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Spanish
Era
Philippine Literature
3 reason why Spaniards
came to thePhilippines
God
Gold
Glory
Spanish colonization of the Philippines started
in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines.
Literature started to flourish during his time. The
spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in
1872.
LITERARY
COMPOSITIONS
LITERARY COMPOSITIONS
1.Balagtasan
2.Corrido
3.Awit
4.Pasyon
5.Cenaculo
6.Moro-moro
7.Carillo
8.Tibag
9.Duplo at karagatan
10Zarsuela
11.Dalit
1.THE BALAGTASAN
Balagtasan is a form of debate using poetic verse. The
name of the literary form itself originates from Francisco
Balagtas, a hugely influential Filipino poet from the late
1800’s.
Considered the Filipino version of William
Shakespeare, most of his early works were, like
Shakespeare, comedies. Also like Shakespeare, his work
gradually matured over time; Balagtas’ masterpiece
entitled Florante at Laura is an epic written when he was
imprisoned during the 19thcentury.
Balagtasan came about, at
least politically, as the manifestation of
Filipino sentiment in that a sense of self
and identity was lost due to American
rule. It strives to declare independence
from America by highlighting Filipino
culture such as their old customs and
traditions.
ARAL AT LIGAW
DAPAT BA O HINDI DAPAT ISABAY ANG
PANLILIGAW SA PAG-AARAL?
Mula sa panulat ni:
RAFAEL A. PULMANO
LAKANDIWA
Isang mapagpalang araw ang malugod na handog ko
Sa lahat ng Pilipinong nagkalat sa buong mundo
Mayrong isang email message na natanggap ang lingkoda
nyo
Apurahang naghahanap ng sagot sa tanong na 'to:
DAPAT BA O HINDI DAPAT PAGSABAYIN ANG DALAWA:
ANG MAG-ARAL AT MANLIGAW? Dapat o Hindi Dapat ba?
Sa nais na makisali, ang tanghalan ay bukas na
Ipahayag ang katwiran nang marinig ng balana.
DAPAT
Ako'y isang mag-aaral na nasa hustong gulang na
May isip na tumutuklas at may pusong sumisinta
Pag-aaral, panliligaw, magsabay man di problema
Kaya dapat ang syang panig na handa kong ibandera.
HINDI DAPAT
Bilang ama ng tahanan, kung ako ang tatanungin
Pag-aaral ang sya munang nararapat atupagin
Saka na ang panliligaw, hindi dapat pagsabayin
Ang panig na igigiit sakali at palahukin.
LAKANDIWA
Tuloy, kayo'y magsituloy upang ating umpisahan
Ang tagisan ng talino sa larangan ng katwiran
Ang panig ng DAPAT muna una nating pakikinggan
Salubungin nating lahat ng masiglang palakpakan!
O birheng kaibig-ibig
Ina naming nasa langit,
Liwanagin yaring isip
Nang sa layo’y di malihis.
Ganito ang napagsapit
Ng haring kaibig-ibig
Nang siya’y managinip
Isang gabing naiidlip
Corrido-Metrical romance
are long verse narratives on chivalric-heroic, religious, legendary and
folkloric themes. 'Koridos' or 'corridos,' as Philippine romances are
generally called, are heavily influenced by foreign literature. . These
have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial
beat. E.g Ibong Adarna
Di-umano’y si Don Juan
Bunso niyang minamahal
Ay nililo at pinatay
Ng dalawang tampalasan
May isang ibong maganda
Ang pangalan ay Adarna,
Pag naririnig mong kumanta
Sa sakit ay giginhawa.
The most quoted line regarding the power of love are the following:
O Pagsintang labis ng kapangyarihan
Sampung mag-aama’y iyong nasasaklaw!
Pag ikaw ang nasok sa puso nino man,
Hahamaking lahat masunod ka lamang
At yuyurakan na ang lalong dakila,
Bait, katuwira’y ipanganganyaya
Buong katungkula’y wawalang-bahala sampo ng hininga’y ipauubaya.
The poem tells the story of love made triumphant against a sinister
background of political intrigue and corruption. It is a masterpiece of
local versification upholding moral
Awit
a heroic-chilvaric narrative poem.
These have measures of twelve syllables
(dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of
guitar or banduria.
E.g. Florante at Laura of Francisco Baltazar “Balagtas”
narrative poem on the life of Christ was chanted
during the Lenten season.
Pasyon
Sample:
The senakulo is a traditional Filipino
dramatization of the life and times
of Jesus Christ. Done in singing
(pasyon) and recitation, it is
presented in the public squares in
many towns, in houses and streets
during the season of Lent.
The Senakulo (from the Spanish
cenaculo) is a Lenten play that
depicts events from the Old and
New Testaments related to the life,
sufferings, and death of Christ.
Cenaculo
It takes at least eight nights - from Palm Sunday to Eastern Sunday - to present
the play. Christ is presented traditionally as meek and humble, submitting lamb-
like to his fate in obedience to authority.
Moro-moro
or comedia de capa y espada
a blood and thunder melodrama which depicted the conflict
between the Christians and the Muslims. Of course the Christians
always emerged as victors in the struggle.
The MORO-MORO like the Cenaculo, is presented also on a
special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to
entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian
religion.
Example: “Prinsipe Rodante”
The earliest known form of organized theater is thecomedia,
or moro-moro, created by Spanish priests. In 1637 a play was
written to dramatize the recent capture by a Christian Filipino army
of an Islamic stronghold. It was so popular that other plays were
written and staged as folk dramas in Christianize villages...
Carillo
shadow play (similar to puppet show) was made of cardboard
figures projected on a white screen. The manipulator supply the
action and the dialogue.
Puppetry in the Philippines started since the
time of Dr. Jose Rizal, our national hero,
when he staged the play entitled “CARILLO”
or shadow puppetry. Rizal used a carton and
a stick and he placed this at the back of a
white cloth. Then he used a candle light at
the back of the puppets.
Tibag
a dramatic re-enactment of St. Helena’s
search for the Holy cross was usually
performed in May. 1The word tibag means to
excavate. This ritual was brought here by the
Spaniards to remind the people about the
serach of St, Helena for the cross on which
Jesus died.
This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious nature celebrated during the
death of a person. In this contest, more or less formal, a ritual is performed based on
a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and who
offered here hand in marriage to anyone who can retrieve it.
A leader starts off with an extemporaneous poem announcing the purpose.
He then spins a “lumbo” o “tabo” marked with a white line. Whoever comes in the
direction of the white line when the spinning stops gets his turn to “go into the sea to
look for the ring.” This means a girl will ask him a riddle and if he is able to answer, he
will offer the ring to the girl.
Karagatan
Duplo
The Duplo replace the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in
speaking and reasoning. The roles are taken from the Bible
and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during
wakes for the dead.
Zarzuela (Walang Sugat)
musical comedy or melodrama in three acts.
Si Severino Reyes, o mas kilala
bilang Lola Basyang, ay itinuturing na ama
ng Sarsuwelang Tagalog. Isa siyang mahusay
na direktor at manunulat ng dula.
Nagsimulang mabasa ang mga
kwento ni Lola Basyang noong 1925 habang
siya ay punong-patnugot sa Liwayway at
kinailangan niyang punan ng kwento ang
isang maliit na espasyo sa isang pahina ng
magasin.
Ama ng Zarsuela
Severino Reyes
Ang ‘Sarsuwela’ ay isang anyo ng dulang
musikal na unang umunlad sa Espanya noong
ika-17 siglo. Binubuo ito ng mga pagsasalaysay
na sinamahan ng mga sayaw at tugtugin, at
may paksang mitolohikal at kabayanihan.
Ang sarsuwela o dula ay isang uri ng panitikan
na ang pinakalayunin ay itanghal sa tanghalan
o entablado. Nahahati ito sa ilang yugto na
maraming tagpo. Ang mga tao na dalubhasa sa
larangan ng pagsusulat ng mga dulang
itinatanghal ay tinatawag na mga ‘mandudula’
o ‘dramatista’ (playwright).
Religious matters were printed in prose in the form of
novenas and prayer books, biographies of the saints, tales
and novels.
Dalit – a religious hymn in verse.
The Propaganda and
Revolutionary Period
Difference?
The opening of the Philippines to world trade (which
exposed the Filipinos to liberal ideas coming from Europe), the
Spanish Revolution in 1868, the opening of the Suez Canal in
1869 and the martyrdom of Burgos, Gomez and Zamora all
contributed to the awakening of Filipino nationalism.
As a result, this gave rise to the birth of two
movements, one developing after the other. Different though
they may be in their objectives, the members of these two
movements were motivated by one common cause :
an all-consuming love for their country.
The Propaganda and Revolutionary Period
The three foremost Propagandists
Jose Rizal
(“Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibustirismo”)
exposed the evils of Spanish rule in the Philippines.
Marcelo del Pilar
(essays and editorials in Diariong Tagalog which he founded)
Graciano Lopez-Jaena
(stirring articles in La Solidaridad of which he was editor)
Because of the failure of the propagandists to get the much needed
reforms they were asking from Spain, (in fact, many of them were
politically persecuted) the Revolutionary Movement took over.
Propaganda Movement
which was reformatory in objective had for its members
college students mostly based in Spain.
This was more violent in nature and demanded complete
independence for the Philippines. The “rebels” wrote in Tagalog to arouse the
people to revolt against Spain.
Andres Bonifacio, the “Great Plebian” inspired by Rizal’s novels,
founded the Katipunan.
Articles that helped inflame the spirit of the revolution were
published in the Kalayaan, the newspaper of the society. This was edited by
Emilio Jacinto, the “Brains of the Katipunan”, who wrote in both Tagalog and
Spanish.
Apolinario Mabini, the “Sublime Paralytic” and the right hand man of
Emilio Aguinaldo at the onset of Malolos Republic, was the “Brains of the
Revolution”. His “True Decalogue” was ranked among the best in spreading
Filipino nationalism.
Revolutionary Movement
Critics agree that although
Filipino literature in English is but one of
the literature in our tri-lingual culture,
and the youngest at that, it is
nevertheless the most creative, the most
substantial and the most promising. In
fact, it is this segment of our literature
that has caught the attention of the world
and has reaped laurels for its writers.

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3 Reasons Why Spaniards Came to the Philippines

  • 2. 3 reason why Spaniards came to thePhilippines God Gold Glory
  • 3. Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. Literature started to flourish during his time. The spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872.
  • 6. 1.THE BALAGTASAN Balagtasan is a form of debate using poetic verse. The name of the literary form itself originates from Francisco Balagtas, a hugely influential Filipino poet from the late 1800’s. Considered the Filipino version of William Shakespeare, most of his early works were, like Shakespeare, comedies. Also like Shakespeare, his work gradually matured over time; Balagtas’ masterpiece entitled Florante at Laura is an epic written when he was imprisoned during the 19thcentury.
  • 7. Balagtasan came about, at least politically, as the manifestation of Filipino sentiment in that a sense of self and identity was lost due to American rule. It strives to declare independence from America by highlighting Filipino culture such as their old customs and traditions.
  • 8. ARAL AT LIGAW DAPAT BA O HINDI DAPAT ISABAY ANG PANLILIGAW SA PAG-AARAL? Mula sa panulat ni: RAFAEL A. PULMANO
  • 9. LAKANDIWA Isang mapagpalang araw ang malugod na handog ko Sa lahat ng Pilipinong nagkalat sa buong mundo Mayrong isang email message na natanggap ang lingkoda nyo Apurahang naghahanap ng sagot sa tanong na 'to: DAPAT BA O HINDI DAPAT PAGSABAYIN ANG DALAWA: ANG MAG-ARAL AT MANLIGAW? Dapat o Hindi Dapat ba? Sa nais na makisali, ang tanghalan ay bukas na Ipahayag ang katwiran nang marinig ng balana. DAPAT Ako'y isang mag-aaral na nasa hustong gulang na May isip na tumutuklas at may pusong sumisinta Pag-aaral, panliligaw, magsabay man di problema Kaya dapat ang syang panig na handa kong ibandera.
  • 10. HINDI DAPAT Bilang ama ng tahanan, kung ako ang tatanungin Pag-aaral ang sya munang nararapat atupagin Saka na ang panliligaw, hindi dapat pagsabayin Ang panig na igigiit sakali at palahukin. LAKANDIWA Tuloy, kayo'y magsituloy upang ating umpisahan Ang tagisan ng talino sa larangan ng katwiran Ang panig ng DAPAT muna una nating pakikinggan Salubungin nating lahat ng masiglang palakpakan!
  • 11. O birheng kaibig-ibig Ina naming nasa langit, Liwanagin yaring isip Nang sa layo’y di malihis. Ganito ang napagsapit Ng haring kaibig-ibig Nang siya’y managinip Isang gabing naiidlip Corrido-Metrical romance are long verse narratives on chivalric-heroic, religious, legendary and folkloric themes. 'Koridos' or 'corridos,' as Philippine romances are generally called, are heavily influenced by foreign literature. . These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat. E.g Ibong Adarna Di-umano’y si Don Juan Bunso niyang minamahal Ay nililo at pinatay Ng dalawang tampalasan May isang ibong maganda Ang pangalan ay Adarna, Pag naririnig mong kumanta Sa sakit ay giginhawa.
  • 12. The most quoted line regarding the power of love are the following: O Pagsintang labis ng kapangyarihan Sampung mag-aama’y iyong nasasaklaw! Pag ikaw ang nasok sa puso nino man, Hahamaking lahat masunod ka lamang At yuyurakan na ang lalong dakila, Bait, katuwira’y ipanganganyaya Buong katungkula’y wawalang-bahala sampo ng hininga’y ipauubaya. The poem tells the story of love made triumphant against a sinister background of political intrigue and corruption. It is a masterpiece of local versification upholding moral Awit a heroic-chilvaric narrative poem. These have measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of guitar or banduria. E.g. Florante at Laura of Francisco Baltazar “Balagtas”
  • 13. narrative poem on the life of Christ was chanted during the Lenten season. Pasyon
  • 14.
  • 16. The senakulo is a traditional Filipino dramatization of the life and times of Jesus Christ. Done in singing (pasyon) and recitation, it is presented in the public squares in many towns, in houses and streets during the season of Lent. The Senakulo (from the Spanish cenaculo) is a Lenten play that depicts events from the Old and New Testaments related to the life, sufferings, and death of Christ. Cenaculo It takes at least eight nights - from Palm Sunday to Eastern Sunday - to present the play. Christ is presented traditionally as meek and humble, submitting lamb- like to his fate in obedience to authority.
  • 17. Moro-moro or comedia de capa y espada a blood and thunder melodrama which depicted the conflict between the Christians and the Muslims. Of course the Christians always emerged as victors in the struggle.
  • 18. The MORO-MORO like the Cenaculo, is presented also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian religion. Example: “Prinsipe Rodante” The earliest known form of organized theater is thecomedia, or moro-moro, created by Spanish priests. In 1637 a play was written to dramatize the recent capture by a Christian Filipino army of an Islamic stronghold. It was so popular that other plays were written and staged as folk dramas in Christianize villages...
  • 19. Carillo shadow play (similar to puppet show) was made of cardboard figures projected on a white screen. The manipulator supply the action and the dialogue. Puppetry in the Philippines started since the time of Dr. Jose Rizal, our national hero, when he staged the play entitled “CARILLO” or shadow puppetry. Rizal used a carton and a stick and he placed this at the back of a white cloth. Then he used a candle light at the back of the puppets.
  • 20. Tibag a dramatic re-enactment of St. Helena’s search for the Holy cross was usually performed in May. 1The word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was brought here by the Spaniards to remind the people about the serach of St, Helena for the cross on which Jesus died.
  • 21. This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. In this contest, more or less formal, a ritual is performed based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and who offered here hand in marriage to anyone who can retrieve it. A leader starts off with an extemporaneous poem announcing the purpose. He then spins a “lumbo” o “tabo” marked with a white line. Whoever comes in the direction of the white line when the spinning stops gets his turn to “go into the sea to look for the ring.” This means a girl will ask him a riddle and if he is able to answer, he will offer the ring to the girl. Karagatan
  • 22. Duplo The Duplo replace the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and reasoning. The roles are taken from the Bible and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during wakes for the dead.
  • 23. Zarzuela (Walang Sugat) musical comedy or melodrama in three acts.
  • 24. Si Severino Reyes, o mas kilala bilang Lola Basyang, ay itinuturing na ama ng Sarsuwelang Tagalog. Isa siyang mahusay na direktor at manunulat ng dula. Nagsimulang mabasa ang mga kwento ni Lola Basyang noong 1925 habang siya ay punong-patnugot sa Liwayway at kinailangan niyang punan ng kwento ang isang maliit na espasyo sa isang pahina ng magasin. Ama ng Zarsuela Severino Reyes
  • 25. Ang ‘Sarsuwela’ ay isang anyo ng dulang musikal na unang umunlad sa Espanya noong ika-17 siglo. Binubuo ito ng mga pagsasalaysay na sinamahan ng mga sayaw at tugtugin, at may paksang mitolohikal at kabayanihan. Ang sarsuwela o dula ay isang uri ng panitikan na ang pinakalayunin ay itanghal sa tanghalan o entablado. Nahahati ito sa ilang yugto na maraming tagpo. Ang mga tao na dalubhasa sa larangan ng pagsusulat ng mga dulang itinatanghal ay tinatawag na mga ‘mandudula’ o ‘dramatista’ (playwright).
  • 26. Religious matters were printed in prose in the form of novenas and prayer books, biographies of the saints, tales and novels. Dalit – a religious hymn in verse.
  • 29. The opening of the Philippines to world trade (which exposed the Filipinos to liberal ideas coming from Europe), the Spanish Revolution in 1868, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the martyrdom of Burgos, Gomez and Zamora all contributed to the awakening of Filipino nationalism. As a result, this gave rise to the birth of two movements, one developing after the other. Different though they may be in their objectives, the members of these two movements were motivated by one common cause : an all-consuming love for their country. The Propaganda and Revolutionary Period
  • 30. The three foremost Propagandists Jose Rizal (“Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibustirismo”) exposed the evils of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Marcelo del Pilar (essays and editorials in Diariong Tagalog which he founded) Graciano Lopez-Jaena (stirring articles in La Solidaridad of which he was editor) Because of the failure of the propagandists to get the much needed reforms they were asking from Spain, (in fact, many of them were politically persecuted) the Revolutionary Movement took over. Propaganda Movement which was reformatory in objective had for its members college students mostly based in Spain.
  • 31. This was more violent in nature and demanded complete independence for the Philippines. The “rebels” wrote in Tagalog to arouse the people to revolt against Spain. Andres Bonifacio, the “Great Plebian” inspired by Rizal’s novels, founded the Katipunan. Articles that helped inflame the spirit of the revolution were published in the Kalayaan, the newspaper of the society. This was edited by Emilio Jacinto, the “Brains of the Katipunan”, who wrote in both Tagalog and Spanish. Apolinario Mabini, the “Sublime Paralytic” and the right hand man of Emilio Aguinaldo at the onset of Malolos Republic, was the “Brains of the Revolution”. His “True Decalogue” was ranked among the best in spreading Filipino nationalism. Revolutionary Movement
  • 32. Critics agree that although Filipino literature in English is but one of the literature in our tri-lingual culture, and the youngest at that, it is nevertheless the most creative, the most substantial and the most promising. In fact, it is this segment of our literature that has caught the attention of the world and has reaped laurels for its writers.