagesStandard, ‘off the shelf’ reasonersDecidable, complete, guaranteed responseMonotonicDisadvantagesLimited expressiveness vs. complexity of worldOWL 2 DL is restricted to ‘tree models’Complex configurations of objects are hard to defineNo obvious way to connect DL reasoning to GIS10/26/0923
  • 34. ConclusionsRepresentation of distributed spatial regulationsMap based legal assessment as web serviceCompare and evaluate spatial regulationsApplication of other work to new domainLegal case assessment method in OWL 2 DLOntology mapping (BestMap, OWLED)10/26/0924
  • 35. Future WorkExplaining Results Query for conflictsCurrently only for specific casesMore advanced reasoning “Space Package” (Hage et al. 2009)PelletSpatial (RCC8, Stocker & Sirin, 2009)Dealing with exception hierarchies (GIS Transactions)10/26/0925

Editor's Notes

  1. Alle bronnen van anderen, ook bestemmingen terwijl wij alles daaraan hingen. In nieuwe opzet ook bestemmingen extern.
  2. Later?CLIME: Legal assessment as a service
  3. Misschien weg?
  4. Approach for specifying spatial norms using Semantic Web technology that enables an intuitive way of visualising their effects: map based legal case assessment.